10 major health-disease-and-treatments-information-in-usa

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10 Major health disease and treatments information in USA. For more information visit

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10 major health-disease-and-treatments-information-in-usa

  1. 1. 10 Major health disease and treatmentsinformation in USA
  2. 2. IndexNumbers Title Page No. 1 Abdominoplasty surgery 2 2 Awareness About Anal Fissure 3 3 Anterior perineal resection 5 4 Breast Biopsy – The Docturs’ Guide 6 5 Breast Cancer 8 6 Cysto-Diathermy – Cystoscopy in Urethra 9 7 Cystoscopy 10 8 Electrocardiogram ECG 12 9 Otoscopy and the external ear treatment 13 10 Sigmoidoscopy 15 2
  3. 3. 1. Abdominoplasty surgery, online medicalvideosWho would like to have a shapeless body which is overweight with excess fatsagging from the sides? Docturs talks about the medical aid in achieving theperfect, shapely body which is everyone’s dream.Abdominoplasty surgery is the medical aid for people who want to removeexcess fat off their body. It may not necessarily be a cosmetic surgery foraesthetic purposes but may also be used to restore weakened or separatedmuscles by creating a smoother and firmer abdominal profile.Abdominoplasty surgery, or ‘tummy tuck’ as it is better known, may also beemployed even when protruded abdomen is sagging and loose due to aging,heredity, pregnancy, prior surgery or major weight fluctuations.Everybody strives for a well-toned, flat abdomen which may not be achievedby exercise, diet and weight control. But tummy tuck is not the solution or asubstitute foe exercise or weight loss program. It should also not be 3
  4. 4. employed to fit in any ideal image as it is highly individualized procedure.People with no smoking habits or realistic expectations and who maintain astable weight are good candidates for this surgery. This operation would beof no use if one is planning for pregnancy or substantial weight loss in thenear future. Also it should be known that abdominoplasty cannot removestretch marks; however, it may be improved id the marks are located on theskin that is excised.Pamela Siddons at Docturs has mentioned that abdominoplasty (tummytuck) can be utilized when sagging skin alone is the issue or after massiveweight loss when the combination of large amounts of skin and shrunken fatcause significant skin droop. She has even mentioned that laws in Floridaprevent practitioners combining liposuction of the upper abdomen andsimultaneous abdominoplasty because of higher risks.Abdominoplasty surgery can either be partial or fully done. A completeabdominoplasty involves making an incision from hip to pubic area and nearthe navel to free it from the skin. The excess fat is then removed andremaining fat and skin are tightened and old bellybutton in sutured into thenew place. Partial abdominoplasty, on the other hand, includes smallerincision and the surgery is carried out in a relatively limited fashion. Therecan also be other options like extended and circumferential abdominoplastyand combination procedures.A detailed procedure of abdominoplasty surgery can viewed with onlinemedical videos given on Docturs.com/dd posted with various images andalbums by Anita Sprott, for better understanding of the subject. Doctursproves to be the one-stop destination for all medical knowledge, news andupdates and medical equipments and journals. It intends to be your wellnessguide.2. Awareness about Anal FissureThe recent top medical news have anal fissure – either as a cause or a result.Gastroenterologists state that insufficient fiber intake causes constipationwhich may also result in further symptoms like anal fissures. Other newsstates that sodomy, which is on rise, causes serious health problems like analfissures and many more as muscle tearing, cancer and rectal prolapse. Withnew technologies, many companies are developing late-stage drugs intendedto treat conditions like anal fissure.Anal fissure is basically a tear in the lining of the anus from where the bodywaste is discharged. If the fissure is present for more than six weeks, it issaid to be chronic. As the internal anal sphincter goes into a spasm, it causesfurther tearing and causes pain and weakens the healing process. Also due toexcretion of feces, the healing process is slowed down. 4
  5. 5. The anal fissure patients may encounter symptoms like bleeding and tearingor ripping sensation and burning sensation while bowel movement. With thedevelopment of fissure, the symptoms can be felt frequently and the rectalpain can last for a long time. Bleeding may result into discoloration and uponbeing chronic; bleeding may stop but itching or irritation of the skin aroundthe anus and pain may persist.The causes of anal fissures may be traumatic bowel movements or explosivediarrhea. It may also happen due to anal intercourse or insertion of foreignobjects. It can occur in patients suffering from medical conditions likeCrohns disease.Anal fissure diagnosis includes rectal examination or anoscopy but they canbe avoided during initial diagnosis. A sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy is usuallyrecommended, especially if there has been rectal bleeding after healing.The treatment for anal fissure aims for relief from pain and spasm and healthe fissure. The first round of treatment is aimed at softening