Enhancing the Profession Issue 47 Winter 2006
In this issue:
Mostar - Operation Florian
Flood Risk In Florence
Building Resilience In Birmingham
and much more…
The Magazine of The Emergency Planning Societ y
NoDavid Kerry, Director of Professional Issues
Welsh Branch Visit new
On Monday 30 October the Welsh Branch met in Cardiff (below)
and were hosted by the Emergencies and Security Policy Branch,
Well, it always was a horrible way of Those PWG’s that are currently working Groups, and there is an absence of Welsh Assembly Government in Cardiff Bay. With members from
expressing this very important part of the and with leadership will continue as standing understanding of what may be expected across Wales gathering on the Capital, a visit to the new
Society’s work, that of providing specialist groups: from the Groups, and in return from the Assembly Building was organised and a tour preceded lunch
advice and support to members, • Business Continuity - Chair, David Leslie, Board. It was agreed that core Terms of and the Branch meeting.
government departments and agencies and email@example.com Reference should be developed and applied This new Assembly Building, or “Senedd” meaning
others through our Professional Issues • CBRN - Chris Abbott to all groups, and these will be developed in parliament in Welsh, is an innovative and state of the art
Groups. Read on to find out what replaces firstname.lastname@example.org consultation with the Chairs of Groups. design making maximum use of new technology, with a
them. • COMAH/Pipeline - Nick Elliott, All groups to have agreed targets for modern and user-friendly building interior. The Branch
Mike Parker, Director of Professional email@example.com outcomes or products David Kerry Dan Taylor members were able to visit the committee and
Issues in 2004, undertook a major review of • Crowd Safety - Sue Storey, It was agreed that all PWG’s and Project conference facilities and spent some time in the
debating chamber, experiencing the superb acoustics
the role and composition of the Professional firstname.lastname@example.org Teams must have identifiable outcomes or
that we were told will catch those secret whispers!
Issues Groups at that time and his report • Health - Andrew Houghton, products. These will vary from group to
Natural light has also been a considerable
may be found in Blueprint Issue 41. email@example.com group – some may produce guidance
requirement and the central 'chimney', a wind
However, many of his recommendations • Human Aspects - Rosie Murray, documents, others will co-ordinate
assisted rotating lantern, is also used to ventilate the
have yet to be fully implemented, and in a rosiemurray@awarenessraisingfortraum professional representation on behalf of the chamber and in doing so helps to reduce energy
recent update of that review it has been a.com Society in meetings and in consultations with consumption.
found that currently less than half of the • Oil Pollution - Tony Morris, government departments and other Should Society members find themselves in
Groups listed on the EPS website are firstname.lastname@example.org agencies, others will develop lobbying tools, Cardiff, do take the time to visit this inspiring
functioning. Those that are functioning are and some will do all of these and more. building. Public access is encouraged, there is a
producing some good work, but are failing to Former PIG’s that are no longer active as Website pages to be regularly updated refreshment area within the building, and guided
tell the rest of the Society what they are groups, but which still have a lead contact with news of the activities of PWG’s tours can be arranged.
doing and, without a sympathetic driving will become Focal Points, with the Lead The web page links on the main page will
force behind them, they have become Contact from time to time advising the be updated in line with the reorganisations I would like to take this opportunity to say hello to all members and introduce myself as
somewhat introspective and insular. The Board of any emerging issues and to whom already explained, and, critically, a major the new Society Administrator/Operations Manager with the Emergency Planning Society,
lack of communication with the rest of the the Board can approach for informed advice effort will be made to keep the pages up-to- based at the Head Office in Cardiff.
membership is graphically emphasised by and representation when needed. date with news about the activities of the
the out of date or lack of any information on • Nuclear - Terry Kelly, groups, meetings attended, and progress I have spent the last 5 years as the General Manager of University of Wales, Newport
the PIG’s website pages, although this has in email@example.com with outcomes and products. Students’ Union, a far cry from Emergency Planning and the Society some might say but you
part been because of the past lack of an • Transport - Tony Matthews, Increased Central Office Support would be surprised. As General Manager, I worked as the senior member of staff in a
efficient centralised system for updating the firstname.lastname@example.org The Central Office will provide support to membership led organisation, answering to the elected executive committee of the Union.
pages. The lack of information on the web Chairs of PWG’s, initially with organising During that time the motivation was primarily improving membership services, developing a
pages fails the groups as well because the A few PIG’s have not been active for some meeting dates and venues, distribution of membership focus by talking and listening to, engaging and supporting members and
membership is unaware that many of them time, and do not currently have either or agenda, minutes and reports, uploading groups, providing the best service possible with limited resources available. The other main
Database of Subject Matter
are in fact working quite hard. It is clear that both Chairs and Members. It was decided to activity updates onto the web pages. focus was to improve the marketing of the organisation and seek new streams of income,
a fundamental rethink on the workings of abolish these groups. whilst enhancing those already in place. Any new income was invested back into the Union
the groups is needed, not least because in • Emergency Planning Information to improve the services to members and to further fund the interest groups within the Following recent training and exercise events for
their present form many of them are failing • Flooding and Severe Weather organisation. Rest Centre Managers and support staff (including
to fulfil any useful purpose and perhaps • Local Authorities The Society has for a long time had the It is this mix of skills and experience that I intend to transfer into my new role with the the voluntary Sector) it was recommended that
should be disbanded. • Information Technology intention of compiling a database of EPS and focus on the following areas: improvements needed to be made with regards to the
This rethink started when the future of experienced professionals who could be • Business Continuity - Chair, David Leslie, email@example.com Counties capability to respond to incidents requiring
Professional Issues Groups was discussed at Issues which arise and would benefit called upon to provide advice on specific • CBRN - Chris Abbott firstname.lastname@example.org evacuations.
a meeting of the Chairs of Professional from the brining together of a team of issues, and also to be available to respond • COMAH/Pipeline - Nick Elliott, email@example.com Carmarthenshire is a large Authority, which is prone
Issues Groups, Branches and the Board in professionals but which will not need a on behalf of the Society to media requests. • Crowd Safety - Sue Storey, firstname.lastname@example.org to widespread flooding. Due to the mainly rural nature of
Cambridge on 25th October. The standing PWG will be dealt with by the Although past attempts at this have been • Health - Andrew Houghton, email@example.com the County it was recommended that the resources to
importance of having active Working Groups formation of ‘task and finish’ Project Teams, unsuccessful for a variety of reasons, we • Human Aspects - Rosie Murray, firstname.lastname@example.org assist in the establishment of rest centre should be
was accepted without question, and with a specific remit and lifespan. have decided to give it another go, and all • Oil Pollution - Tony Morris, email@example.com spread more widely. Thus it was decided that 6 additional
discussions centred on the need for the Look at some realignment with the PWGs, Focal Points and Project Teams will “Mini Rest Centre boxes” should be made up in addition to
Society to be fully and professionally able to National Capabilities Programme be asked to contribute to the database. Active Branches and Professional Working Groups are the backbone of the the four standard boxes already situated at strategic
engage with government and others, The National Capabilities Programme Society, with members being engaged in productive, worthwhile local, regional and locations within the county. The standard “Rest Centre boxes”
particularly in regard to the National offers opportunity for the Society to consider national work. I have found, through my experience in a member led organisation have enough documentation and materials to deal with 250
Capabilities Programme. Key decisions realigning some of our existing PWG’s to the A lot more work is needed to ensure that that activity and the communication of that activity encourages more members evacuees, along with a fully charged mobile phone for the Rest
taken were: capabilities work streams, or possibly the the initiatives described here are fully to become active and engaged in the Society, providing more professional Centre Manager (tested and charged on a regular basis). In
Change the name from Professional National Risk Register, and this will be implemented, and the next meeting of discussion both within their groups and in a wider context, with all interested addition, these boxes each contain magazines, puzzles and toys
Issues Groups (PIG’s) to Professional looked at further over the coming months. Chairs of PWG’s, along with Chairs of members on discussion boards and at Society events. for any children who may be evacuated.
Working Groups (PWG’s) However, some subjects are outside Branches, will be held in January 2007. I firmly believe that member led organisations such as ours are just The “Mini Rest Centre boxes” are to supplement the larger boxes,
A much less unfortunate abbreviation and Capabilities, such as Oil, Crowd Safety and News of the progress made at the meeting that, led and guided by the membership. Through the elected board and and contain the necessary stationary and material to register up to a
a more accurate description of their others not covered by Civil Contingencies Act will be posted on the website. council structures in place, members of the Society have an opportunity hundred people.
function. 2004, and it will be appropriate to maintain to mould, shape and develop its future direction and vision. I consider All Rest Centre Boxes are located in social care establishments and
To have a mixture of Professional some PWG’s in their own right. that it is down to the Central Office to support and facilitate the are accessible 24 hrs a day. With the addition of the extra “Mini Rest Centre
Working Group’s, Focal Points and Project All Groups to have Terms of Reference accomplishment of that vision and I look forward to helping the boxes”, the County is now more adequately prepared to deal with
www.the-eps.org Page 4 www.the-eps.org Page 5
Teams. Current ToR’s are widely varying across the board and membership achieve its goals. evacuations no matter where or when they occur.
The Norwich Union
Very soon after taking the Chair I met service to their members. I was also very
with Bruce Mann at the CCS and soon privileged to be invited to attend a joint
thereafter with Michael Charlton-Weedy event of the Northern Ireland and
from the EP College. Both meetings were Southern Ireland Branches, which was a
extremely positive. Bruce was very keen fabulous seminar looking at relevant
that EPS and Cabinet Office engage in topics to their members, including
more joint working, which I support and business continuity, exercise design and
we spoke about the potential for some delivery etc. The joint branch executive
regional workshops early in 2007. We meeting I sat in on afterwards was very Climate change is already having a major technology, and underpinned by the Norwich Union would underwrite for
also discussed the future of the positive and worthwhile. effect on insurance claims in the UK; NEXTMap Britain height data, the risk of planning purposes.
Professional Interest Groups, the annual The new Board is also working weather related claims cost the insurance flooding can be ascertained for individual Alongside the flood risk mapping Norwich
Holding a ‘voluntary’ position within the conference and associated issues. cohesively and being dynamic and industry over £1bn a year and are increasing properties. Union has also been involved with the
Society and having a full time day job can We also discussed the over-riding aim innovative and I am sure that all members by 4% per annum on average. For the five The map has been created using recently completed FLOWS project, in
sometimes bring conflicting priorities. I of the Society to achieve Chartered will begin to see the benefits of this new million people living in flood risk areas across recognised hydrological modelling partnership with Cambridgeshire Council,
have recently experienced that with the Institute status. The first step on this road approach shortly. The recent appointment the UK, the Norwich Union Flood Map means techniques by JBA Consulting; generally that retro fitted a property to make it flood
discovery of 20 WW2 pipe mines buried is the ‘core competencies’ work that we of our new Society Administrator, Dan more accurate premiums and a better using a normal depth method but also resilient. Some of the measures installed
beneath an airfield in Hampshire. Not just are working on with the College and other Taylor, is also a significant step in the understanding of the flood risk to their ‘Jflow’, a proprietary method they developed, included replacing carpets downstairs with
any old airfield but the home to partners. Beyond this Bruce pledged the right direction property. which is particularly effective for low lying ceramic tiles, use of water resistant limelight
Hampshire Police’s fixed wing aircraft and support of the CCS in helping the Society We continue to move forward and the Data for the map was collected by an area like the Fens. plaster, raising white goods above the flood
‘India Juliette’, the Coastguard search and with this aim. future is an interesting place for airborne radar system, as part of the Some of you might not know however that level and fitting door boards on the exterior
rescue helicopter. Anyway, having done At the meeting with Michael we emergency planners and the Society. ‘NEXTMap Britain’® programme. The data is there is a caveat in the Local Government doors. The property was a housing
little else since July the Operation finished touched on some of these issues in a little used to produce a Digital Elevation Model, a Mapping Services Agreement, MSA, which association house in Lowestoft and had
last week so normal service can be more detail regarding improving the Ian Hoult map, which shows the height of the ground means that there are restrictions on the use already flooded several times. The tenant
resumed. (Read more about the pipe relationship between the Society and the Chairman of the EPS above sea level. This is then combined with a of NextMap Britain for flood modelling. worried every time heavy rain was forecast in
mine operation later on in this College. I am very pleased to announce 31 October 2006 flood software model to produce information However, Norwich Union is happy to discuss case the house became flooded. Following
publication). that Michael agreed to give 5% discount on where floods are likely to occur, how they individual needs and a license for its flood the heavy rains in September, this house
Despite my having been somewhat out for every member on prospectus courses spread and how far they extend. It is the first model. Local Authorities will be able to flooded along with the neighbouring
of the picture the Society has not stood at the College from 1st April 2007. time that the two technologies have been purchase a DVD with shape files of most of properties. The tenant in the resilient house
still and since the AGM notable progress I chaired the first Council meeting of brought together to produce a model of this the flood outlines for the different return merely had to mop up a small amount of
has been made on a number of issues the new term in September was size. periods. For further information go to water whilst the other residents are currently
and some new initiatives are coming to exceedingly pleased at the positive feeling The Norwich Union Flood Map provides www.norwich-union.co.uk/dataservice in alternative accommodation whilst their
the fore which will be of interest, and around the table. Many of our Branches extents and depths of river flooding for 7 It should be emphasised that the Norwich properties are repaired. For further
potentially benefit, to all. are very active and providing an excellent return periods: 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 250 and Union flood map was created to assess information go to:
1000 years. Using modern digital mapping insurance risk and is not something that www.floodresilienthome.com
The Hertfordshire Resilience Conference is your opportunity to learn
from the experience of those directly involved in responding to recent
emergencies and business continuity incidents.
Over the last 17 years, the successful conference has featured
presentations from responders to some of the worlds most significant
emergencies and this year will be no exception.
Our first confirmed speaker is from Dacorum Borough Council on how
the Local Authority is managing the long term recovery of the local area
from the Buncefield Oil Storage Depot explosion and fire of December 2005.
The Council has involved the local residential and business communities
and has developed a recovery strategy for application in other situations.
All the UK airports had to implement business continuity arrangements
to deal with the heightened security measures introduced in August.
Airlines had to cope with delays within airports at the latter end of the
summer peak season for travel. A speaker will join us from the air industry
to share their experience.
To fully reflect the content of the Civil Contingencies Act, further
speakers will focus on the emergency response to a major incident and
consider the planning issues associated with a potential influenza
The conference returns to Stevenage Arts and Leisure Centre on
Wednesday 21st March 2007. Judging by previous experience, the event will
be a sell-out, so book your place early by contacting the Hertfordshire
Emergency Planning team on 01992 555961, emailing
www.the-eps.org Page 6 www.the-eps.org Page 7
firstname.lastname@example.org or logging on to
Northern Ireland Branch of the
Emergency Planning Society
“Catching Corporate Flu –
A toolkit for survival”
One-day seminar 26.10.06
Ronnie Myers and Jamie Tomlin page and explain the importance of it, a to learn but are keen to do so. We are
Lincolnshire Emergency Planning Unit, Fire & Rescue HQ, South Park Ave , Lincoln LN5 8EL distribution page, a list of contents page, confident that with continued training in the
a consultation statement then an future and the provision of resources, they will
introduction. be an asset to the people of Mostar.
