Ancient Filipino that belong to Maharlikais depicted in Boxer Codex.
The barong Tagalog (or simply barong), an embroidered formal garment of the Philippines. It is very lightweight and
worn untucked (similar to acoat/dress shirt), over an undershirt. In Filipino culture it is a common wedding and formal
attire, mostly for men but also for women. The term "barong Tagalog" literally means "a Tagalog dress" in the Tagalog
language; however, the word "Tagalog" in the garment's name refers to the Tagalog region, not the region's language
of the same name. The barong was popularized as formal wear by Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay, who
wore it to most official and personal affairs, including his inauguration as president.
The Baro’tsaya (also known as Filipiniana) is a dress of the Philippines and is worn by women. The name is a
contraction of the Tagalog words baro at saya, meaning "dress (blouse) and skirt".
Science and Medicine
The Compound Elements of Erythromycin.
Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that
ofpenicillin, and is often prescribed for people who have an allergy to penicillins. For respiratory tract infections, it has
better coverage of atypical organisms, including Mycoplasma and legionellosis. It was first marketed by Eli Lilly and
Company, and it is today commonly known as EES (erythromycin ethylsuccinate, an ester prodrug that is commonly
administered). It is also occasionally used as a prokinetic agent.
Abelardo B. Aguilar, a Filipino scientist, sent some soil samples to his employer Eli Lilly in 1949. Eli Lilly’s research
team, led by J. M. McGuire, managed to isolate erythromycin from the metabolic products of a strain of Streptomyces
erythreus (designation changed to "Saccharopolysporaerythraea") found in the samples.
Fe del Mundo pioneered a medical incubator design made from bamboo. She was the first Asian student in Harvard’s
School of medicine. Countless young lives were saved.
Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his “DeBCC” anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor’s
Forum in November 2005. The “DeBCC” cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over
1,500 entries as the “most significant invention” of the year. It is a treatment intended specifically for basal skin
carcinoma (BSC), which is the most prevalent.
Raymundo Acosta Favila is a Filipino mathematician. He has his Ph D. from the University of California, Berkley
from 1939, and had his career at the University of the Philippines in Manila. Dr.RaymundoFavila was elected as
Academician of the National Academy of Science and Technology in 1979. He was one of those who initiated
mathematics in the Philippines. He contributed extensively to the progression of mathematics and the mathematics
learning in the country. He has made fundamental studies such as on stratifiablecongruences and geometric
inequalities. Dr.Favila has also co-authored textbooks in algebra and trigonometry.
Various types of Filipino Spear heads (1920)
The yoyo was invented as a hunting weapon by the ancient Filipinos, probably in the Visayas. It was "discovered"
[dubious – discuss]
A sibat is a staff or spear used as a weapon or tool by natives of the Philippines. It also called bangkaw, sumbling or
palupad in the islands of Visayas and Mindanao. Sibat are typically made from rattan, either with a sharpened tip or a
head made from metal. These heads may either be single-edged, double-edged or barbed. Styles vary according to
function and origin. For example, a sibat designed for fishing may not be the same as those used for hunting wild
Panabas is a curved-blade weapon.
The panabas is a large, forward-curved sword, used by certain ethnic groups in the southern Philippines. It can range
in size from 2 to 4 feet and can be held with one or both hands, delivering a deep, meat cleaver-like cut.In its heyday,
it was used as a combat weapon, as an execution tool, and as a display of power. Occasional use as an agricultural
and butchering tool has also been noted. The sword's name is a shortening of the word "pang-tabas", which means
"chopping tool". As such, its etymological origins are the root word tabas ("to chop off").
In the many battles and rebellions waged by Filipinos during Pre-Colonial and the times foreign colonizations the Filipinos
were able to craft weapons, most of which are bladed, to aid their movement. The weapons originally were agricultural
tools – used for cutting weeds, and cracking and digging crops. However, as situation calls for it, the tools were
transformed into weapons which served as their partners in the battlefield.
The Balisong (also known as a butterfly knife or fan knife) is a folding pocket knife with two handles counter-rotating
around the tang such that, when closed, the blade is concealed within grooves in the handles. It is sometimes called
a Batangas knife, after the Tagalog province of Batangas in the Philippines, where it is traditionally made. In the
hands of a trained user, the knife blade can be brought to bear quickly using one hand. Manipulations, called
"flipping" or "fanning", are performed for art or amusement. The knife is illegal in many countries such as the
Netherlands, Australia, the UK, Canada, New Zealand and Germany.