stools,eliminating constipation, and reducing anal sphincter spasm. If theseapproaches are not successful, a surgery may be required. There are manyoptions like natural high fiber diet obtained from fruits and vegetables,should be taken for soft and bulk stools. Fiber supplements are also availableand very safe but these laxatives have side effects which may include gasand bloating, especially when initiated. Laxatives - Variety of drugs andnatural products are available for treating constipation and it is a myth thatthe bowel movement will be stopped when the laxative is stopped. Sitz bathis also another alternative wherein, the rectal area is immersed in warmwater for 10 to 15 minutes. Sitz baths help improve the blood flow andrelaxing the internal anal sphincter. Medical aid like topical nitroglycerin mayalso be used which helps reduce pain and smoothens the healing process bydecreasing the pressure in the internal anal sphincter. It also works to dilateblood vessels, increasing blood flow to injured tissues. There are also manyother treatment alternatives which may be read in detail online. 5
  6. 6. 3. Anterior perineal resectionAbdominal or anterior perineal resection? How would you choose?Docturs.com provides the basis for making this important decision. The what,why and how of perineal resection is elaborated for better medicalunderstanding.Whenever the medical ailment in question is carcinoma of the rectum, betterput as rectal cancer, simpler still – bowel cancer, one can choose betweenthe option of anterior perineal resection or abdomino-perineal resection.While the former is used for tumors located in the upper part of rectum, thelatter is used for tumors at the lower end of the rectum. The formeroperation gives a wound similar to colectomy, and abdomino-perinealresection results in permanent colostomy as the rectum and anus arecompletely removed and it gives an abdominal wound and another wound atthe place from where anus has been removed.The abdomino-perineal resection surgery is such a complicated namebecause it involves creating a new bowel opening from the wall of theabdomen. This part of the process is known as colostomy. The procedureincludes administering anesthesia continuously and making an incisionthrough the skin to the center of the lower abdominal wall. A new opening iscreated from there to relieve the wastes.Alvin Shapira at Docturs says that rectal cancer neoadjuvant is given beforesurgery in patients with tumors that extend outside the rectum or havespread to regional lymph nodes to decrease the risk of recurrence followingsurgery or to allow for less invasive surgical approaches (such as a lowanterior resection instead of an abdominoperineal resection).This surgery does not have much scope of alternatives as the patients havevery diseased bowels with the presence of pain, bleeding and discharge.Some may have life threatening complications due to blockage in the lowerbowel. If only the bowel is removed, one would lose control of their bowels. 6
  7. 7. There may be possible complications like nerve damage during surgery to theextent of sexual nerves causing erection problems. There may also beproblems due to anesthesia or infection. Smokers with weak immune systemare more prone to infections. The period of bed rest following the surgery canalso cause blood clots. Other complications may be tissue death surroundingthe bowel, skin rash or abscess near colostomy site. The recovery may notbe easier physically and also emotionally. Docturs.com is the best website to know more about each medical ailment.Michael Barry at Docturs writes on abdominoplasty and explains the minutedetails in simple language for a better understanding and better health care.It is made livelier with images and videos and makes an interesting read.4. Breast Biopsy – The Docturs’ GuideDo you know that breast cancer is the third most common disease in womenworldwide? Are you one of the victims? Do not panic! Docturs tells you how,what, when and why of breast biopsy which is necessary to know about anyabnormalities.Elton Taylor at Docturs talks bout the basic definition of biopsy. A biopsy isa medical examination wherein the cells or tissues are sampled and checkedmicroscopically to determine the presence of any disease or abnormality andits growth and spread in the body.A breast biopsy is done for screening of breast cancer and to check forlumps or a suspicious area found while examining the breast or onultrasound, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or mammogram. The sampleof the breast tissue will be tested microscopically to see if a breast lump iscancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).Eckhard Slater at Docturs talks about male breast cancer and its signs likeswollen lymph nodes. There are 3 tests for diagnosing male breast cancerand they are biopsy, mammogram and ultrasound. 7