Over the next few days we went Following a request by members of the Northern Ireland (NI) Branch to hold a
through what needed to be included in training event to deal with the issues surrounding a flu pandemic the NI Executive
Committee once again set about putting together a programme to include not only
the plan in the various sections such as; 1. Lack of a command structure during incidents i.e.
key speakers and a workshop but also to provide guidance and a clear checklist for
1. Who and how the plan is activated. the absence of using the Gold, Silver and Bronze
delegates to take away and use within their organisation. In addition a question and
2. Warning and informing the public. system needs to be looked at in greater detail not just
answer facility was set up on the Northern Ireland Branch Webpage in order that
3. Roles and responsibilities of the Police, with the Mostar CPU but with all the emergency
issues could be addressed after the event with the answers provided by experts
Fire Brigade, Ambulance Service, Civil services. When we covered this subject it was warmly and posted for all to read.
Protection Unit and any other welcomed by the CPU but it clearly needs to be Over sixty delegates from various levels of Central Government Departments,
organisation who has a role to play in addressed to all agencies to improve their response to an Local Government, Emergency Services, Health and Social Services Trusts,
the event of a flood. incident. Future Op Florian training should concentrate on Utility Companies, Finance Houses and Banks, Transport Companies and
4. Evacuation procedures in conjunction this subject. Voluntary Sector attended the event held at The Comfort Hotel near Antrim
with their rest centres. Key speakers on the day included:
5. Clothing, feeding and shelter for those 2. Debriefing is another area that needs to be included in Dr Lourda Geoghegan, a Consultant in Public Health Medicine, currently
evacuated. future training as this is currently not in place following an on secondment from the Eastern Health and Social Services Board to the
6. Pre identified and numbered RV points incident. I suggest “Structured debriefs” something along Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety to work on regional
at various locations along the river and the line as taught by the Centre of Structured Debriefing be influenza pandemic contingency planning. Dr Geoghegan concentrated on
in the city for use by the emergency introduced to the emergency services that is now widely and the health issues facing the population and the Health Service during a flu
Two members of Lincolnshire some time now and was extremely services (mapped and put in the plan successfully used throughout the UK. pandemic. In addition the impact on the population and the business
community was developed.
Emergency Planning Unit (EPU), Ronnie disappointed when we informed her that as an Annex).
Dr Anne Wilson, a Consultant in Public Health Medicine from Eastern
Myers and Jamie Tomlin, travelled to the we had none of these resources for her. 7. Communication plan. 3. Resources are sadly lacking here and the CPU is eagerly
Health and Social Services Board explored the issues in relation to Multi-
city of Mostar in Bosnia-Herzegovina The list of equipment she was 8. Media plan. Location for press awaiting the arrival of equipment they desperately need. Not
Agency planning and preparedness for an influenza pandemic.
from 18 to 25 September to work with expecting included a 4x4 land rover, conferences (Pre prepared only do they need the resources but it is important to not forget
Les Drew brought a wide range of knowledge and experience from 28
their local counterparts to deliver radio communication equipment, mobile statements/holding statements that when and if the equipment arrives, the Mostar CPU will years working in the Northern Ireland Electricity Industry with
training on how to write a multi agency phones, fax machine, stationary, laptop included an Annex) require training in the use of it. responsibilities in areas such as risk management, business continuity,
emergency response plan. computers, maps, torches, batteries and 9. Location and alternative locations for internal audit and IT security. His presentation focused on the
The city of Mostar was greatly affected a whole lot of other stores in order for Gold and Silver Commands. development of contingency plans in the event of a flu pandemic and
by the Balkans war and is slowly getting them to carry out their duties. 10.Contacts list both during and out of Ronnie Myers Jamie Tomlin provided good practice guidance on a structured approach in maintaining
back to normality but the Mostar Civil After talking with them via the working hours. Lincolnshire Civil Protection Unit critical work areas.
Protection Unit is in urgent need of translator it quickly became apparent 11.Restoration phase. Fire & Rescue HQ Iain Webster from Network Media, a journalist for thirty years (previously
training and resources in order to that they do have systems in place to 12.Testing the plan (Live and/or tabletop South Park Ave writer for BBC 9 o’clock news, presenter and editor of BBC Northern
effectively respond to an emergency deal with incidents in conjunction with exercises) Lincoln LN5 8EL Ireland evening news programme) gave a stimulating presentation on the
incident. the emergency services and they have an use of the media for pre-event education, public warning/information and
Mostar is particularly vulnerable to enthusiastic volunteer sector at their We also very briefly touched on the discussed how the media would cope with maintaining service during such
Earthquakes, landslides, forest fires, disposal i.e. flood wardens, rest centres importance of having a multi-agency
Tony Andreucetti, a Senior Business Continuity Consultant with Hewlett
collapsed buildings, landmines and identified in and around the city and a debrief after an incident, as Slavica
Packard, emphasised the need for further developments in planning over the
floods and, there are no written plans for mountain rescue unit albeit with little or informed us that an incident debrief does
normal business continuity plan.
any of these events. If one of these no resources. not currently happen.
Most of the above presentations are available to read on the Northern
incidents occurs, each emergency Slavica informed us that flooding is (See recommendations below) A Ireland Webpage.
service responds independently with the most frequent incident that they have great deal of important work to get After a question and answer session with the presenters the seminar moved
little or no communication between to deal with (The city is built in, around through and even more so when using into a three inject scenario where the delegates were given the opportunity to
them and a chaotic, uncontrolled and in some cases on the river Nerita) an interpreter but at the end of the week discuss issues from their personal or organisational perspective as a flu
response usually ensues. and she was very keen that we help her we produced a good template for them pandemic would develop.
The first morning was spent to write a flood plan which, after to build upon and once the information Michael Skelton (NI Branch Regional Representative) from Northern Ireland
translating the presentations that we had consultation with all emergency services from all agencies is gathered and Electricity/Viridian Group, rounded off the scenario and spoke on the issues which
prepared before we departed from the will, bring about a coordinated and multi included in the plan, the amendments should be considered as the waves of a flu pandemic would subside.
UK. The Mostar CPU personnel have a agency response. made and a consultation phase David Neill (NI Branch Webmaster) concluded the presentations by giving advice
very busy schedule during the working We then focussed our training on completed, they can at least have a on the access to the Northern Ireland Website for use of the question and answer
day so we had to deliver our training producing a flood plan and dispensed coordinated multi-agency flood response board and of course the click to join membership facility.
The event was sponsored by Hewlett Packard, Northern Ireland Electricity/Viridian
after they had finished work which was with nearly all that we had earlier plan.
Group and Belfast City Council to whom the Northern Ireland Branch extend their thanks
ideal for us as it allowed us time during prepared in the UK and concentrated on The Mostar Civil Protection Unit are
and appreciation for all their support both practical and financial.
the day to prepare our training a few presentations on the concept of an extremely dedicated and enthusiastic
Initial feedback from delegates was very positive with comments such as “excellent
programme. Gold, Silver and Bronze Commands used team who clearly want to help their
workshop and speakers”. ”very professional seminar, speakers and content excellent”
After we were introduced the Mostar successfully in the UK and the content of community, they want to produce plans, Opposite: Mostar CPU Jamie rear left,
Thanks must also go to the employers of the Executive Committee who provided venues for
CPU manager, a lady called Slavica a flood plan for the City of Mostar. they want to work alongside the Ronnie rear 3rd from left
Top: Ronnie Instructing using an meetings, hospitality, release of staff for preparation and development of this seminar and ALL
Anicic, she asked us for a load of As they had no idea how to write a emergency services but they simply do Branch activities. These include, Northern Ireland Ambulance Service, Browne McKee
equipment she was expecting us to bring plan we had to literally start with the not have the resources and are Bottom: MostarSymbols of the Balkans Partnership, The Ulster Hospital & Community Trust, North Down Borough Council, Belfast City
www.the-eps.org Page 8 www.the-eps.org Page 9
for her and her team. Apparently, she front cover and date the plan (including a frustrated at having very little to work War are everywhere (This shows a Council and Northern Ireland Electricity/Viridian Group. Without their support this event and the
has been promised this equipment for review date), make up an amendments with. It is also clear that they have a lot mortar bomb and shrapnel) running of the NI Branch would not be possible.
Flood risk in Florence: forty years on
arrangements. The City's Civil Protection abolishment of military conscription in the
DAVID ALEXANDER Professor of Disaster Management University of Florence
service has a four-volume emergency 1990s means that there is now no surplus
plan that is being updated in a somewhat of military personnel to conduct disaster
different manner to the Provincial work. No one yet knows whether the
administration's fully computerised plan. increased professionalism of volunteer
image and hence as something that network frequently suffers from gridlock Ensuring compatibility of arrangements civil protection associations will be
should not be remember very publicly. and work to expand the A1 motorway so for notification, departure and arrival of sufficient to compensate for these
Nevertheless, commemorations will take that traffic can effectively bypass the city evacuees is a delicate problem in a deficiencies when the next major disaster
Flood disaster risk in the
place and the 40th anniversary of the will not be complete until the end of the complex, congested situation like the strikes Italy.
disaster provides many people in the decade. Hence the plan to encourage Florence metropolitan area. Moreover, the
Italian emergency management people to self-evacuate from the city north of Florence. However, this will only civil protection office of the Region of
community with the opportunity to reflect centre, which was published in the affect the River Sieve, a relatively minor Tuscany, which is also located in Florence,
on progress--or the lack of it. This article telephone directory in 1991, was affluent of the Arno, and most of the casse has been dogged by problems of ensuring Coincidentally, 2006 also marks the
will consider the heritage of the floods withdrawn several years later for fear that d'espansione are necessarily situated compatibility between the emergency 30th anniversary of the industrial accident
Emergency response arrangements
and some of its emergency management it would only lead to more gridlock. downstream of the city centre, as this was plans of the nine Tuscan provinces. that occurred at Séveso near Milan and
Updating the impact scenario
implications. the only area where there was still space the tenth anniversary of the catastrophic
Despite the best of intentions on the for them. flood that swept through the villages of
part of planners, the hazard scenario The Olmatello centre is also the co- the Versilian Mountains west of Florence.
Anyone who has visited Florence in remains almost unchanged. In the late In central Florence the Arno has been ordination headquarters of volunteer The latter event, which killed 13 people,
recent years will be aware that the city is 1980s a river basin authority was created dredged and the river banks have been organisations. In Florence the Venerable had an estimated recurrence interval of
very different from what it was like in the along American lines, but it has had only a raised and consolidated. The main Company of the Misericordia has an 700 years. It galvanised the Tuscan
The night of 4 November 1966 was 1960s. Restrictions on traffic have been limited effect upon hydrological planning. obstacle remains the Ponte Vecchio, as unbroken tradition of emergency emergency planning community into
marked by severe storms, floods and imposed in the centre. Electric and gas- The Arno is a flashy river--more little can be done to increase the flow response operations that stretches back action.
landslides throughout central and powered busses now circulate, two new accurately a torrent with serious through it beyond 2500 cubic metres per to AD 1245. It has been joined by a
northern Italy. At 3.30 a.m. the River Arno metropolitan tramlines are under pretensions to become a fully-fledged second (the 1966 floods involved 4000 number of other organisations, including
burst its banks in the Casentino area near construction (trams were abolished in river. In mid-August its flow can diminish cumecs). A bypass tunnel has been several that deal with forest-fire fighting.
Arezzo and by sunrise water had invaded Florence in 1957) and Eurostar trains to zero, engendering severe proposed, but there is little support for the All of them are registered with the
the historical centre of Florence, reaching arrive at Santa Maria Novello station via a eutrophication problems. The effect of a idea, as it would involve difficult government for civil protection work and
depths of 3.65 metres at the Bargello and high-speed intercity rail link. Many mighty river flowing through the centre of hydrological and geotechnical problems, they regularly train and exercise their
3.96 m at San Niccolò oltr'Arno. Water historic buildings have been Florence is actually created by weirs as well as huge costs. At least, decades of members in this field. Hence, Pietro
eventually came over the top of the Ponte comprehensively restored, though the which in high summer pond the stagnant hydraulic and hydrological modelling, and Bortone, the chief emergency co-
Vecchio but thankfully failed to demolish restoration of Santa Maria del Fiore, the water. In November and March the Arno of improvements in regional ordinator for Florence boasts that if
it. Thirty two of the 112 deaths recorded in cathedral, is so complex and delicate that can flow over the Chiusa di Santa Rosa, meteorological forecasting, mean that the necessary he can mobilise 1000
the 1966 floods occurred in Florence, and it is taking decades to achieve. Moreover, next to the Ponte Vespucci, with awe- physical side of the problem is now volunteers within ten minutes and 5000
the impact upon architectural heritage, tourist numbers have increased inspiring discharge, roaring furiously and exceedingly well known. within one hour: given the wealth of
River management strategy
art treasures, archives and libraries was relentlessly, adding to the general sending up clouds of spray. experience available in the area and the
incalculable. The damage is symbolised overcrowding. Despite a steady reduction In 1992 Italy promoted a national high degree of organisation, this is
by Cimabue's crucifix, a work dated 1290- in the population of the municipality of emergency planning and management probably a fair assessment.
5 that hung in the church of Santa Croce Florence, which is now about 350,000, Unfortunately, an ill-considered strategy, the Augustus Method, which has However, it is one thing to have small
(flood depth 2.7 m) and which, despite extensive urban renewal is underway on strategy to bring the national economy out unified methods of assessing risks and In 1966 the emergency response was mountain villages under water and quite
painstaking restoration, was 70 per cent the flat plains to the north and west of the of stagnation was put into place in 1967, organising the response to disaster. It is dominated by the so-called angeli del another to have a major city, many
destroyed by the flood such that it now city. Light industry is abundant here, and the year after the floods. The 'Ponte Law' based on the codification of emergency fango--"mud angels"--untrained thousands of tourists and a priceless
lacks parts of the face of Christ. at Calenzano there is even an oil storage led to six months of free-for-all in support functions for efficient volunteers, most of whom were students artistic heritage under threat. Emergency
facility with remarkably similar granting building licences. The result was communication during crisis situations. or other enthusiastic young people. For management in Florence, Tuscany and
Marble tablets that indicate the characteristics to the one at Buncefield. sudden, massive urbanisation of the With regard to emergencies in Florence it the last 15 years emergency response has Italy is still underfunded, and despite
maximum flood level in 1966 (and for banks of the Arno upstream and provides the formal mechanism for been heavily regulated and increasingly strenuous efforts it is still in need of
some cases in 1844 as well) can be found downstream of Florence, including the coordination between the municipal, subject to complex planning. In a future further professionalisation, as well as
on walls throughout the centre of the city, main pressure points where topography provincial and national levels of civil flood alarm, volunteer response squads greater political and public support.