Early 20th century Cebuano Police Officers armed with a pinuti (left) and asundang (right)
A Bolo is a large cutting tool of Filipino origin similar to the machete, used particularly in the jungles of Indonesia, the
Philippines, and in the sugar fields of Cuba. The primary use for the bolo is clearing vegetation, whether for
agriculture or during trail blazing. The bolo is called an iták or sundáng in Tagalog while in Hiligaynon, the blade is
referred to as either a binangon or a talibong.
The barong or barung, is a thick, leaf-shaped, single-edged blade sword. It is a weapon used by Islamic tribes in the
The gunong or punyal (also known as puñal de kris or kris knife) is a knife from Mindanao, the Philippines. It is
essentially a diminutive form of the larger kalis or kris. The gunong serves both as a utility knife and as a thrusting
weapon used for close quarter fighting - usually as a last defense. It is most often associated with the Maranao,
among whom the gunong was traditionally carried by both sexes. The weapon is generally tucked into the back of a
waist sash. The gunong is one of many bladed weapons portrayed in the "Weapons of Moroland" plaque that has
become a common souvenir item and pop culture icon in the Philippines.
A kampílan hilt is sometimes wrapped with rattan to improve the grip. The two holes on the crossguard are where the metal "staples" (C- or Ushaped) go, as additional protection for the wielder's hand.
The Kampilan is a type of single-edged long sword, used in the Philippine islands of Mindanao, Visayas, and Luzon.
The kampílan has a distinct profile, with the tapered blade being much broader and thinner at the point than at its
base, sometimes with a protruding spikelet along the flat side of the tip and a bifurcated hilt which is believed to
represent a mythical creature's open mouth. A notable wielder of the kampílan was LakanLapu-Lapu(the king of
Mactan) and his warriors, who defeated the Spaniards and killed Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan at
the Battle of Mactan on April 27, 1521. The mention of the kampílan in ancient Filipino epicsoriginating from other
non-Muslim areas such as the Hiligaynon Hinilawod and the Ilocano Biagni Lam-Ang is possible evidence for the
sword's widespread usage throughout the archipelago during the ancient times. Today, the kampílan is portrayed in
Filipino art and ancient tradition.
A Moro Bronze Lantaka (Or in Tagalog : BronsengKanyon).
Lantaka (also known as Kanyon in Tagalog) (rentaka in Malay) is a type of bronze cannon mounted on merchant
vessels travelling the waterways of Malay Archipelago. Its use was greatest in precolonial South East Asia especially
in Malaysia, the Philippines, and Indonesia. The guns were used to defend against pirates demanding tribute for the
local chief, or potentate.
Firearms (Modern times)
The Marine Scout Rifle or MSSR is a semi-automatic sniper rifle developed from the Colt M16A1 rifle by the
Philippine Marine Corps Scout Snipers due to the lack of a dedicated sniper rifle which is used in the Armed Forces of
The Floro Mk. 9 is a submachine gun designed by Floro International Corporation of the Philippines. The Floro Mk. 9
submachine gun is a private venture of Floro International of Tanay, Rizal Province in the Philippines. The weapon is
being marketed to local security forces as a low-cost alternative to imported submachine guns and is currently in
The Floro PDW is a compact carbine that has been developed the by Floro International of the Philippines for
conventional forces, as a replacement for their 9mm calibersidearms and submachine guns.
The Special Operations Assault Rifle (SOAR) is an assault rifle manufactured by the Philippine-based company
Ferfrans and designed as an improvement of the M16A1 and AR-15 assault rifles and M4 carbine.
Transportation and Mobility
Main article: Transportation in the Philippines
Jeepneys around Manila.
Ancient-Middle Ages Seafares
The balangay was the first wooden marine vessel ever excavated in Southeast Asia. Also known as the Butuan boat,
this artifact is evidence of early Filipino craftsmanship and their seamanship skills during pre-colonial times. The
Balanghai Festival is also a celebration in Butuan, AgusandelNorte to commemorate the coming of the early migrants
that settled the Philippines, on board the Balangay boats. When the first Spaniardsarrived in the 16th century, they
found the Filipinos living in well-organized independent villages called barangays. The name barangay originated
from balangay, the Austronesian word for "sailboat".
The Karakoa (or Karakowa) is a Large Marine Vessel similar to Balangay, this Vessel is only use as a Battleship,
containg Soldiers Cargoes of weapons,brass cannons and ammunitions. This form of Battleships are being used
during the pre-colonial period in the Philippines, forPangangayaw (expeditions) and battles against neighboring
The vinta (locally known as lepa-lepa or sakayan) is a traditional boat found in the Philippine island of Mindanao.