  8. 8. The many ways of doing a breast biopsy procedure is through breast needlebiopsy, vacuum-assisted core biopsy, stereotactic or open biopsy, fine-needleaspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. Elton Taylor at Docturs talks aboutthe fine needle aspiration explaining the procedure. It includes inserting aneedle into the lump in the skin to collect the sample of the cells. Needleaspiration is done to check whether the lump is filled by fluid like a cyst or alump. If it is a cyst, it would go away after fluid removal, and if not, furtherbiopsy is done.The core needle biopsy is done to collect the tissue which is the size ofalmost a pencil lead. This requires a special large needle fitted with a specialtip. The stereotactic biopsy is combined with a core needle biopsy to make anincision in the skin. A special type of x-ray is taken to guide the incision. Thistechnique can check a lump which can only be seen by a mammogram andnot by breast examination. However, this technique is not apt for all kinds oflumps. Vacuum-assisted core biopsies include vacuum to remove the sampleof a breast tissue with a hollow probe. This technique can remove moretissues than the standard method and the incision does not need stitches. Anopen biopsy includes removing a part or the whole lump by making a cut inthe skin.There are also other facts about breast biopsy which online doctors give outin detail in simple terms. Kenneth Haines posts albums and videos aboutbreast biopsy on Docturs.com/dd and also writes about breast biopsy indetail to make it an interesting read. Login to Docturs and make yourselfaware and knowledgeable about healthcare. 8
  9. 9. 5. Breast CancerWondering what could sound more dangerous than breast cancer? Well,breast-wide excision and axillary sample surgery is not as big and dangerousas it sounds. It is also called lumpectomy, which is a breast conservingsurgery, or quandrantectomy, wherein quarter of the breast is removed. Incases where the whole breast has to be removed, breast implants is theavailable option.This is a procedure wherein a cancerous tumor or lump is surgically removedalongwith some surrounding tissues. Only the diseased part is to be removedwhile the healthy tissues remain. Simultaneously, the glands from the armpit(axilla) are also taken. When all the glands are removed from the axilla, it iscalled an axillary clearance. The tissues are examined microscopically tocheck if the lesions in the breast are cancerous and whether cancer hasspread to other parts. Based on this information, the future treatment isdetermined.The procedure of wide local excision includes the removal of the breast lumpwith some of the healthy surrounding tissues. These are analyzed and adearth of tissues may lead to further operation if the disease has extendedbeyond the tissues already removed. The doctors may also advice theremoval of some or all of the lymph glands from the armpit. This wholeprocedure will be done with one incision in the breast and the other oneunder the arm. One can watch the detailed video of the services on theinternet alongwith its explanation given by the online healthcare services. 9
  10. 10. 6. Cysto-Diathermy – Cystoscopy in UrethraCysto-diathermy is a medical jargon which can be simply put as takingsamples from the urethra. The cystodiathermy is arrived upon when the needto check the inner working of the urinary system arises. The kidneys produceurine which is drained through the ureter in the bladder.It then drains through a fine tube which has an opening into the penis or thevagina. When the initial tests point towards a problem in the urinary system,a special telescope called cystoscope is used to observe, take images orremove samples and the process is known as cystoscopy. The narrow parts 10
  11. 11. can be widened, stones taken out, pieces of the lining taken out, anddiseased parts burnt out as needed.This process includes the examination of the patient’s urinary system usingdifferent methods like x-rays, biopsies and cystoscopes. Local or generalanesthesia may be used but anesthetic jelly applied to the urethra minimizesthe discomfort.The patient is in the stirrups and a flexible or rigid cystoscope is passedthrough the urethra to the bladder to observe the lining, take x-rays andremove some samples. In the end, a catheter is passed in the bladder todrain it. The patient is hospitalized with a catheter in place if there is majorblood loss or the problem of uncontrollable urination arises. Generally, extrawater intake is done to flush out the bladder after the procedure. Not onlythe videos of this procedure can be seen, but also the medicines and thesurgical equipments and other online healthcare products are available onthe internet.7. Cystoscopy – The Procedure InformationCystoscopy is done to checks for cysts inside the bladder and urethra usingan instrument called cystoscope. It is a thin, lighted instrument which assistsin the cystoscopy procedure. Cystoscopy is the endoscopy of the bladder andthe urethra. The cystoscopy procedure includes insertion of the instrument in theurethra slowly advancing into the bladder. The cystoscope helps to view suchparts of bladder and urethra which cannot be easily visualized by x-rays. Thecystoscope also has facilities to handle other surgical instruments which mayhelp in removing samples of tissue or urine. These tiny surgical instrumentshelp in the biopsy of the bladder and urethra. Sometimes, the cystoscopyprocedure avoids the need of extensive surgery by removing small growthsand small bladder stones during this procedure itself. With the advent ofinternet revolution, top medical videos are just a click away and one canlearn more about this procedure by watching the detailed cystoscopy videoonline. 11