Emergency planning strategy
including inside the Municipal Theatre. forces the river into a gorge and funnel protection administration.. would immediately start work on Fortunately, the basic model and
Periodically, video cassettes and books of effects occur on flood-flows. In 1967 one sandbagging the national library and state organisation are very sound. We can
photographs are issued to commemorate of the most vulnerable of the Middle Arno archives (both of which are situated on the conclude that as a result of changing
the floods, which are clearly an important Valley communities expanded across the In the early 1990s the City of Florence banks of the Arno), lifting major works of patterns of human activity the flood risk in
point of reference in the city's history and floodplain by 75 per cent. inaugurated a new emergency operations art out of harm's way and conducting Florence has not diminished, but in any
in the life of all Florentines over the age of centre in Via dell'Olmatello, located on the other pre-programmed activities. The future event the emergency response
40. Ten years ago a major national The intense levels of development in western periphery of the city strategically municipal GIS system has registered the would be vastly more professional and
emergency management exercise, Arno- central Tuscany mean that there is little close to rail links and the airport. It was addresses and details of all pensioners well-organised than it was in 1966.
30, was held in Florence using the 1966 In 1966 most of the physical damage opportunity to regulate flows in the Arno recently enhanced by the construction of a and handicapped people in floodable
floods as the reference event for the was wreaked by a combination of water, by natural means. Dredging and levée two-storey, state-of-the-art emergency areas and this would be used to give them In conclusion, one should not forget the
scenario that was enacted. Arno-30 took mud and heavy oil from ruptured central building are held to increase the flood control centre, which is shared with the assistance with evacuation. other risks. In 1993 a very serious
place only a few years after three seasons heating tanks. Since then, oil has been hazard downstream. Hence, where Province of Florence. The latter has terrorist attack occurred in Florence, and
of serious flooding had again affected the replaced by natural gas as the main possible, the River Basin Authority uses offices close to the city centre and an On the more negative side, although in 2000 a fatal crash occurred at the
western periphery of the city from Piazza heating fuel, but on the other hand there semi-structural flood defence measures equipment storage facility to the north at the Italian Fire Service is highly airport. Earthquakes are a potentially
Dalmazia to Campi Bisenzio, which in are now an estimated 10,000 cars in and and has thus created many casse Sesto Fiorentino. professional and fully trained in all forms serious hazard in the Apennines north of
1991 was well and truly submerged. around the city centre. Where the Viali di d'espansione, meaning land which is held of rescue, measured per head of the the city, while landslides and occasional
Circumvalazione, the inner ring-road, dips vacant so that it can be flooded with Links between Florence and the population it is the smallest in Europe. snowfalls are hazards to many roads in
Despite these developments, many under the main railway line, it is minimal effects. A major dam and surrounding communities have gradually Currently, initiatives are being pursued to hilly and mountainous areas. Hence there
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decision-makers in Florence still regard extraordinarily vulnerable to sudden reservoir, the Bilancino, have been been strengthened, but there are expand it, including beefing up the is no shortage of work for the civil
the floods as detracting from the city's flooding. Moreover, the city's road constructed in the Mugello Mountains currently problems with the evacuation volunteer side. Nevertheless, the protection community in central Tuscany.
Major flood exercises
in the Thames region
Thames Region. The data was then manipulated to best suit the
requirements of the exercise and to offer a challenging flood event for the
Agency’s flood duty officers to deal with.
All the data was loaded on to JBA’s Computerised Exercise Control
System (CECS), which simulates the Environment Agency’s own
telemetry system, displaying rainfall and river level information to flood
duty officers in a safe working environment. CECS also provides
automatic alarms when river levels reach warning thresholds or to
trigger an operational response just like the real thing. Exercises these days pay more attention to the impact of the
The beauty of CECS is that it is designed to run across a local area media. A new service from the Government News Network
In the last 10 years, JBA Consulting have run over 30 major network and therefore each duty officer logged on to the system is using gives support to your media role play by providing mock TV
flood exercise across the UK including Exercise Triton in 2004, a single set of data based around the same exercise. More importantly, news bulletins and newspaper front pages.
the first national flood exercise involving over 2500 people from ExCon can increase or decrease the speed of the exercise by altering the These can be used to ‘story board’ your exercise, being a
60 organisations at 35 different locations. time compression. This allows the intensity of the exercise to be lively and interesting way to introduce new scenarios.
Running the Exercise
Each of the 3 exercises were targeted at internal staff only, increased or decreased as desired by the control team. Or they can be produced ‘live’ during the exercise, either on
with the aim of focussing on internal procedures including staff or off site. Media injects are excellent tools to pile on the
interaction in their roles within the Area Incident Room (AIR) pressure. Your exercise players may think they have said the
and simulated roles outside of the AIR. Following an initial briefing providing information on the current right things in the heat of the ‘crisis’, but what does it look like
An Exercise Planning Group was set up comprising of staff situation, the exercise participants were presented with simulated Met in print or on the television?
from Regional Flood Forecasting, Area Flood Incident Office information including 5 day weather forecasts and heavy rainfall Costs for this service vary, dependent on the scale required,
Management, Area Operational Delivery Unit and consultants warnings. The ExCon then set the CECS clock ticking and the recorded but as a guide, costs for recent clients have ranged from £500
from JBA Consulting. The Group set the objectives, agreed the rainfall and river level information began to flow into the AIR and the to £4,000.
scenarios and gathered the hydrometric data required to design phones started to ring. The time compression was carefully managed so Recent clients include Durham & Darlington Civil
the scenarios. as to ensure that the required level of stress was experienced in a safe Contingencies Unit, Birmingham International Airport, and the
working environment. At times, ExCon would deliver more phone calls to British Army’s Command and Support Training, for a series of
The key objectives included: the AIR than could be effectively handled adding extra pressure to the call exercises around the country.
In England and Wales, over 5 Million people either live or work in the • To test flood warning and operational plans and handling staff. To find out more or discuss your needs, contact:
flood plains of our rivers, of which 30% (1.5M) are located in the Thames procedures; ExCon was manned by the JBA design team, PR officers, Monitoring
Region. From its source in a remote meadow in Gloucestershire to the • To test the deployment of flood data recording staff to and Forecasting Duty officers and Emergency Duty Officers all simulating Bob Wade (Civil Contingencies & Resilience, GNN)
English Channel, the River Thames and its tributaries include some site and the communication to and from roles outside of the AIR to make the experience as real as possible. Tel: 0121 352 5525 or (m) 07771 957512
5,330km of main river. Climate change is expected to bring more the AIR; During Exercise Noah in West Area, Operations Delivery gangs were Bob.email@example.com
extreme weather with wetter and more intense rainfall expected during • To test handover procedures; deployed to the new flood defences in Banbury to test response times and
the winter months. • To test the roles of Area Base Controllers and the procedures.
The Environment Agency is responsible for managing flood risk on communications to Liaison Officers;
main rivers and one of their key roles is flood forecasting and issuing • To test the use of Floodline Warnings Direct for fax,
flood warnings. In addition they provide an operational response phone, SMS warnings, email and pagers; Each exercise was hailed a success, Katharine Dolman from the
ensuring that river structures on the River Thames and flood defences • To test media handling including mock TV and radio Environment Agency’s Flood Incident Team at Wallingford commented
that they own are able to function properly during a flood event. interviews; that “at times it felt as though we were involved in a real incident”.
• To test SITREP and HELP reporting procedures; The exercises highlighted improvements that need to be made to the
• To test call handlers. AIR’s and procedures, however, the most common recommendation
The flood forecasting and warning service in Thames Region made in the Post Exercise Reports was that more training and exercising
comprises a Regional Flood Monitoring and Forecasting team at Reading In order to simulate external professional partners and is required to maintain expertise and familiarise staff with the catchments
and 3 Area Flood Incident Management teams at Wallingford (West Area), public calls to the AIR, the Exercise Control (ExCon) team from that they operate and the procedures that they follow.
Frimley (South East Area) and Hatfield (North East Area), with tidal flood JBA played the roles of the emergency services, local
warnings being issued from the Thames Barrier. authorities, utilities, media and of course the public at risk of
Thankfully, major flooding happens rarely, however, in recent years flooding. Providing a variety of challenging and thought
the frequency has increased. The flood warning service is being provoking scenarios to deal with.
continually improved and a network of flood duty officers are required to
be able to carry out this function, therefore, training and exercising is an
integral part of the whole flood warning service. At any one time, there
are approx 30 staff on standby who are able to respond to carry out the
flood forecasting, warning and operational response functions of the
Agency’s Thames Region during a flood event. These staff are on a
weekly standby roster averaging 6-8 people per Area and Region, backed
up by a call down list of support staff, the numbers are in the region of
300. This may sound like a lot of people but the Thames Region is vast in
Bring your exercise alive
size including Greater London.
The Environment Agency commissioned JBA Consulting to design,
Media Injects service
plan and run a series of 2 day major flood exercise for each of the 3 Areas
within the Region:
Give your exercise an
• 25-26th May 2005 - Exercise “Portunus” in South East Area;
edge of realism with
authentic media injects.
• 29-30th November 2005 - Exercise “Deucalion” in North East Area; The exercises were designed using historic flood event data
The new service from
• 10-11th October 2006 - Exercise “Noah” in West Area. from rainfall and river level gauging stations throughout the
GNN can provide you with
www.the-eps.org Page 12 www.the-eps.org Page 13
TV news bulletins and
newspaper front pages.
These can be used to
‘story board’ your
exercise, or produced live
as part of your exercise
media role play.
GNN, as part of the Central Office of
Information, has wide experience of
exercises. All GNN personnel are
To discuss your
Tel: 0121 352
STRENGTHENING COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT
need to ensure that communities are at Council Emergency Information Line Training and Exercising Martin Tolman
the heart of all aspects of our resilience As with many major emergencies, and The involvement of volunteers within Principal Emergency Planning Officer
work is becoming generally accepted, one of the lessons of the Birmingham this area has usually been limited to Emergency Planning and Business
including amongst community Tornado was the need to ensure the ‘playing’ at being the dead or injured. Our Continuity Unit
Martin Tolman, Principal Emergency Planning Officer, Emergency Planning organisations themselves. provision of timely and accurate strategy will ensure that voluntary and Birmingham City Council
and Business Continuity Unit, Birmingham City Council From the start it was recognised that it information. Following discussions with community representatives are involved in Work: (0121) 303 4825
was important to develop resilience as community organisations, we are all aspects of training and exercising. Fax: (0121) 675 2178
part of the City Council’s general establishing a Council Emergency Recently voluntary and community Mob: 07766 925 158
relationship with the broad spectrum of Information Line. This is a dedicated representatives participated in Exercise e-mail:
voluntary, community and residents number within the city’s 24/7 call centre. Thyme, a multi-agency influenza firstname.lastname@example.org
organisations that already exist. Trying to Boards, for lamppost display, and leaflets pandemic exercise. Their involvement
build new organisations would not only have been produced so that within certainly provided a new dimension to the
duplicate effort but would ultimately be minutes of any emergency occurring local learning outcomes. For example their
fruitless. Within Birmingham we have a residents will be advised of how to gain identification of ‘critical services’ very
large number of individual organisations access to information. The telephone much focussed on: access to money, food
and some very effective umbrella number and website will also be promoted and water, heat and light etc – priorities in
organisations, including the Voluntary through usual media. Call centre staff will relation to council services came well
Services Council, Association of have direct access to information hosted down the list! Based on current planning
Neighbourhood Forums etc. on the incident pages on the Council’s assumptions for infection rate / fatalities
Implicit in our community strategy is website. there was concern that the ‘worried-well’
that it must be ‘owned’ by the community impact factor on willingness to report to
organisations themselves and ensure that work / use public transport etc was being
it reflects the needs of the very diverse underestimated. The need to proactively
communities that are Birmingham. use community / faith / business leaders
The only exception to this ‘building on to reinforce government messages was
what already existed approach’ is the also stressed.
development of a Birmingham
It is widely accepted that, if we are to • Similarly, the frequency and scale of the Communities and Neighbourhoods
strengthen the UK’s ability to prepare for majority of major emergencies we have Resilience Panel that will provide overall Involving community and voluntary
and respond to major emergencies, we faced in the UK has to some extent direction to the strategy and share best organisations in building resilience is not
need to build resilience across society as a reinforced the view that such practice and so forth. The development of rocket science but in Birmingham, we
whole. In addition, the emergency emergencies can safely be left to the terms of reference, membership etc has have based it on three clear principles:
planning profession has, for some time, statutory sector or that the statutory been part of the dialogue with the groups 1) Resilience needs to be integrated into the
held up the approach to contingency sector must do better! It is only when you themselves. priorities and activities of the full and
planning in Australia etc as an example of look behind the headlines that you The strategy, in essence, is limited to diverse range of voluntary, community
best practice in relation to ‘community-led’ discover that voluntary and community providing a policy and organisational and residents groups.
emergency planning. organisations, and indeed individual framework. The vast majority of the work 2) That community engagement needs to
Despite this, it is the assertion of this citizens themselves, may have played a has been the development of simple and be integrated into ALL components of
article that, whilst we have witnessed significant role. practical activity at a citywide level and resilience activity. It is not an add-on and
Preparedness & Publicity
significant strengthening of multi-agency within individual neighbourhoods. it should inform all: risk assessment,
working within the statutory sector, we There is increasing recognition that UK planning, training and exercising, and
still have a very long way to go in relation society can no longer afford to inhabit any response activity.
to improving resilience within wider such comfort zone and that there is a need Improving preparedness, increasing the 3) The work will need to be detailed,
society. to develop strategies to effectively promote percentage of households with personal consistent and appropriate to the
Before looking at how we might change much greater community involvement in and family emergency plans requires a different organisations. There may be
The Birmingham Experience
this, it is important to look at the reasons, building resilience. consistent and persistent approach. Our quick wins but no quick fixes.
Influenza Pandemic Planning
most of which are plainly obvious: own brochures, leaflets and web pages
have been reviewed in consultation with Finally, there will be much good work
• There is a general presumption within There is nothing like real life community organisations. However there being developed in other areas and
society that responding to emergencies is emergencies to focus minds: is also a need to ensure that ‘resilience’ This continues to be the top risk within opportunities for sharing best practice
the prime, if not sole, preserve of the • The Birmingham Tornado certainly infects all aspects of communication and the UK. Undoubtedly, more than any other are welcome. If you would like more
‘blue-light’ services. Local authorities, reinforced the assertion that we are now media. Articles and features are appearing risk, the extent to which there is an information or might even be interested
various agencies and voluntary sector more likely to witness severe weather in community newsletters and magazines. effective response will be determined by in setting up a ‘Community
emergency responders might get some events. Presentations are being made to public the level of self-reliance within our Involvement’ professional working
recognition as being part of the • The evacuation of large parts of meetings. Training is being provided for communities. group within the EPS then please don’t
supporting cast! Birmingham City Centre and the arrest of community representatives so that they Community organisations are looking hesitate to contact me.
terrorist suspects reinforced concerns can ‘champion’ the need for resilience in at: how preparedness can be increased at
• This is reinforced by the fact that in the that we are living in a more dangerous the same way as they might around the an individual level; how community The inverse relationship between
UK, unlike much of the rest of the world, world. need for cleaner and safer newsletters etc might be used to reinforce distance/accessibility to emergency
that the emergency services are relatively • Major power outages affecting nearly neighbourhoods. The promotion of ICE (in public health messages and how responders on the one hand and self-
close to the communities they serve and 40,000 people, some for 24 hours, and case of emergency) in relation to both vulnerable neighbours might be reliance on the other is almost certainly
hence the need for ‘self-reliance’ is less separately the loss of mobile phones and a paper version for supported. In relation to this last point applicable within the UK – with the
pronounced (Note 1). Clearly, this can telecommunications in a number of wallets / purses has also been identified as consideration is being given to how sense of dependency being most
generally apply to most other aspects of districts illustrated the vulnerability of a high priority by neighbourhood forums. residents might self-identify as vulnerable pronounced within our major urban
social provision, cleaner neighbourhoods, parts of our critical infrastructure. Photo and text see separate e-mail re: and with support being provided by the centres. I would appreciate anyone who
health promotion etc., and not just launch of ‘Preparing for Emergencies in equivalent of a flu version of knows of research in this area letting
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emergency preparedness and response. Doing nothing was not an option. The Birmingham’ Brochure neighbourhood watch / telephone tree. know where to look
The Human Apects
of Business Continuity
Helping planners better prepare
for evacuation and shelter.