These boats are made by Bajau and Moros living in the Sulu Archipelago, Zamboanga peninsula, and southern
Mindanao. It has a sail with assorted vertical colors that represents the colorful culture and history of the Muslim
community. These boats are used for inter-island transport of people and goods. Zamboanga City is known for these
Calesa in Manila
A kalesa or calesa (sometimes called a caritela/karitela) is a horse drawn calash (carriage) used in the Philippines. The
word, also spelled calesa, predates the Spanish conquest and descends ultimately from an Old Church Slavonic word
meaning "wheels." This was one of the modes of transportation introduced in the Philippines in the 18th century by
the Spaniards that only nobles and high-ranked officials could afford. They are rarely used in the streets nowadays
except in tourist spots and some rural areas. The calesa driver is commonly called as “Cochero” or “Kutsero”. When
“Cochero” direct the horse to turn right he says “mano” and he says “silla” to direct the horse to turn left .
The Jeepney, a modified military jeep, is the most common form of transportation in the country today. A Filipino
invention, born from necessity, ingenuity, and thrift.
After Americans left the country, Filipinos succeeded to make an authentic “jeepney” from scratch. Since then, the
popular Philippine vehicle has faced a lot of innovative transformations until the modern “E-Jeepney” was finally
introduced in Metro Manila and Bacolod City. Unlike the standard jeepney we have been accustomed to, this modern
means of transportation offers three advantages: it is nature-friendly because E-Jeepneys are noiseless and
smokeless, it uses electricity so use of expensive diesel will gradually decrease, and jeepney drivers will take home
The Marine Multi-purpose Vehicle or MMPV uses independent suspensions and portal geared hubs similar to portal
axles to make for a full 16 inches of ground clearance. The vehicle also has disc brakes on all 4 wheels, and 4-wheel
double-wishbone suspension. The brake discs are not mounted at the wheels as on conventional automobiles, but
are inboard, attached to the outside of each differential. The front and rear differentials are Torsentype, and the
center differential is a regular, lockable type.Created by the Philippine Marine Corps to replace M151 MUTT jeeps in
service as they are hard to maintain with problems concerning availability of spare parts.
Defiant 300 under construction
The Defiant 300 is a prototype aircraft of the Philippines developed in cooperation with the PADC, Philippine Air
Force and the Philippine Aerospace and Sciences Foundation (PASF).The Defiant 300 is
a turboprop aircraft designed for light attack, counter insurgency (COIN), close air support, aerial
reconnaissance missions in low threat environments, as well as providing pilot training. Designed to operate in high
temperature and humidity conditions in extremely rugged terrain.The project was made possible through
Capt. PanfilloVillaruel, the man who designed the aircraft, and the one who also contributed to the creation of the first
indigenous Filipino-made helicopter, the PADC Hummingbird. The first prototype was completed in 1986 and had its
maiden flight in 1987, which lasted a little more than an hour. The Defiant 300's fuselage was composite construction
(wood and fiberglass) and was powered by a 300 hpLycoming piston engine. Landing gear was taken from the Beech
T-34 and provided by the PAF. The intent of the program was to provide the PAF with a trainer and light strike aircraft
similar in performance to the Tucano. The Defiant 300 was to have been followed by a larger version equipped with a
turboprop engine and designated the "Defiant 500". The project languished soon after the development of the
prototype at a hangar in Philippine State College of Aeronautics.
The PADC Hummingbird was the first indigenous Filipino-made helicopter.
Basically, it was an improvement of the German MBB Bo 105 helicopter. The German company that manufactured the
Bo.105 threatened to impose sanctions on the Philippines Aerospace Development Company (PADC). PADC destroyed
all plans and whatever hardware had been manufactured.
Main article: Philippine cuisine
Adobo (meaning "marinade," "sauce" or "seasoning") is the name of a popular dish and cooking process in Philippine
cuisine that involves meat, seafood, or vegetables marinated in a sauce of vinegar and garlic, browned in oil, and
simmered in the marinade. It has sometimes been considered as the unofficial national dish of the Philippines.
Although it has a name taken from the Spanish, the cooking method is indigenous to the Philippines. When
the Spanish conquered the Philippines in the late 16th century and early 17th century, they encountered an
indigenous cooking process which involved stewing with vinegar, which they then referred to as adobo, the Spanish
word for seasoning or marinade. Dishes prepared in this manner eventually came to be known by this name, with the
original term for the dish now lost to history.
A Sinigang prepare to cook.