  12. 12. The reason behind carrying out a cystoscopy may be the presence ofsymptoms like painful urination, painful or inability to pass urine, blood inurine, frequent urination, sudden urgency or hesitancy top urinate or urinaryincontinence. Cystoscopy procedure may also be done to find the reasonsbehind the problems of the urinary tract like infections and their non-response to treatment, blockage in the urethra due to kidney stones, tumorsor enlarged prostates. There are some abnormalities which cannot be seen inan x-ray but can be picked up by an ultrasound or intravenous pyelography.It can also be done remove foreign objects or tissue or cell samples forbiopsy. One can also place stents or ureteral catheters to help the urine flowfrom the kidney to the bladder with the help of this procedure. 12
  13. 13. A urologist performs the cystoscopy procedure by firstly administeringanesthesia to the patient. An IV needle may be inserted in the skin to supplyother fluids and medicines directly into the vein. In case of a local anesthetic,the solution or the jelly will be inserted in the urethra. The general anestheticmay be given medically or intravenously or by inhaling gases through amask. A spinal anesthetic may be injected in the spinal canal. Then a well-lubricated cystoscope is inserted in the bladder through urethra. Other tinysurgical instruments may be used to enlarge the opening in case it is verynarrow. Sterile water or saline is injected to create a clear view andmedicines may be given to reduce chances of infection. The samples are thencollected and sent for lab testing.The risks and complications in a cystoscopy procedure are generallynegligible and mostly normal cystoscopy results indicate a healthy bladder.8. Electrocardiogram ECG - the Heart and itselectrical signalsThe human heart is like a machine which functions because of electricalsignals. It beats and pumps blood into the various parts of the body due torhythmic contractions and expansions. This pumping activity is stimulated byelectrical signals generated by the natural pacemaker, SA node, of the heart.But sometimes, there may be problems in the functioning. TheElectrocardiogram (ECG) is the cardiac diagnostic test that helpsunderstand such irregularities in the heart.The procedure is simple and inexpensive. The patient is made to lie down onthe examination table and about 10 to 12 electrodes are connected to hislimbs – the arms and legs, and the skin on the chest area. The process takesonly around 10 minutes and does not cause any pain or harm. 13
  14. 14. Now, in a normal condition, the Sinoatrial Node will send out electricalimpulses for the contraction of the upper part of the heart which is dividedinto two auricles. This signal is then passed on to the lower end with twoventricles, which will contract following the auricles. When Electrocardiogram(ECG) machine is connected to the different parts of the body through metalrods, it will record these electrical signals that are generated. Theinformation is recorded in the form of ECG readings called theelectrocardiograph. The doctor will examine the “PQRST” curves which isnothing but the wave-like representation of the results. Abnormalities in thecrests and troughs of the wave-graph will confirm ailments. The study of thecardiac rhythm is useful to study the anatomy as well as the physiology ofthe heart. It hence becomes easy to carry out further investigations incase ofcomplications.The ECG readings are useful to understand various aspects such as: - Check rate and rhythm of heart-beats - Understand risk of heart attack and probability - Investigate breathing problems and frequent fatigue - Chest ache - Blood supply to various parts of the bodyWe have only discussed few of the many aspects which can be examined.Palpitations, stress, syncope and other cardiac diseases can also be studied.However, irregular abnormalities can go unnoticed by this technique. In suchcases the negatively confirmed test, which indicates no abnormality, can be 14
  15. 15. wrong and the patient can be a sufferer of coronary artery disease and otherchronic cardiac sickness.Nevertheless, in case of any discomfort or concerns about health one mustnot hesitate to get diagnostic tests done. There is ample amount ofinformation, medical news, forums, aids etc available to the common man.Living a healthier and more aware life is much easier today and one mustmake the most of such facilities.9. Otoscopy and the external ear treatmentThe Human ear can be divided into three sections: the outer ear, the middleear and the inner ear. The auditory canal connects the external pinna to theeardrum in the interior part. This is the region where the listening and body-balance mechanisms are located.Now, at times people may face discomfort, giddiness or ear pain for unknownreasons. Such ailments are examined by the method of Outoscopy. The testcan be performed in case of infection, blockage due to ear-wax, tympanicmembrane rupture, or any other form of temporary or permanent hearingimparity. The first check is done for redness or swelling.Outoscopy is the procedure in which the examiner will look into the externalear with the help of an aurioscope, also know as otoscope, and identify thereasons for the pain or discomfort faced by the patient. During theexamination, the patient will be asked to position himself in such a way thatthe ear to be examined is titled upwards. The speculum, which is a slenderinstrument attached to the anterior end of the aurioscope, is inserted into theear canal to enable viewing of the affected area. The otoscope has a small airvent which allows the doctor to blow air into the channel and check forbalance and pressure. One after the other both the ears are checked. 15