Manchester Evacuation Map
Business continuity has been a fast list of types of `levels of victim`, there is a procedures to put in place in the
growing aspect of any business for some similar description used called the `ripple immediate aftermath of those events.
years. The Civil Contingencies Act has effect` or `concentric circles`. The most There is a moral requirement to meet
introduced the importance of business likely people to suffer acute stress the psychological needs of employees and
continuity into the local authority and it is reaction are those closed to the point of in recent years there has been an
now a major part of any emergency plan impact and so received maximum increase in legislation to underpin this
for local communities. When disaster exposure to the event. Within a company `duty of care` which makes the
Evacuation is not a new concept for emergency planners. Over is the standard message under the 'Preparing for Emergencies' strikes Category One responders setting however there may be a serious management of stress in the workplace
the years there have been countless successful evacuations, but in initiative, and is regarded by the National Steering Committee on implement plans which have been written effect on others in the organisation with an important issue.
recent years the context for evacuation planning has changed. Warning and Informing the Public as the best general advice to and exercised, honed to near perfection in perhaps some distress for those outside There are clear business continuity
With climate change and building taking place on flood plains, give most people caught up in most emergencies. the hope that they would never be used. the immediate workforce who may identify concerns if this duty of care is not an
risks from flooding have increased. The threat of terrorism, If large scale evacuation is required, local and regional plans, Businesses must continue in the with the victims. (eg Banks and Finance established culture within the company.
meanwhile, has raised the possibility of scenarios unthinkable built from a ‘ground-up’ perspective, should help make sure the aftermath of an incident and much is Companies in the City were shocked and Stress may result in an increase in
prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. response is relevant and appropriate for those managing the written about the importance of having distressed by the death and injury of their accidents and expensive errors with an
At the same time, the Civil Contingencies Act 2004 has crisis locally. Local and Regional Resilience Forums have, of effective plans in place, this need has colleagues in New York even though they accompanying decrease in morale – all of
established a framework for multi-agency planning at the local course, a critical role to play in achieving this. Through them, been evidenced in the aftermath of 9/11 did not personally know them). which may be detrimental to the company
and regional level. This has facilitated more systematic collective mutual aid agreements and the 'joining-up' of plans for and 7/7. Reactions may vary in strength and both in image and profit.
assessment, planning and response to the risks that we all face. evacuation and shelter should help responders to maximise In more recent times it has been presentation and will be influenced by Any post trauma support programme
New non-statutory national guidance on evacuation and shelter efficiency and deliver help quickly where it’s needed. As with recognised that business continuity previous experiences, exposure to past requires commitment from senior
has as a result been produced by the Civil Contingencies other guidance that the Cabinet Office has produced to support means more than having alternative sites, traumas and personal coping management, a written policy should be
Secretariat in the Cabinet Office in response to calls from local responders implementing the 2004 Civil Contingencies Act, the tamper free and robust IT systems and off mechanisms. developed and realistic resourcing is
responders and planners. The guidance has been developed in Evacuation and Shelter guidance re-iterates that emergency site facilities. These are essential Rosie Murray (Awareness Raising for essential. This is not an area in which to
close consultation with a very wide range of stakeholders, powers and the military should not be relied upon in planning or components of any business but it is the Trauma has been involved with a number cut costs – ultimate costs could be huge
including amongst others, the Local Government Association response. staff who will enable the company to move of companies in the aftermath of a single if initial outlay is skimped. The benefits of
(LGA), Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), Chief Fire Thirdly, a lesson from many real-world incidents in the UK forward from the chaos of a major sudden death. Colleagues are often getting this right are incalculable; the
Officers’ Association (CFOA), the Voluntary Sector Forum (VSF) and (e.g. the response to the Carlisle floods in 2005) is that local incident. seriously affected, both by the current loss costs of getting it wrong may be
the Department of Health. communities have a critical role to play in the response to, and A major incident results in casualties and also by past losses and trauma, the incredible!!
In developing the guidance, it was clear that there were a recovery from, a disruptive event. The guidance emphasises and one way of ensuring that the business effects of which can be triggered by the Guidance on dealing with trauma in the
variety of myths and confusions that had built up around the that, where possible, communities should be made aware of does not become a casualty is to take care crisis and may re –emerge in full force. workplace:
subject. Firstly, evacuation was not the standard response for any what they should do in the event of any evacuation that might of the staff who may have become victims Some individuals may be powerfully 1. Acknowledge the importance of Duty of
emergency. There are only a limited number of scenarios which arise from local risks (as identified in Community Risk of the incident. affected even though not close to the Care in relation to stress and distress
could give rise to large scale evacuation and shelter (of between Registers), like flooding. Community ‘self-help’ and persuasive Being a victim is potentially damaging incident or the person who died. 2. Remember – it is your staff who will help
25,000 and 100,0000 people) or the ‘mass’ evacuation of more than communications strategies like these are generally more and life changing even if life is not Decision making becomes very difficult business recovery from the chaos of a
this number (the guidance defines mass evacuation as affecting effective in enabling evacuations than relying on 'top-down' threatened. A great deal of work has been for high stressed staff and Rosie has had major incident
over 100,000 people). The main events that could give rise to enforcement. As the US police authorities found out during carried out by psychologists in recent experience of senior managers asking for 3. Understand the implications for the
evacuation and shelter on such a scale are very major flooding, Hurricane Katrina, despite the fact that unlike their UK years into trauma and the effects on those help with decisions they would normally continuity of business
very large industrial accidents or transport failure, and very counterparts they had explicit powers to enforce a non-terrorist touched by disaster. It is important to deal with as a matter of course. 4. Individuals will have individual responses
significant acts of terrorism. This guidance encourages evacuation, they were unable to do so. examine these exposures and, in the It is also important to remember that and reactions relating to the trauma,
emergency planners and responders to work on a broader level And lastly, some responders were confused by the myriad of current climate, it is crucial to explore the all those in the workforce will have family some of these reactions may surprise
locally and with regional counterparts to produce scaleable, different legislation that could relate to evacuation and shelter. relationship between terrorism and and friends and they will fit the you, all of them are normal
flexible plans. These should be capable of being operated on a These range from the impact of animal-welfare legislation on the trauma and to understand how an act of description of those affected although not 5. Respect each reaction as individual and
small-scale to deal with local incidents or joined up with evacuation of zoos, to the less exotic issue of the impact of health terrorism might affect an industry’s directly involved. Whilst these people may do not judge
neighbouring plans to deal with wide-impact incidents and large- and safety legislation on the operation of shelters. The guidance workforce. However we must also not be the direct responsibility of the 6. Develop a post trauma support
scale evacuation and shelter requirements. seeks to clarify these and other legal points that have proved remember that traumatic events can company it would be a foolish programme in advance of an incident
Secondly, evacuation is by no means an easy or risk-free problematic in the past. This is supported by a clear explanation happen on a day to day basis and are not management who ignored the impact of a 7. Resource this programme realistically
option. Around 100 people died in 2005 as a result of the pre- of the wide ranging roles and responsibilities of organisations in all large scale disasters, there are the distressed family on an already stressed 8. Do not skimp on staff care
emptive Hurricane Rita evacuation in Houston, Texas. And in most evacuation and shelter. major personal disasters that affect and traumatised member of staff.
scenarios concerning chemical, biological or radiological Evacuation and Shelter Guidance is being sent out to Category smaller numbers of people but can be It is crucial that any company should Remember: The benefits of getting
contamination, it is generally best to stay in doors (which the 1 responders and is now available to download at the UK equally devastating. These include violent take adequate steps to protect staff from this right are incalculable; the costs of
guidance describes as 'sheltering in-situ'). The guidance makes Resilience website (www.ukresilience.info). The guidance crime within the work place and death or damaging experiences. Part of the getting it wrong may be incredible!!
clear that, when considering evacuation, responders first need to complements other statutory and non statutory guidance on the injury from suicide or road traffic process should include preparation for
judge whether the majority of people will be safer being supported Civil Contingencies Act 2004, Emergency Preparedness and collisions. events over which the company have no
as they seek shelter at home or in a suitable building nearby. This Emergency Response and Recovery, available at the same site. In 1981 Taylor and Fraser produced a control and also to have supportive
www.the-eps.org Page 16 www.the-eps.org Page 17
“Emergency planning teams in emergency planning had primarily focused on Kathy Settle, Regional Resilience Director introduced yet another source of stress. In the emergency planning and helped put all the allowed to find a natural balance between the
Manchester, like their colleagues elsewhere the possibility of an aircraft accident and the at GONW, said: “We provided the link with end, I had three pieces of coursework to experience in context. It has also introduced a personal and work related learning.
in the UK, acted quickly to smooth the identification of suitable areas for dealing with central Government and in particular with the complete in the final semester, almost the range of wider issues that I would probably At the end of the day, the only person who
evacuation of hundreds of British passport survivors and distressed friends and relatives. Foreign Office in instances where individual same amount of work as full time students. not have encountered through just work. can decide whether it is a good idea or not is
holders from the bombing in Lebanon. In fact, because the airport was still fully evacuees were concerned about the safety of Having a young family also means that Effectively this has meant looking at work you. Everybody is different in terms of ability,
The international crisis, prompted by the operational, the designated reception area family members left behind in Lebanon or distractions tend not to be self inflicted, issues from a far wider perspective than the work background and their reasons for
kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers, was played could not be used and the team had to quickly wanted to arrange for them to be evacuated. although looking back, I think the breaking up requirements of the Civil Contingencies Act. wanting to undertake the course. Whilst I
out nightly on our television screens during move to untried facilities at Gate 20, Terminal “We were also able to use our contacts at of lengthy periods of studying probably The challenge now is to try to bring all this, to would not recommend doing it the hard way,
July and August. One. national level to ensure that the next stage of helped. the work of my team and the wider it has demonstrated that you certainly need
But the consequences of the conflict The procedure aimed to separate those the journey for evacuees went smoothly. For I am not the world’s most motivated department (although my colleagues might the commitment to get started in the first
between the Israeli army and Hezbollah were evacuees who needed support on arrival from instance, a number of evacuees wanted to person, so it was hard work sitting down not always realise it!). On a personal level, not place, the motivation to keep on going, the
soon felt closer to home as British citizens, those who were happy to make their own way travel on to other countries to meet up with trawling through one journal article after only will a professional qualification help in interest in the subject to undertake all the
caught up in the fighting, clamoured to leave onward from the airport. The main concern family members, and we liaised with the another, particularly when you can feel your developing my emergency planning career, it reading and research required, and above all
Beirut. was to ensure that people needing support Spanish and Sierra Leonean Embassies to eyes closing slowly. I did not realise it had might also open up other opportunities. the enthusiasm to actually make it an
The first Norman Davey, Manchester City were dealt with before passing through make the necessary arrangements. We also involved such hard work and commitment in Hopefully, Hertfordshire County Council enjoyable experience . Having the support
Council’s emergency planning manager, passport control and immigration, as the realised a lot of people wanted to travel to the last four months, until afterwards when also benefits. Not only do they have a more and understanding of the lecturers certainly
realised he might be involved in the majority of support was only available airside. London and worked with Virgin Trains to run winding down and rediscovering the family knowledgeable and enthusiastic member of helped make things less stressful, but
evacuation came when he received a call Norman said: “On arrival the reception a special late-night train from Manchester again was quite difficult. In a strange way I staff (if at times tired from studying the ultimately, it is the continued support at home
from Manchester Airport to say that a flight centre team offered everyone refreshments, after all the scheduled services had ceased kind of miss having to study in the evening previous evening), there is the different that makes all the difference. When the
from the RAF base at Akrotiri in Cyprus was toiletries and support while they were waiting. for the day. The effective working relationship and at weekends. I suppose my motivation approach to work, and the identification of course started Tom and Lucy were constantly
due to leave within 24 hours. We also tried to avoid a situation in which we had developed with Virgin through our NW was helped, by the fact that I found the course new initiatives and good practice. Having stressing the importance of finding a work-
“Like everyone else I had been following people were crowding round the tables used Transport Resilience Forum and recent and the work interesting and actually discussed this with my manager at a recent study-life balance. How true they were. I am
the story on television but it had never to conduct interviews, so we created a exercises was invaluable in making this all enjoyable. performance and development appraisal, it is not entirely sure whether I managed to get
occurred to me that we would be directly physical barrier between this area and the happen.” Would I do it again with the benefit of worth pointing out, that physically this balance right at any point in the last ten
involved here in Manchester. I suppose that rest of the reception centre Norman said: “We had never envisaged hindsight? The answer is most definitely yes, demonstrating the learning and the impact in months, but I must have done something
was because I had never really associated “In fact, we had five tables for interviews GONW being directly involved, but in fact we although I would prefer not to have the terms of work is particularly difficult, as it is right to have finally got through the first year.
large numbers of British citizens with the and a further five waiting areas behind where couldn’t have done it without them. They were backlog of coursework at the end of the year. often very subtle. My manager has been However, my wife would probably say drop
Lebanon. those next in line could wait.” a vital link to the Foreign Office and used their It has certainly improved my knowledge of supportive, and I have effectively been the “life” bit and it would be more appropriate!
“That was one of the lessons we learned The majority of those wanting support contacts with central Government to good
from the exercise – that there are British were in need of advice on accommodation effect.
citizens all over the world and even the most and transport. Many wanted to travel on to “In one instance, we found three bags left
remote conflict can quickly have an impact London. on a flight (one of which included five
here at home. “The main demand was for travel passports) which couldn’t be traced to
In this instance, while 24 hours might not warrants for their onward journey and, in anyone. In fact, Kathy and her team
sound like a lot of notice to those outside the some instances, for overnight discovered that their owners were still in
emergency planning profession, in fact it gave accommodation. Anticipating that, we had Cyprus and not due to fly to Stansted until
us more time than usual to organise our made arrangements for local taxis, a coach later that day. We also had one suitcase left
response.” firm and a nearby hotel to be on standby.” on the baggage carousel after all the
The city council assembled an 80-strong Information on the number of evacuees on evacuees had departed. Again, Kathy’s team
team of representatives from the Salvation each flight was not known until it was in the worked with the Foreign Office to find out who
Army, Red Cross, St John Ambulance, air. The first flight brought 67 evacuees to the suitcase belonged to and managed to
Government Office for the North West, Manchester, the second a more daunting 435, reunite all the lost bags with their owners.”