Sinigang is a Filipino soup or stew characterized by its sour and savoryflavor most often associated with tamarind
(sampalok). It is one of the popular viands in Philippine cuisine.
In 1966, Dr. Rodolfo Aquino isolated nine specific breeds of rice for the International Rice Research Institute. His
discoveries helped prevent famine in much of Asia, and were nearly solely responsible for Thailand and Vietnam
becoming the world’s leading rice producers (A spot once solely occupied by the Philippines.).
A Slice of Kaesong Puti along withPandesal.
Kesongputi (lit. "white cheese" in Tagalog) or Philippine fresh cheese is a soft, white cheese, similar to cottage
cheese, made from unskimmedcarabao's milk, salt and rennet. It has a soft, close texture and slight salty taste.
Some commercial versions are slightly sour due to the use of vinegar in place of rennet. This cheese originated from
and is produced in the provinces of Bulacan, Cebu, Laguna and Samar. In the Philippines, it is a popular breakfast
fare eaten with the freshly baked local bread called pan de sal.
Filipinos just use banana catsup as a condiment for many dishes. The popular variation of tomato catsup was another
brainchild of Filipino food technologist, Maria Orosa y Ylagan (1893–1945). According to historical accounts, she
created the first ever recipe for banana catsup and also experimented with foods native to the Philippines and
formulated food products like calamansi nip, a desiccated and powdered form of calamansi that could be used to
make calamansi juice, and a powdered preparation of soya-beans called Soyalac, a “magic food” preparation which
helped save the lives of thousands of Filipinos, Americans, and other nationals who were held prisoner in different
Patis, a fermented fish byproduct, was the basis for the Vietnamese and Thai fish sauce industries. It was invented by
Tantay Food and Sauces after they discovered that their dried fish were turning into liquid when stored with salt in
DiosdadoBanatao developed the first single-chip graphical user interface accelerator that made computers work a lot
faster. This invention has allowed computer users to use graphics for commands and not the usual typed commands
in older computers. It has allowed data processing to be a little faster using very little space, with small chips instead
of large boards.
Bayanihan OS is a Filipino-made Linux operating system.
Gregorio Y. Zara invented the first Video Phone in 1955.
Eco-G NanoTechnology developed the Eco-G3000, a low-cost and low-maintenance fuel-emission reduction device.
It is designed to reduce vehicular gas consumption and toxic emission.
JustinoArboleda devised the coconet, a sturdy but biodegradable net made from coconut husk.
The cover of the Games of the Generals.
The Piko is the Philippine variation of the game hopscotch. The players stand behind the edge of a box, and each
should throw their cue ball. The first to play is determined depending on the players' agreement (e.g. nearest to the
moon, wings or chest). Whoever succeeds in throwing the cue ball nearest to the place that they have agreed upon
will play first. The next nearest is second, and so on.
The Holen (Marble) You should hold the ball called holen in your hand then throw it to hit the players ball out of the
playing area. Holen is called marble in USA. It is played a more precise way by tucking the marble with your 3rd
finger, the thumb under the marble, the fourth finger used as to stable the marble. You aim at grouped marbles inside
a circle and flick the marble from your fingers and anything you hit out of the circle is yours. Who ever got the most
marbles win the game. You can also win the game by eliminating your opponent by aiming and hitting his marble.
You have to be sharp shooter to be a winner.
Challenge 21 is a Philippine board game created by Leonardo Mejia Yu. It was inspired by other board games such
as Tic-Tac-Toe, Scrabble, and Bingo.
Game of the Generals was an educational wargame invented by Sofronio H. Pasola, Jr.
Eskrima masters along with students in Cebu City, Philippines.
Modern Arnis is the system of Filipino martial arts founded by the late Remy Presas as a self-defense system. His
goal was to create an injury-free training method as well as an effective self-defense system in order to preserve the
older Arnis systems. The term Modern Arnis was used by Remy Presas' younger brother Ernesto Presas to describe
his style of Filipino martial arts; since 1999 Ernesto Presas has called his system Kombatan. It is derived principally
from the traditional Presas family style of the Bolo (machete) and the stick-dueling art of BalintawakEskrima, with
influences from other Filipino and Japanese martial arts. Arnis is the Philippines' national martial art and sport, after
President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed the Republic Act. No. 9850 in 2009. The Act mandates the Department of
Education to include the sport as a Physical Education course. Arnis will be included among the priority sports in
PalarongPambansa (National Games) beginning 2010
Eskrima, Arnis and (in the West) Kali are umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines that
emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives and other bladed weapons, and various improvised weapons. It
also includes hand-to-hand combat and weapon disarming techniques.