  16. 16. The examination is usually painless and takes only about 4 to 6 minutes toperform. The ear may be pulled upward or backwards to straighten the canalbut besides that there no other change performed here. However, it is alsoimportant to push the device in slowly to avoid disrupting the inner lining ofthe auditory canal. It becomes extremely important to take precaution incase of infections so as to avoid further damage and pain. Forcing theinstrument inside can also cause tearing of the tympanum; however itdoesn’t happen often with specialized doctors. Moreover, most wounds arecurable.Outoscopy is mainly a diagnostic test but can be used for treatment such asclearance of ear wax, applying medication and other primary treatments.Further more, the latest development in this industry is Video Outoscopy(VO). The instrumentation includes a fiber-optic rod, illumination techniqueas well as a high definition color camera which can help in the documentationof the observations. New medical products and technology have simplifieddiagnosis and treatment for patients and this is certainly a medical boon. 16
  17. 17. 10. SigmoidoscopyThe latest medical news in the field of Sigmoidoscopy is that of flexible sigbeing risky, as it is more likely to miss the colorectal tumors thancolonoscopy in the elderly people. The risk was substantially higher as wasresearched at the Digestive Disease Week 2011 in Chicago. Docturs.comresearches about sigmoidoscopy and provides information in simpler terms.Sigmoid colon is a part of the large intestine nearer to the anus and rectumand it is also called the pelvic colon. Hence, sigmoidoscopy is the surgicalprocedure to visualize the inside of the sigmoid colon and the rectum. Theterm sigmoidoscopy has its root from the Greek words sigma + eidos +skopein meaning to look inside the s-like object. It is also known asproctosigmoidoscopy or proctoscopy.Sigmoidoscopy is of two types, rigid and flexible and the latter uses aflexible endoscope for examination. Though sigmoidoscopy is similar tocolonoscopy, it differs in its area of examination, as it examines only themost distal part of the colon. Flexible sigmoidoscopy may be usuallypreferred, but according to the latest research, colonoscopy is morebeneficial for older adults. 17
  18. 18. Sigmoidoscopy is generally performed to diagnose changes in bowel habits,in case of constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss or mucus,blood or pus in the stool. Stephen Valverde at Docturs has also written thatpolyps can be removed during a sigmoidoscopy, which may be cancerouscolorectal polyps. It may also be used for confirming the results of othertests or for screening for colorectal cancer or a taking a biopsy of abnormalgrowth. Elton Taylor at Docturs also suggests that sigmoidoscopy issufficient to support the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis.The sigmoidoscopy procedure involves an instrument called sigmoidoscopewhich has a small camera attached to it. It is a flexible tube which is insertedthrough the anus and carbon dioxide is filled in the area for a better view.The air pressure may cause an urge for bowel movements and suction maybe used to remove the fluid or stool. Sigmoidoscopy risk is minimal withbleeding at the biopsy site or bowel perforation.The result of this examination shows the normalcy of sigmoid colon, rectumand anus while abnormal results may imply colorectal polyps, anorectalabscess, bowel obstruction or inflammation, anal fissure, cancer,hemorrhoids or diverticulosis.Docturs poses as a platform to share experiences and information onvarious medical topics. Gunter Bernstein posts albums and images whichmay help in better understanding of the subject. Docturs intends toempower people to take responsibility of their own health by awareness andknowledge. 18
  19. 19. Reference:For More information visit www.docturs.com1. Abdominoplasty surgery, online medical videosRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11183/abdominoplasty/2. Awareness about Anal FissureRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11174/anal-fissure/3. Anterior perineal resectionRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11173/abdominoperineal-resection-of-rectum/4.Breast Biopsy – The Docturs’ GuideRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11280/breast-biopsy/5. Breast CancerRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/11280/breast-biopsy/6. Cysto-Diathermy – Cystoscopy in UrethraRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2452/cystoscopy/7. Cystoscopy – The Procedure InformationRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2452/cystoscopy/8. Electrocardiogram ECG - the Heart and its electrical signalsRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2469/ecg-electrocardiogram/9. Otoscopy and the external ear treatmentRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2512/otoscopy/10. SigmoidoscopyRef: http://docturs.com/dd/pg/groups/2376/sigmoidoscopy/ 19
  20. 20. Thank you 20

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