Greater Manchester Passenger Transport a number which at times threatened to The processing of evacuees took just over
Executive, WRVS, Jobcentre Plus, overwhelm the team’s resources. two hours to complete each night.
Immigration Service, Manchester Airport’s There were also individual human So one year later what do I make of it all?
terminal and security sections and its own difficulties. Some evacuees were still in a Well, I knew it was going to be hard work
housing and social services teams to cope distressed state having been caught up from the outset, particularly with no study
with the demands of more than 600 evacuees directly in the bombing. One woman had lost leave from work (the price to pay for being
arriving at Manchester Airport on three flights her sister in a direct hit on the building where funded by the County Council). Undertaking
between 20 and 22 July. Two other flights they were living. two modules back to back, twice, to ensure I
were cancelled at short notice. One of the passengers evacuated had lost was not studying when the baby arrived was
Similar flights arrived at Gatwick, East both legs in an earlier bombing incident and not ideal. Neither was having to study every
Midlands and Stansted airports during that needed a wheelchair for his onward journey. evening and weekend at times. However, I
period. This prompted a 2.30am hunt across Greater knew this from the start so I did not really
The city council had experience of the Manchester for a wheelchair he could be have an excuse, eventually it became the
Kosovan evacuation in 1999 in which 15 given. Wheelchairs and baby buggies were norm no matter how tired I was by the end of
planes carrying evacuees landed in available for evacuees on subsequent flights the working day. What I had not bargained for
Manchester. It also responded to similar The Regional Resilience Team from was my lengthy involvement in the Buncefield
evacuations of British passport holders Government Office for the North West was incident, which meant a deferral for my
following the Asian tsunami, the bombing of initially involved in the evacuation flights as an second piece of coursework. Complications
Egyptian resorts and the Mexican hurricane. observer but quickly found itself performing a with my wife’s pregnancy at the same time
www.the-eps.org Page 18 www.the-eps.org Page 19
At Manchester Airport, the normal vital role. brought studying to a rather abrupt halt, and
Project Argus engages
businesses in Leeds
Sean Morris, Emergency Planning Officer, Leeds City Council
At an event in early October at helped to facilitate discussion in six business community with a realistic
Leeds University, the National syndicate groups, and also commented incident in order to encourage them to
NEW CIVIL PROTECTION
Counter Terrorism Security Office on the wider emergency response. understand the necessity of developing
(NaCTSO) delivered the first ‘Project All delegates received an Argus good business continuity and
Argus’ seminar to over 60 large workbook. This provided further emergency response plans. The event
businesses situated in and around information and background asking in Leeds has allowed us to fine-tune
Be Proactive Not Reactive –
Leeds city centre. them to develop plans and procedures the scenario and the event in general
Prepare your Organisation or
Project Argus is an innovative and so that their own businesses are more and confirmed the benefits for
Business to deal with any possible
dynamic half-day seminar developing prepared for the huge effects of a businesses of this type of approach.”
a desk-top ‘terrorist incident’ exercise terrorist incident. It also gave “I look forward to developing Argus
Enrol now on the UK’s first
for the business community. The aim businesses the resources to conduct with other UK cities to help in building
of the seminar is to increase such exercises in a similar manner for up resilience across our town and city
University Foundation Award
awareness of the role of businesses in their own staff. A key additional centres. Argus has been developed to
in Civil Protection’
major incidents and the importance of component of Argus was to provide consider the problems of a major
‘Body bags’ hasn’t exactly been a product that has seen much
The Award consists of five 2-day
developing business continuity and businesses with realistic expectations incident in a crowded high street
innovation over the years. Often a secondary product for many
modules covering the major
emergency response plans. of the wider emergency response. where command and control will be
companies, the supply of body bags has been largely dominated by US
The event was run by Richard Flynn Businesses were urged to develop a difficult to develop in the early stages
companies and packaging suppliers. So it’s quite refreshing to hear of
of NaCTSO, who has helped to develop wide range of plans around issues of a major incident. Co-operation from
• Built in Assessment
a UK company who have taken the industry head on and developed, in
the business continuity booklets such as hostile reconnaissance, the business community will help the
• A Work Based Project
conjunction with the NHS, emergency services, the British Transport
• Top-level Tuition from Industry
‘Expect the Unexpected’ and ‘Secure in command and control, ‘invacuation’ emergency services in their response Police and a number of Funeral Directors, a high quality range of
the Knowledge’ with London First and (creating safe areas within a business to the incident and could be critical for products that respond to the specific needs of an emergency or
• Completion within a minimum of
the Business Continuity Institute. premises) and considering evacuation the medium and longer term issues mortuary situation.
Project Argus in Leeds was facilitated ‘grab-bags’ or ‘battle boxes’. that will have to be resolved.” ‘We felt that existing products on the market simply didn’t have the
• No entry requirements
by Leeds City Council’s Peace and Project Argus is being developed as Over the past 5 years Leeds City hygienic containment or maneuverability that the emergency services
Courses start September 2006
Emergency Planning Unit and West a UK initiative and Leeds was used to Council’s Peace and Emergency need,’ explains Jenny Sadeh, Sales Director of Foxhaven (UK) Ltd, ‘our
and will be conducted at HOTA’s
Yorkshire Police, and opened by the test the response of businesses to it. Planning Unit (PEPU) has developed a approach has been to listen to the users within the emergency services
purpose built Training Centre in
Divisional Commander for Leeds city The feedback from businesses was large network of businesses in and and to bring fresh thinking and innovation to the features and
Hull, East Yorkshire.
centre, Chief Superintendent Geoff very positive and there are plans to run around the city centre to consider construction of the product.”
Contact: Karen Shepherd, HOTA
Dodd. Argus again in Leeds in 2007 for other business continuity and emergency Based in Manchester, Foxhaven have developed a range of
Tel: 01482 820567 Fax: 01482 823202
Project Argus combines a series of types of incidents and to include planning issues. The Leeds BCP products that include “grab handles” as standard and a thick gauge
PEVA welded and stitched material, to eliminate splitting and leakage,
video and audio feeds into developing a representatives from the night-time Network has around 120 members and
(Please quote ref: BP1)
credible terrorist attack scenario. It economy. over 400 e-mail contacts. Project and are available in a range of colours and sizes.
sought from the businesses what their Project Argus goes ‘live’ nationally Argus Leeds follows-on from the
Further information contact: Jenny Sadeh, Foxhaven (UK) Ltd
response would be, and what plans early in 2007 and around 20 large Network’s successful combination of
they have in place, to deal with the cities have been identified to host ‘case study style’ BCP seminars and
effects of the scenario on their own seminars. Police Counter Terrorism workshops on key business continuity
business. Information was also given Security Advisers (CTSAs) are also and emergency planning issues.
in Project Argus about recovery issues, going to be trained in the key aspects
business continuity and hostile of Project Argus with the aim of For further details on Project Argus
reconnaissance. Emergency Planning delivering it to a further 200 smaller Leeds and the Leeds BCP Network
Officers from local authorities around towns around the country. please contact:
West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire Richard Flynn of NaCTSO Sean Morris
and officers from West Yorkshire commented: Leeds City Council Emergency
Police, Cleveland Police and West “In Project Argus, we have put Planning on (0113) 247 4341 or
www.the-eps.org Page 20 www.the-eps.org Page 21
Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service together a package to engage the email@example.com.
A Planned Emergency: Is There Such a Thing?
Daedalus Pipe Mine Clearance
History of Pipe Mines for the remainder of that work week. fully resolved until a couple of days before Helpline continued to run, and the fully our Assist teams from across the County
In the early years of the Second World Outside of the Daedalus site the 750m the operation start date, when Defence trained staff supervised by an Emergency some of whom had not had recent
War when the possibility existed of an exclusion zones encompassed some 1200 Estates agreed legal and financial liability. Planning Officer received in excess of training. We were fortunate on this
invasion by Germany, pipe mines were houses, 2 schools, 9 residential care The need to provide clear and accurate 1,000 calls. occasion to have prior notice to ensure
installed under all airfields within 10 homes, the Maritime and Coastguard information for the public was a main Silver Command was established at training needs were met however this has
miles of the southern and eastern Agency and many businesses. On site concern, as was the potential loss of Gosport Police Station on every day that identified future training requirements.
coastlines of England. These pipe mines many businesses were required to business for a number off small an evacuation was required from 0600 In addition to the volunteer staff that
varied in length from 30ft to 100ft long (in evacuate as were the MCA’s Helicopter industries on the airfield site. until approximately 1730. Hampshire operated in shifts to staff our Daedalus
10 ft sections) and were pushed into the and Hampshire Constabulary’s Air The Off Site Working Group undertook Constabulary took the lead at silver Evacuation Helpline we sourced an
ground at an angle. Should an invasion Support Unit. the major off site planning for the command with Local Authorities, South experienced call centre manager to
have become imminent, the mines would To alleviate the effect that this evacuations that primarily revolved Hampshire County Council Highways, Central Ambulance Service and an Army operate the helpline at all times. This
have been detonated thereby denying operation would have on the local around exclusion zone data such as Gosport and Fareham Borough Council’s Liaison present. Added benefits within provided an invaluable continuity in the
access to the landing of enemy aircraft. population and to minimise the road maps, street names and vulnerable Traffic Management teams, Hampshire Silver Command included an aerial view operation of the helpline and ensured
Most of these mines were removed in the congestion, a working window of 0930 – groups produced by HCC Emergency Constabulary Traffic Management and the of the exclusion zone provided via a direct nothing was missed during a staff
years following the war. 1600 Monday to Friday was strictly Planning Unit and shared with all Highways Agency. The geographical link with Hampshire Constabulary Air handover.
In April this year a Second World War adhered to ensuring those evacuated agencies involved. The key issues location of Lee on the Solent at the Support Unit Boxer 2, and the presence of
pipe mine was discovered during routine were able to return to their homes in the considered were how to maintain the southern end of a peninsular posed some Police Control for the incident ensuring
Land Quality surveys which were carried evening. exclusion zone, the welfare of those major traffic management problems as any issues raised by Police Officers on the Hampshire County Council and all
out with associated work for the sale of within the exclusion zone and how to the road closures included a number of ground were able to be resolved agencies involved have cause to be proud
the Daedalus airfield site, Lee On The convey this information the public. the main arterial routes. It was effectively and by the most appropriate of the excellent example of multi agency
Solent located on the south east coast of Hampshire Constabulary formed a recognised from a very early date that on agency. working that was the Daedalus Pipe Mine
Hampshire. A further full assessment of major part of the planning and were faced the evacuation days the disruption to the Two Rest Centres were established at Clearance Operation. Prior to the start of
the site revealed a total of 20 potential with the difficult task of maintaining the traffic network in an area already subject 0630 every day during the evacuations on the operation there was criticism via the
pipe mines. Although none of the pipe exclusion zone. This required up to 120 to daily congestion would be significant. either side of the exclusion zone, media over the lack of confirmed
mines had any initiation charges (fuses) officers on the ground each day to Because of this and the size of the transport was provided to and from the information available. This was a
and there was no danger of a ascertain who would be staying within operation and resulting work load on the Rest Centres in the form of coaches and situation beyond the control of the main
spontaneous detonation, the MoD had a their homes and who would be evacuating departments the services of traffic DDA compliant minibuses. The Rest agencies involved and resulted as a delay
Clearance Operation Local Authority Role
duty of care to remove them from the site. and to staff road closure points. An consultants were employed. Centres were staffed by trained Assist in confirmation of the operations go
armoured Police Landrover patrolled the An evacuation of this size was going to teams from our Adult and Children’s ahead. During and after the operation the
streets and the Police plane flew present many welfare issues, therefore a Services department and a Hampshire response from both the public and the
Once the full survey of the airfield had Because of the nature of this incident overhead ensuring the safety and security Welfare Group consisting of Adult and County Council Liaison Officer. The media has been overwhelming, an
been completed by the Defence Logistics and the fact that it affected two districts of those remaining within the exclusion Children’s Services (Social Services), the Voluntary Agencies played an invaluable editorial in a local newspaper The
Organisation, the data was passed to within the County Fareham and Gosport, zone. On days when the exclusion zone Primary Care Trust and a vast number of part within the Rest Centres with the Portsmouth News thanked all the
QinetiQ (MoD scientists), who used Hampshire County Council took the role reached as far as the sea the Police Voluntary Agencies was established. The Salvation Army providing breakfast for agencies involved making the statement
computer imagery and modelling to of lead agency acting as honest broker Marine Unit was utilised. primary hurdle to overcome was the early morning staff, the WRVS keeping “the planners did their job, and the
establish the parameters of the safety throughout the clearance works / Warning and informing the public was identification of all vulnerable people in both staff and evacuees in tea and cakes. specialists on the ground did theirs in the
cordon. Two safety zone distances for evacuations. It managed a successful one of the most difficult components of receipt of some form of Social Services Either St Johns Ambulance or the British professional way we have come to
evacuation were advised of 750 metres for multi agency response, resulting from the the whole operation, and the one area care located within the exclusion zone. red Cross provided specialist transport for expect.”
the periods when the Army’s Explosives commitment and integrated approach of that had the potential to cause significant Then to make an assessment of their those that required it and a first aid This incident has proven our capability
Ordnance Disposal Team were carrying all of the agencies involved and the three problems and hardship if we got it wrong. specific needs, whether that be presence. Entertainment was provided in in maintaining a sustained evacuation and
out the excavation works, and 300 metres authorities staff. A sustained evacuation over five weeks, a domiciliary care, medical facilities or the form of toys and story telling for shown that we can perform over a
for the periods when the EOD team were To facilitate a coordinated response moving exclusion zone and the specialist transport. children and books and televisions for protracted period. Rather than sit back
making safe the pipe mines. Hampshire County Council established uncertainty as to whether the evacuations The Voluntary agencies involved adults. A hot lunch was provided by our and breath a sigh of relief, we are taking
The poor condition of the ordnance and several forums under which all agencies would be required one day or five was a ranged from the WRVS providing light own caterers HC3S with any food surplus on the lessons learned and improving
it’s volatile nature required that the pipe involved could meet at regular intervals. difficult message to convey. On refreshments, to the RSPCA on hand to to requirements being distributed to local those things that worked but can work
mine excavation needed to be carried out These consisted of a Stakeholders Forum, confirmation of the operation go ahead deal with any animal welfare issues and homeless shelters. better.
Our Role During the Operation
remotely from 500 metres, using state of Off Site Working Group, Traffic two weeks prior to the start date, a RAYNET with back up communications.
the art remote controlled digging Management Group and a Welfare Group. massive Public Information Campaign
equipment. The Stake Holder Forum included was launched. In one day a Press The incident itself was unusual partly
The EOD Team grouped the 20 pipe representatives from the wider key Briefing involving the key agencies was Throughout the operation our role of because it was a sustained evacuation
mines into five separate work groups agencies involved such as MoD Defence undertaken, a concise leaflet was Warning and Informing continued. The over such a long period of time but mainly
centred over five separate areas. It was Estates, Maritime and Coastguard Agency distributed to over 7,000 homes in the BBC initiative Connecting in a Crisis was because of the general perception that
estimated that each group could possibly (land owners), South East Economic wider area, 200 posters were displayed in engaged with BBC Radio Solent who this was in fact not an emergency but
require 5 days to be made safe, therefore Development Agency (land owners), Army the area and advertisements were placed provided hourly updates when an rather a planned event. At times we faced
the clearance work would take place over Explosives Ordnance Disposal Team, in local newspapers providing a evacuation was in process. Press difficulty in sourcing staff to meet our
a five week period. It was anticipated that Hampshire Constabulary and both the “Daedalus Evacuation Helpline” briefings, updates and interviews with response as there was less of the “pull
a 750m exclusion zone would be required District and County Councils Emergency telephone number and inviting residents agencies involved were provided to local together team spirit” that is usually
on the Monday of each week and Planning Teams. Initially a main sticking to attend two public meetings held at media daily. A “Daedalus Webpage” was generated in an emergency.
depending on what was found when the point of progress was whose local Community Centres. added to our website giving up to the Due to the evacuation taking place over
pipe mine was exposed, would hopefully responsibility the works were, and A Traffic Management Group was set minute information on evacuations and a longer time than is usually anticipated
www.the-eps.org Page 22 www.the-eps.org Page 23
be reduced to the 300m exclusion zone ultimately, “who would pay”, an issue not up comprising of representatives from road closures. The Daedalus Evacuation we found ourselves having to utilise all of
Temporary Mortuaries, Private Company
Involvement and the U.S.A. Comparison
mortuary. These boxes can be removed member of FEMA and DMORT in
at the time of opening the temporary September; the visit was arranged so that company, representatives of the ship’s owners or their insurers, a
mortuary with the knowledge that the the two visitors and myself could address CPSO, an Environmental Liaison Officer, and the Harbour Master.
contents have not been stored for long the National Co-operative Funeral A Marine Response Centre (MRC) will take control of the at sea
periods. The hospital has also agreed to Managers Association on temporary response. This unit is responsible for assessment and monitoring,
supply two autopsy tables, saws, x-ray mortuary arrangements on both sides of spraying dispersant (using ships and aircraft), mechanical recovery
equipment and screening. For further the Atlantic. We also arranged operations and cargo transfer. The MCA take the lead in the MRC, with
items of equipment suppliers have been presentations for our visitors by Police, support from a Defra fisheries officer, plus liaison officers from the
sourced and are included in the plan. Fire, Ambulance, Army and Government local authority, the Environment Group, and any harbour affected.
Dudley M.B.C. started updating its The hospital have also agreed to Office of the West Midlands on various A Shoreline Response Centre (SRC) will take control of the on-shore
Mass Fatality Temporary Mortuary Plan in supply one of each pathologist, mortician, aspects of emergency planning. They response. Cleaning up the beaches, rocks, and other shoreline types is
2002 and although premises had been odontologist and radiographer. Contacts also attended a seminar which included a massive task. Although specialist equipment and heavy plant will be
previously identified, the roles and for further morticians, radiographers and information on Birmingham City Centre used, the operation is heavily dependent on human effort. Hundreds of
responsibilities of the various anthropologist are included in the Evacuation and Tornado, July 7th 2005 them carrying out unpleasant and difficult work using hand tools.
departments and partner agencies had contacts. London Temporary Mortuary The SRC has a local authority lead and technical support from the MCA.
not been included within the plan. In A meeting with Jackie Solloway, arrangements, Family Assistance Centres Others represented in the SRC include the Environment Agency, other
2003, the Home Office also issued the Manager/Funeral Director with 27 years and the experiences of survivors of the local authorities, the Environment Group, and harbours.
new guidance on Dealing with Mass experience from Midcounties Co- Paddington Train Crash. Five functional teams are established in the SRC. A Management
Fatalities, this placed added operative Funeral Services, led to an The visit proved a great success with Team, usually chaired by the local authority Chief Executive, will
responsibilities on Local Authorities to agreement with the council to provide all involved learning from each others determine policy and priorities, authorise expenditure, approve public
equip the temporary establishment and further staff to assist in the mortuary. experiences and arrangements, the main and press information and liaise with central government.
work with the Coroner to identify staff to Jackie had been involved with the outcome was the similarities between our A Technical Team determines an appropriate strategy, allocates
work in the mortuary. temporary mortuary in Lockerbie and work on either side of the Atlantic. resources, monitors progress, and liaises with forward controls. They
The concept of a large building with understood the pros and cons associated It is hoped that the dialogue will also have sub groups for waste management and health & safety.
little facilities cannot be used if planning with premises, equipment and people continue. Waste management is a major headache, especially as the
for such eventualities. Health and Safety incorporated into these plans. environmental regulators want as little as possible sent to landfill.
and the care of the deceased, as well as Following a number of meetings, it Ian Skidmore, Head of Contingency The call ‘Mayday, Mayday’ from a ship in distress will see nearby A Procurement Team obtains the necessary resources. They also
staff operating in the mortuary must be was agreed that if the mortuary were ever and Disaster Management, Dudley vessels, lifeboats and air-sea rescue helicopters racing to help. In the maintain financial records and monitor the effective use of allocated
taken into account, as well as the needs needed then the Co-operative Funeral Metropolitan Borough Council UK this will be co-coordinated by HM Coastguard from one of their resources. Recovering costs from the polluter, or one of the tanker
of friends and relatives to be allowed to Services would supply both experienced Maritime Rescue Co-ordination Centres (MRCC). This is often a fairly compensation funds, requires detailed evidence. Not only receipts and
view their nearest and dearest’s remains funeral personnel and equipment to routine event, but what if the ship is a large oil tanker and it is leaking authorisations, but also evidence that expenditure was reasonably
as laid down by the Lord Justice Clark’s assist the Coroner, Police and Local cargo? incurred and that resources were appropriately used.
report on the Marchioness need to be Authority. This will turn a rescue operation into an emergency that requires a A Media and Public Relations Team arranges media briefings and
taken into account. Funeral Directors are well versed in response from dozens of organisations that will involve several hundred interviews, and provides public advice via help lines, websites, leaflets
The building therefore used by the the care of the deceased, and helping people and will last many months. The aim of this article is to give an etc. Finally, an Information and Administration Team is responsible for
Local Authority is a local leisure centre families, relatives and friends in funeral overview of how such a disaster is managed. Not all the organisations all message handling, record keeping, communication facilities, minute
building which allows for an autopsy area preparations and arrangements, they operate UK wide, and those referred to only cover England. There are taking, updating information boards and maps, and catering.
for 4 workstations with power and water have the knowledge and are trained and equivalent organisations in Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. With interlinking national, local authority and harbour plans,
connection, a changing and locker room used to dealing with the remains of As soon as the MRCC has the lifesaving operation underway, they underpinned by training and exercises, the UK is as prepared as any
for staff, together with ample shower and victims and day to day mortuary will notify a Maritime & Coastguard Agency (MCA) Counter Pollution & country can be for such incidents. However, we still keep our fingers
toilet facilities. It also provides a large operations. Salvage Officer (CPSO) of actual or threatened pollution. For a major tightly crossed!
sports hall catering for police stripping, Some training in the setting up of the spill the CPSO will initiate a ‘Tier Three’ response, in accordance with
finger printing, photography etc. and the mortuary as to location and layout was the MCA’s National Contingency Plan. This plan has been tested during Tony Morris, Chair of the Emergency Planning Society’s
space for the storage of some 70 given to the Co-op’s Managers and the incidents, such as the Sea Empress and the Braer, and during annual Oil Pollution Professional Issue Group
cadavers, a further sports hall will cater local authority to ensure that any exercises. The plan is revised regularly to incorporate lessons learned.
for some 200 cadavers. Both halls have seminars or training events to do with If the pollution is likely to come ashore, this will involve the
now had water and 3 phase electricity to temporary mortuaries or mass fatalities establishment of three response cells and one advisory cell. The
facilitate cooling units to regulate the are attended by the managers. I would advisory cell is the Environment Group (EG) and it is responsible for
temperature for the storage of bodies. recommend any Emergency Planners to providing environmental and public health advice to the response cells.
Separate x-ray, 5 viewing rooms, office seek assistance from funeral directors in Core EG members are the Environment Agency, Natural England,
areas and valuable storage have been the planning for mass fatalities. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and the
identified within the premises. The At a training event in Birmingham, a Health Protection Agency. Others represented may include the MCA,
entrance to viewing areas is separate conversation with an American lecturer local authority, Food Standards Agency, Department of Trade and
from the entrance into the mortuary about the arrangements between Dudley Industry, animal welfare bodies, and local environmental groups.
areas; outside there is ample car parking and the Co-op led to an invitation to both A Salvage Control Unit (SCU) will oversee efforts to salvage the
area for further offices or refrigeration parties to go to the U.S.A. to discuss tanker and minimise the amount of oil that is released. The Secretary
units. arrangements with Federal Emergency of State’s Representative for Marine Salvage and Intervention (SOSREP)
To provide equipment for the mortuary, Management Agency, the DMORT leads the SCU. Previous pollution incidents have occurred, or been
agreement was reached with the local temporary mortuary arrangements and made worse, by ship’s masters and owners delaying the salvage
hospital, Russells Hall, who rotate boxes emergency services in April of this year. operation. To avoid this, SOSREP now has powers to intervene and take
www.the-eps.org Page 24 www.the-eps.org Page 25
of consumable items within the hospital Following this, we received a visit from a positive action. Other members of the SCU include the salvage
The Welfare of Stranded Motorists – The Road Ahead
By Tom Bennett, Bedfordshire County Council and Anthony Aston, Highways Agency
Bedfordshire County Council in conjunction 1200 uniformed Traffic Officers patrolling the abandoned their vehicles. They do however
with the Bedfordshire and Luton Local country’s motorways helping to spot incidents recognise that in the most extreme cases,
Resilience Forum (BLLRF) are one of the first and clear them quickly to allow the traffic to there may be a need to provide welfare to
county councils in England to start developing keep moving. It has overall responsibility for motorists away from the motorway. It is for this
welfare provisions for motorists who could any road users stranded on the motorway reason that they are working with Bedfordshire
become stranded in the event of a major network and is working with its stakeholders to CC on this innovative pilot project.
incident on the county’s only motorway, the M1. develop national guidance for the provision of All parties recognise that the project may
High profile events on the M11 in nearby welfare to motorists during major incidents. be subject to change once national guidelines
Essex over the past few years have resulted in Through the Traffic Officer Service, the are published, but Bedfordshire County Council
traffic queues of up to 12 miles and increased Highways Agency is improving its ability to have developed an effective interim solution,
the profile of stranded motorists. Bedfordshire operate the motorway network and promoting identifying strategic locations along the M1 for
County Council’s Civil Contingencies Unit are messages encouraging drivers to prepare potential emergency reception centres. These
working closely with the Highways Agency, properly for long journeys. During major are all within one mile of the motorway, so
Luton Borough Council, Bedfordshire Police incidents, the Agency concentrates on trying to drivers could walk to them, even if the weather
and the Bedfordshire and Luton Emergency release any traffic trapped behind the incident. was very poor. In extreme cases it may be
Volunteer Executive Committee (BLEVEC) to This may be by working with the police to open possible for local authorities to transport
develop a scheme to provide food, water, and lanes past the incident or using the Traffic people, but it is envisaged that this option
warm blankets at a series of emergency Officers to conduct a process called rearward would only be used to protect life and avoid
reception centres within a mile of the relief, where the motorway is closed and the serious health problems.
motorway. Key locations just off the motorway traffic at the back of the queue is turned round Bedfordshire County Council have worked
are also being looked at to set up welfare and escorted back to the nearest junction. In effectively in partnership with the HA and local
stations for Traffic Officers to come and collect some cases they may also be able to cut the authorities within the county to provide a
provisions to take to the stranded motorists. central reservation and use the other simple solution to help customers in the event
The welfare stations will be manned by carriageway to alleviate the jams. of a major incident. The wider implications and
volunteer services such as the WRVS, BRCS It is for the above reasons that the the national guidance on roles and
and Raynet. Highways Agency usually recommend that responsibilities are still being developed, but
The Highways Agency is the government motorists stay with their vehicles, as it is very this local level partnership could yet prove to be
body responsible for maintaining and running difficult to clear the queues and get the good model for welfare provision.
England’s motorways and trunk roads. It has motorway flowing again if people have
www.the-eps.org Page 26
How? Spain and Portugal currently have three previously exist. More specifically the UK
The sustainability of the shipping Partners each of whom is a mix of both Partners have benefited in the following
industry can be improved through Governmental and relevant technical ways:
minimising its environmental and negative representation. • Sea Empress at Milford Haven in 1996,
economic impacts. The shipping industry which released 72,000 tonnes of crude
contributes to reduce the risk of incidents oil and 480 tonnes of fuel oil affecting
occurring by continually looking at Through the six countries represented 200km of coastline.
measures to prevent collisions, on the EROCIPS Project much of the • Erika off Brittany in 1999, where 19,000
groundings and hull failures. Atlantic Coast of Europe is involved, which tonnes of oil were spilled affecting
Devon County Council
Governments with coastlines that are at a is important because it means that the 400km of coastline.
high risk of pollution from shipping can Project area covers the area affected by
also contribute by ensuring that in the many of the significant polluting shipping
event of an accident they are well incidents in the Atlantic Arc from 1967 to • Establishment of an online Emergency
prepared to provide a robust shoreline 2005. Logging System
response. The EROCIPS budget is just over 6 • Establishment of baseline sediment
The EROCIPS Project’s goal is to million euros, co-financed by the data for Devon’s coasts
explore prevention methodologies and European Regional Development Fund • Establishment of a team of coastal
provide all of the necessary information to through Interreg IIIB and funding from the survey volunteers trained and equipped
the responders and decision-makers Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. This to monitor pollutants from the shore
involved in shoreline counter pollution funding allows specialist work to be • Provision of Exercise Jurassic Spill – a
operations following a shipping incident. contracted out, making possible early and cross border exercise major spill
The type of information required by those significant developments in Partners’ exercise to be held in 2007
responsible for organising the response to ability to identify, analyse and deal with • Purchase of electronic charting and
an event varies from an understanding of the threat of coastal pollution based on development of a GIS system
oceanographic currents to how to train best practice, using the most up to date Dorset County Council
and equip clean-up personnel. In order to technology. • Provision of Exercise Jurassic Spill – a
address this huge challenge the EROCIPS The purpose of the Project is to provide cross border exercise major spill
UK takes the lead in major European collisions, fires and hull failures do occur Project is divided into 8 sub-projects added value to the shoreline response by exercise to be held in 2007
Union project – Emergency Response to occasionally, and when they do the called work packages. Each work package providing Regional and Local • Establishment of a protocol for baseline
Coastal Oil, Chemical and Inert Pollution potential impacts on the marine delivers outputs specific to one aspect of Governments with information to aid their environmental assessments in the
from Shipping (EROCIPS) environment and coastal communities are pollution response and is led by a Partner response structure in the event of a event of a major spill on the Dorset
The shoreline response to pollution substantial. There can be long and short- with relevant expertise (see table). shipping pollution incident. The EROCIPS coast
from shipping accidents represents one of term damage to the natural and socio- Project will not undertake statutory duties • Development of online beach reporting
the greatest resource and manage¬ment economic environment. connected with the production of forms using Oracle databases
challenges likely to be faced by Over the last 10 years there have been EROCIPS is a strong partnership with contingency plans, where stipulated by • Development of the OILMAP spill • Completed aerial photographic record
Progress so far
governments and other organi¬sations a number of major oil spills in the Atlantic all project participants having first hand member nations’ own legislation. modelling system to allow a higher of the Northern Irish coastline
involved in spatial planning for the Area. experience of dealing with major coastline degree of accuracy when using the spill • Produced a Northern Irish Coastal GIS
sustainable use of coastal assets. Not only Remember these catastrophic pollution cleanup. Sixteen Partners from prediction model to plan for a response • Establishing an environmental baseline
does this kind of pollution threaten the incidents? six different countries are working With one year of the project left to go, strategy in respect of the coast
delicate natural environment, but the • Sea Empress at Milford Haven in 1996, together in a co-ordinated approach to the UK Partners are already reaping some • Environment and Heritage Service, • Purchased an oil spill model
indirect consequences of a pollution which released 72,000 tonnes of crude protecting our coastline through of the benefits of EROCIPS. In addition to Northern Ireland • Reviewing a number of the existing
incident can be extremely damaging oil and 480 tonnes of fuel oil affecting combining experience, technology, the Project-wide outputs, the UK • Completed a risk assessment of the booming plans and drawing up some
socially and economically, with loss of 200km of coastline. equipment, resources, and agreeing a Partners’ shoreline response to coastal entire Northern Irish coastline and new ones
tourism confidence and income from • Erika off Brittany in 1999, where 19,000 methodology. This will strengthen Partner pollution has been strengthened through identified high risk areas in relation to • Purchased a current meter to help
fisheries under¬mining the economy of tonnes of oil were spilled affecting countries’ responses to potentially reviews of existing booming plans and pollution from shipping validate existing booming plans
the polluted coast. 400km of coastline. polluting shipping incidents, and will drawing up plans where they did not Pembrokeshire County Council
The aim of the EROCIPS project is the • Prestige in 2002 five miles off the coast provide a framework which can be used • Improved dissemination to local key
‘development of common, trans-national of Galicia which broke in two spilling by other countries around the world to stakeholders of pre-incident planning
methodologies, tools and techniques for 60,000 tonnes of oil. improve their shoreline response to • Undertaking a risk assessment of the
dealing with the shoreline response to pollution from shipping. Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion
coastal pollution incidents, transferable Although it is important that action is Within the UK the core Partners are coastline to identify high risk areas in
across the EU, in order to support the taken to protect our coasts and coastal Devon, Dorset and Pembrokeshire County relation to pollution from shipping
sustainability of the sea transport system’. communities from these threats, it is not Councils, Devon Wildlife Trust and the • Reviewing a number of our existing
possible (or desirable) to halt the shipping Environment and Heritage Service, booming plans and drawing up some
activity past our coastlines. We have to Northern Ireland. There are also local new ones
Work on the EROCIPS transnational ensure that this important industry partnerships includ¬ing a number of • Purchased a command and control
partnership project is well underway. The continues. Recent experiences of coastal Borough and Dis¬trict Authorities, system
Project, aims to help countries in the incidents have convinced authorities that the Unitary Authorities of Bournemouth, • Testing wifi infrastructure for availability
Atlantic Area develop a common they need to be more prepared and ready Poole, Torbay and Ceredigion in Wales, of communication links within
under¬standing of, and approach to, the to launch a robust response in the event counterparts from the Environment Pembrokeshire for incident information
Geoff Gubb Tel: 0151 236 4141
threat of coastal pollution from shipping, of an incident. Due to the fact that coastal Agency and Natural England, as well as transfer
is now entering its third and final year. pollution is not restricted by national and Bournemouth University, the
political boundaries, it was agreed that a Pembrokeshire Coast National Park
collaborative approach to coastal Authority and the Countryside Council for If you want to know more about the
Shipping is normally a safe and pol¬lution would best serve national Wales. There are four French Partners EROCIPS Project, there is an informative
efficient way of transporting goods around economic and environmental interests. represent¬ing the coastal Regional website available to the public at
www.the-eps.org Page 28 www.the-eps.org Page 29
the world. It forms a vital part of the world The EROCIPS Project has been developed Governments of Aquitaine, Pays de la www.erocips.org
trade industry. However, groundings, to address these challenges. Loire, Poitou-Charentes and Bretagne.
Trainees Get Hands-on Experience in Mass
Grave and Temporary Mortuary Simulation
FIRE SERVICE LINK UP
BY FIRE HIT SCHOOL
an estimated building loss of £1m. However the school was back up and
running on the following Monday with just one school day lost. The social and
economic costs were greatly reduced as there was minimal disruption to
pupils and parents. The authority was not left with the task of finding an
alternative venue had the school been closed for longer.
team through each stage of the process as sharing of best practice amongst forensic Chris Bromley, Area Commander for South Staffordshire Fire and Rescue
trainees gain hands-on experience in the practitioners, disaster recovery teams and Service, said: “There is no doubt that the partnership between ISS Damage
practical techniques. other key stakeholders such as industry, Control and firefighters working at the scene succeeded in the recovery of
Separate workshops have been devised governments and humanitarian vital and expensive IT equipment as well as the children's personal
to reflect the two main parts of such organisations. From the 14th to 16th possessions.
investigations: December 2006 Inforce will host its third Primary school pupils sitting vital SATS exams were back at “I have personally worked with the ISS Damage Control teams on other
• Locating and recovering evidence and Annual International Forensic Conference their desks just operational incidents and what they are able to achieve in terms of damage
human remains from the scene of crime and Exhibition at Bournemouth University. three days after fire swept through classrooms, due to a limitation and recovery is remarkable.”
and mass grave site. Key themes will include; Advances in pioneering link-up between Staffordshire Fire and Rescue Landywood Primary School Head Teacher, Alan Stockley, said: “I cannot
Forensic Science (including a key session on Service and ISS Damage Control. speak too highly of the service provided by the fire service and ISS Damage
• Analysis of human remains and evidence Disaster Victim Identification), Advances in More than £1m of damage was caused by the fire at Control.
in the temporary mortuary. Forensic Imaging and Technology, Pathology Landywood Primary School, in Great Wyrley, which destroyed Most people probably don’t know ISS Damage Control exists until
Recovering human remains and forensic and Ethics and The Rwandan Genocide. one school block and left thousands of pounds of computer something like this happens and I have to say I was extremely impressed with
evidence from mass war graves or plane • In association with the Dorset Police, we This year we are fortunate to have several equipment at risk. their service.
crashes are a few of the activities run by the have also simulated an air-crash site to prominent keynote speakers such as Helena ISS Damage Control specialists were on site within 45 They very quickly set about clearing equipment from the school and took it
Inforce Foundation, a UK based registered provide a training scenario for disaster Ras, Chairperson, Interpol Steering minutes of the call from the fire service and began the away to be restored. It was astonishing how much was recovered and how
charity. response team training. Committee on Disaster Victim Identification, immediate recovery and restoration of laptop computers, which quickly it came back to us.
'Building upon our successful mass Mark Harrison, National Police Search contained critical information for the continued running of the The savings they made in respect of computers and data recovery was
grave and temporary mortuary simulation Advisor, UK National Crime and Operations school and important SATS information. particularly impressive.
exercises for a group of Iraqi scientists and Faculty, and Professor Margaret Cox, CEO of The fast response was possible thanks to a ground-breaking I still have a picture in my mind of a firefighter holding a laptop that was
police personnel (2005), the Inforce Inforce. More information about the scheme under which the fire service calls out ISS Damage badly melted with water dripping out of it. I would have thrown it away but ISS
Foundation has been running training conference and Inforce’s work can be found Control’s disaster recovery teams as soon as a serious incident took it and restored 85 per cent of the information. It was like magic.”
programmes in mass grave excavation and at www.inforce.org.uk or you can contact is reported. Mr Stockley added: “Being the victim of a fire like this is an horrendous
mass fatality incident mortuary operations Mark Viner at: firstname.lastname@example.org or by The service is designed to help businesses restore buildings experience but the trauma was considerably softened by the approach of the
for professionals and students. In ph: (01202) 961346 and equipment and be up and running in the shortest possible fire service and ISS Damage Control.
conjunction with the Dorset Police, Inforce time. ISS Damage Control provides initial free ‘first aid’ to “Throughout the recovery period ISS kept us fully informed.
has also simulated an air crash site and set victims of fire and flood and, if acceptable to loss adjusters and Communication is so important for the victim and they ensured that we knew
up of a temporary mortuary to help increase The Inforce Foundation is supported by insurers, completes the recovery and restoration work. exactly what was happening all the way through the procedure.”
the UK's capacity to deal with disaster victim donors including Bournemouth University Staffordshire Fire Service was the first to pilot the scheme,
recovery and identification in a world prone and is an International Forensic Centre of which has since been adopted by 10 further Fire and Rescue
to increasing numbers of transportation Excellence for the investigation of genocide, Services.
accidents, natural disasters and terrorist crimes against humanity and war-crimes Fire broke out on a Thursday afternoon at Landywood
attacks 'says Margaret Cox, Chief Executive and mass disaster recovery. A key strength Primary School and a team of eight technicians from ISS
and founder of Inforce. of the organisation is that it is independent, Damage Control took over the recovery of computers and video
Mass Grave Training History
She continues, ‘the trainees will gain impartial and international in terms of their imaging equipment snatched to safety by fire officers.
hands on experience of all the elements of Scientific Advisory Board Members, Staffordshire Fire and Rescue had worked closely with the
large-scale forensic investigations of this Supporters and Patrons. Together Inforce school to develop a fire safety programme for schools in the
type, equipping them with the necessary In August 2004, the Foreign and comprises a wealth of multidisciplinary county. As a result the 185 pupils and their teachers knew
skills required by investigating teams for Commonwealth Office commissioned scientific and legal expertise and experience exactly what to do when fire was spotted coming from a
mass fatality incidents, war crimes and Inforce to design and deliver a training gained from post-conflict regions in almost container used by roofing contractors.
human rights investigations.’ programme for Iraq that would provide a all continents over the last ten years and It quickly spread to the roof but the school was evacuated
This mass grave simulation, the first of its multidisciplinary group of Iraqi scientists, more. calmly and safely within just one and a half minutes of the
kind to be offered to the wider scientific archaeologists and police officers with the The establishment of Inforce was inspired sighting. The block in which the fire took hold later had to be
community will use state-of-the art necessary skills to undertake the location, by its Founder and CEO, Professor Margaret demolished.
simulation techniques to faithfully reproduce excavation, recovery and analysis of human Cox’s experience working in Kosovo in 1999 Colin Kite, Incident Response Manager for ISS Damage
all phases of the investigation from site remains and other evidence from mass (Margaret was, until recently also Head of Control, said: “The school was going through SATS
location to recovery and analysis of evidence graves in Iraq. Forensic and Bioarchaeological Sciences at assessments, and laptops within the fire areas had critical
and human remains and presentation of Following this first six month long Bournemouth University). The need for the information on them.
findings. Each workshop begins with a programme, a further two programmes work is constantly reinforced by experience “ISS Damage Control restoration technicians started work
series of seminars outlining the overall were provided, one training 12 of the first since that time working in countries such as the same evening, boarding up and arranging overnight
context, the investigative process, planning group of trainees to be trainers and the Iraq (2003-4), Rwanda (2002 - ongoing) and security. Major work began the following day with the removal
and risk assessment, methods and second to train criminal investigators in Cyprus (2004-5). Inforce was formally of debris, extinguishing water and affected carpeting. Contents
techniques of analysis, standards of practice, forensic science awareness. Since the established in 2001 and has slowly but surely from the severely damaged area were relocated to a secure
documentation, and chain of custody. successful delivery of these training grown in size, influence and reputation holding area within the school building.
Following this introduction, expert programmes, one of the trainees has now reflecting the establishment of a solid and “The critical information on the laptops was downloaded
supervisors with extensive experience of successfully delivered two four-week influential base of support and expertise, from the damaged hard drives ready to be uploaded onto a
atrocity crime investigations in the former training programmes in Forensic Pathology and the successful completion of funded replacement unit. The IT suite equipment was decontaminated
Yugoslavia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Congo, Sierra and Medicine for twenty five Iraqi colleagues. programmes. and installed within a replacement room within the main school
Leone as well as mass fatality Incidents They are now working as District surgeons block. The main block of the school required a full
such as the Asian tsunami, London in the five districts of northern Iraq. decontamination to remove all smoke residues and odours’
www.the-eps.org Page 30 www.the-eps.org Page 31
bombings, Selby rail crash, etc will guide the As a charity Inforce seeks to facilitate the The fire occurred on a Thursday and was pretty severe, with
Birmingham Airport Chelmsford
ordination. Whilst the emergency may be representation. This often results in a reliance
centred upon an airport the challenges on airport staff assuming roles varying from
presented can only be met with due welfare support to acting as runners.
consideration to and the support of the Although this article has centred on the issues
‘blue light’ organisations, local authority to be faced in the event of an aeronautical
emergency planning organisations and, of emergency, a contingency response can be required
course, respect of any legal requirements. in any number of situations. In broad terms, the
Firstly, Communications, something challenges are similar in any emergency situation that
familiar to everyone. The speed at which affects or involves the public and requires a rapid
the ‘news media’ moves today, whilst only appropriate response. The August 2006 security event
of secondary consideration in the face of required the application of contingency procedures to
an emergency, is probably one of the ensure that enhanced Department for Transport (DfT)
biggest challenges to the successful requirements were applied without delay. The heightened
management of an emergency situation. security measures required increased search and screening The Civil Contingencies Act 2004 requires all
The life saving response is paramount in procedures, and the prohibition of some articles of cabin ‘category 1’ responders, which now includes Local
any emergency situation but the public baggage; all of which were introduced with immediate effect. Authorities, to have resilient arrangements in
perception of how an incident has been (is Tactical evaluation of the enhanced requirements was carried place to ensure that their emergency planning
being) dealt with may be, and can be, out and, in this case, activation of the co-ordination centre was function is always in a position to respond in the
blown out of all proportion by a media deemed unnecessary. The key issue, once air traffic had event of a major disaster.
keen to respond to the current public started to flow again, was the need for the additional resources Chelmsford Borough Council’s Emergency
demand for up to the minute reporting. It required to carry out increased assessments and minimise the Planning Unit have attempted to achieve this by
The end of the Second World War saw equipment designed to meet the is vital, therefore, to ensure that only adverse impact of these security measures. refurbishing their Emergency Control room
the ‘real’ birth and development of particular issues faced in an aircraft current, verifiable information is provided Once established the co-ordination of these additional which was originally built in the basement of
commercial civil aviation into the means incident are well identified. when dealing with an exceptional resources and the communication of the revised requirements to the Councils’ offices to nuclear protected
of mass transport that it has become Although a highly visible aspect of the situation. This is not easy. The confident customers and partner organisations ensured that the airport standards in the early 1980s. This has now
today. Safety was, is, and will continue to response mechanism, the RFFS is only a and authoritative delivery of regular continued to operate with minimum disruption and delays. been updated to provide a 10-position call
be an essential part of the industry thus part of an aerodrome’s emergency updates has proven invaluable in the past. centre with wireless telephone headsets and
making air travel the success that it is response. A further essential element of If current, accurate information is not computer terminals linked to Atlas AIMS
today and still the safest means of the licensing requirement is to have a provided there is a danger that unverified specialist incident management software. To
transport. comprehensive plan to deal with varying conjecture will promote a view of the achieve maximum resilience, a dedicated
The founding of the International Civil degrees of emergency, from that which situation which, although inaccurate and server specifically for emergency planning has
Aviation Organisation (ICAO) ensured that maybe seen to pose a threat (e.g. fuel misconceived, may prove difficult to been installed within the protected
international standards of safety could be spill), to that which is an aircraft accident. correct. This in turn may distract from accommodation of the control room; the centre
established worldwide. These standards The key in any plan is preparation. The the essential process of dealing with the also has its own UPS and generator backup
are both defined and refined in the UK by terms of their licence requires emergency incident itself. power supply.
the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and part aerodromes to carry out emergency Second Co-ordination. Despite the fact In addition, the EPU have designed a Mobile
of this structure has been the response exercises at least every two that most aeronautical incidents involve Control Vehicle based on a high-roof lwb Ford
establishment of the minimum standards years, alternating between day and night airlines or other agencies, airports Transit van which has been fitted out to a high
necessary for an aerodrome or airport to situations. During the intervening period understandably become the focal point for specification by Ford SVP of Earls Colne in Essex,
operate for public use. An intrinsic a range of other exercises may be both relatives and friends as well as the to maximise the use of space within the vehicle
element of the requirements to gain an conducted. These can be focused on media. There are a huge number of and provide comprehensive radio, telephone and
Aerodrome Licence is the establishment specific elements ranging from testing people required to ensure a suitable and computer links, plus hot & chilled drinking water,
of an “emergency plan”, i.e. the foresight alert and communications systems to balanced response to an emergency cooker, air conditioning etc., to duplicate almost all
and ability to recognise and deal with any dealing with welfare issues, and may be incident. Every aspect, from the essential of the facilities available within the Emergency
aeronautical emergencies that may arise. physical or table-top exercises as deemed life maintaining care of survivors, through Control Room itself.
A key and explicit element of that appropriate. to the basic provisions of food and rest for The vehicle is designed for multipurpose use so it
emergency plan is the provision of a In order to impose both structure and those supplying care and support in the may be deployed as a Local Authority Control Vehicle
Rescue and Fire-Fighting Service (RFFS) organisation to their response most field has to be considered. alongside the Police Control vehicles at the scene of an
commensurate with the scale and nature aerodromes establish an Emergency Third Resource. The management incident, as a Communications vehicle at an Emergency
of the aviation operations carried out at Planning Committee that encompasses structures within airports tend to be Rest Centre, or to provide a Public Information Point near
that particular aerodrome. This is seen all the emergency services, local comparatively small when considered an incident.
by the provision of a Fire Service with authorities, airlines and handling agents. against the scale and volume of Since Chelmsford Borough Council’s EP unit took
specialist equipment designed to provide Each committee’s constitution is designed operations. By their nature airports are a delivery of the vehicle a number of other Authorities have
an initial, or phase one, response to any to produce a co-operative framework plan focal point, often accommodating airlines shown keen interest in its design and are considering
life threatening aircraft incident/accident that provides guidance to all those likely who have few direct representatives following Chelmsford’ s lead. In response to demand the
that may occur during that aerodrome’s to be involved in the event of an based on site and, in some cases, no EPU have put together a pack with details of the design and
hours of operation. emergency at (or near) the aerodrome. direct representatives at all; the airline the facilities included on the vehicle. For further
This element is now a well established So, what are the challenges faced by having elected to appoint a handling agent information contact Kelvin Ward, Principal Emergency
part of an aerodrome’s contingency airports in their emergency response to act on their behalf. In these cases the Planning Officer, Chelmsford Borough Council.
response to any emergency that may structures? These probably fall into three airport itself is relied upon to fill the Kelvin.email@example.com 01245 606757
www.the-eps.org Page 32 www.the-eps.org Page 33
occur and the specialist training and areas; resource, communication and co- vacuum left by the lack of airline
Why risk it –
planning on your
well developed within the field of crisis management (Turner, 1976; then the links between the two areas become quite clear. Some organisations
Turner and Pidgeon, 1997; Schrivastava, 1987; Smith, 1990; Pauchant have re-labelled emergency planning officers as emergency planning and importance of this type of planning and organises seminars for companies in the
and Douville, 1993; Perrow, 1997). business continuity managers. This practise may not be a problem, provided Greater Peterborough area.
Those outside the emergency planning and business continuity the individuals concerned receive the appropriate training and support so that With over 15,000 students of all ages studying further and higher education
professions have also recognised the link between business continuity the subtle differences between the two disciplines may be recognised and courses, and around 1,000 members of staff, the College has had a disaster recovery
and emergency planning. The Greater London Assembly Review of the addressed. plan in place for many years and rehearses annually.
response to the events of the 7th of July 2005, were: Business continuity is a relatively recent term, but the skill sets that The College’s Business Training Services Team, who organise the seminars,
To review and report with recommendations on lessons to be underpin the discipline are the same as emergency planning. It is therefore include key themes such as the role of the emergency planning manager, media
learned from the response to the 7th July bomb attacks: axiomatic that there is a wealth of knowledge and experience in the implications for dealing with a disaster, the use of IT to enhance emergency
• How information, advice and support was communicated emergency planning world that business continuity managers may utilise. It information delivery, and business continuity and crisis management planning. The
to Londoners, may be suggested that the real challenge lies in breaking down the barriers next seminar will also include planning for pandemic flu.
• How business continuity arrangements worked in practise, between the two disciplines and opening up greater dialogue between the A team of specialists is engaged in the delivery of the programme, which
• The role of Broadcasting Services in communication, professional bodies that support the practitioners in these respective fields. includes Stuart Hamilton, Peterborough City Council’s Emergency Planning &
• The use of Information and communication technology to Some work has started on this area, but progress has been slow and there is Business Continuity Manager, as one of the keynote speakers.
aid the response process little to show from the efforts. However, the Emergency Planning College at Stuart said “Disaster planning is just as important to small businesses as it is to
Easingwold has risen to this challenge and offers courses in both emergency large international companies, in fact it could be more important. Smaller
If the link is indeed accepted and the need for some, if not all, planning and business continuity and this approach has also been adopted by businesses are unlikely to have the resources to recover from a disaster unless they
emergency planners to understand business continuity is Coventry University. have adequate plans in place. These are not elaborate plans but details of suppliers,
acknowledged, then an article about business continuity appearing in Unfortunately, these two examples are still the exception, rather than the insurers, staff phone numbers, landlord, bank accounts etc that are held together in
Blueprint may soon become something less of an anathema and rule, and only experience over time will be the judge of whether or not the one place and kept away from your normal place of business. Also think about a
more of an accepted norm. In return it could be desirable for situation improves. ‘what if’ situation and consider what would you do. For instance your premises are
emergency planning professionals to have more articles published in inside a police cordon and will not be available for several days or weeks or your
Kev Brear MBCI MEPS
the business continuity media. premises become damaged through fire, flood or other reasons. What would you
For further information
Having established the link between the two disciplines, the next do? Can you contact your staff? Can you contact your suppliers/customers? This
T.020 7418 3664
issue arises, as how to utilise the learning from each subject and apply could mean the difference between recovery and failure.
it to the aligned discipline. (1) Elliott, D. Swartz, E. Herbane, B. (2004) Business Continuity “Peterborough City Council is pleased to support seminars such as these being
19a Goodge Street
London W1T 2PH
An example of this employment of cross discipline knowledge Management, a crisis management approach, Abingdon: Routledge organised by Peterborough Regional College as we feel it is important for local
Tel +44 (0)207 193 60 62
could be one that arose from the lessons identified from the 7th of (2) Barnes, R. Hamwee, S. McCartney, J. Hulme-Cross, P. Johnson, D business, whatever their size, to be prepared in the event of a major incident to
July, in relation to passing information to staff members. In the (June 2006) Report of the 7 July Review Committee, London: Greater London enable them to carry on their business successfully.”
incident review report (3), compiled by the Tripartite Authorities Assembly The College also draws on internal teaching resources by using its media
(Financial Services Authority, HM Treasury and Bank of England) after (3) Financial Services Authority, Bank of England, H.M. Treasury Incident lecturers to give attendees a taste of what they could expect from local or national
the 7th of July, it was reported that some financial sector staff Review – July 7 2005, London: The Tripartite journalists in a real situation, and how to deal with it in a positive way.
members stated that they could not access up to date information and Paul Williams, Head of Asset Management at Axiom Housing Association Ltd.,
did not receive adequate information, providing clear and concise said, “We are all inundated with seminars and training courses eating into our very
instructions. This situation was most apparent in the cases of staff limited time. Anyone who is involved with disaster planning will benefit enormously
... Our responsibility
members who were out of the office visiting clients or engaged on from this seminar. I have found it extremely valuable in developing our own disaster
other bank business during that day. This issue was presented to the planning strategy, to the extent that we have entered into a collaborative agreement
Lloyds TSB Financial Markets Business Continuity team for with another local housing association, and with the assistance of Stuart Hamilton
Whatever your industry;
COMAH, MACR, Nuclear, Emergency Service,
consideration and it was decided that the approach to this issue taken have produced a joint disaster planning strategy which works with the local
Finance, Local Government, etc...
by the emergency services should be studied, to identify a possible authority.”
RapidReach ENS addresses the communication needs of the
solution from their practices. It was found that the City of London There are three phases in an emergency; preparation, response and recovery;
Kev Brear from Lloyds TSB Financial Markets, part of Corporate Police employs an electronic system that provides real-time the objective being to restore normal operation as soon as possible in an effective,
This LOW COST* high speed web based notification service
Markets, looks at the relationship between emergency planning and information to its community through the use of pagers, SMS and e- efficient and professional manner.
automatically alerts members of the public, key personnel or teams
business continuity and suggests that the two disciplines are so aligned mail messages and that the system was well documented as being Preparation gives you the opportunity to assess hazards that could affect your
by Phone, Mobile, SMS Text, Pager, Fax and Email, delivering
that the skill sets to perform each function may be interchangeable. both effective and resilient. organisation and to think through problems and solutions in advance. From there
incident-specific information and/or potentially life-saving instruction to
them. All calls and recipient responses are logged in "real-time" to
The membership of the Emergency Planning Society is a diverse group Having identified the potential solution, a study was made of the you can draw up and maintain a plan that minimises risk, provides clear procedures
provide a historical audit trail plus comprehensive reporting for post
of individuals drawn from all spheres of society and from a variety of commercial providers of such a service, and after much deliberation it and clarifies your team’s responsibilities.
event analysis. No additional hardware or telephone lines are required!
industries and professions. As a consequence it may be safely assumed was decided that Lloyds TSB Financial Markets, would invest in the Risk management is an integral part of business planning cycles but First response mobilises key staff immediately to co-ordinate the disaster plan by
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that most readers have heard about Business Continuity and have noticed Rapid Reach system (www. rapidreach.eu) as the system provided the many companies don’t yet have a business continuity or disaster recovery transmitting a codeword and usually involves the emergency services. Elements of
the steady rise in its profile. best fit with some applications already embedded in the IT plan in place. your management team’s role will include site, personnel and visitor safety and
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The Civil Contingencies Act 2005 placed a requirement on all category infrastructure at Lloyds TSB. The Rapid Reach system is now Disaster is an emotive word but any event or situation which threatens security, evacuation procedures, the dissemination of information, where effective
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one responders to have business continuity plans in place for their own embedded within Financial Markets and the system has now been serious damage to people, property, equipment and data has a huge impact communication and teamwork is of the utmost importance, and dealing with media
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organisations and then placed a further requirement for local authorities successfully tested. That testing revealed that a cascade alert on lives and businesses and it is imperative that companies and organisations interest.
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to promote the value of business continuity to their communities. Later message to all Financial Markets staff members could be delivered in are best prepared to respond to any emergency. Recovery and the time this takes is dependent on how effective your planning is.
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this year the British Standards Institute will publish BS 25999 – 1, which a fraction of the time, compared with the previous system of Thought has to be given to what could go wrong and to plan in detail what It is essential to test your plan once it is devised and to hold regular rehearsals so
will form the basis of the first UK standard in business continuity. Like it or employing a manual cascade. The Rapid Reach system also removed the company-wide response needs to be, given the nature of your business. It that your response and reaction times can be evaluated and fine tuned.
not, business continuity is here to stay. the labour intensive burden of the previous manual methods. could be fire, explosion, chemical release, and technology failure, extreme Business Training Executive, Sharon Harding, said “At some point, it’s likely that
It has been suggested by a number of other writers that business Accounting for staff members had also been identified as an issue in weather conditions, which are on the increase, widespread food poisoning, the plans you are making now for maintaining continuous business operations will
continuity and emergency planning require similar core skills and that the Tripartite incident review into the 7th of July response. The Lloyds Avian/Pandemic Flu, or terrorist action. be put to the test.
therefore a practitioner from either discipline could cope with the TSB Financial Markets business continuity team identified that the If at all possible your incident management team will need to try to “Whatever the reason for the disaster, whether man-made or natural, you will
business demands of the other.. In their book Business Continuity Rapid Reach system also had inbuilt functionality that could be used to maintain normal services at an appropriate level during the emergency, have to prove to your customers, business partners and the financial markets that
Management, a crisis management approach (1) Elliott, Schwarz and resolve this issue and provide both real time statistics and records of whilst safeguarding people’s lives. you had made suitable preparation.
Herbane acknowledge the links between business continuity and responses from identifiable individuals, when required. Once again an So how do you go about this? Some universities offer degrees in disaster “Long after an incident has ended, the way in which you responded to it will stick
emergency planning and they state that the… issue arising from crisis management responses had been used as the and emergency planning and there are private training providers, but your in the minds of your existing customers, your future customers, and, if your
…broadening of business continuity reflects the underlying assumption foundation for resolving a business continuity problem. local college may also be an option. continuity plans were not effective, the people who used to be your customers.”
that crisis incidence or business interruptions are systemic in nature, Having shown that knowledge can be used from emergency Peterborough Regional College in Cambridgeshire understands the Contact: The Publicity Officer, 01733 762380, at Park Crescent, Peterborough PE1 4DZ
www.the-eps.org Page 34 www.the-eps.org Page 35
comprising of both social and technical elements. Such a view has been planning experiences and applied to business continuity problems