PHINEAS P. QUIMBY: THE MODERN WORLD’S FIRST TRUE PSYCHOANALYST

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PHINEAS P. QUIMBY: THE MODERN WORLD’S FIRST TRUE PSYCHOANALYST

  1. 1. PHINEAS P. QUIMBY The Modern World's First True Psychoanalyst Presented by Dr Ian Ellis-Jones Wellness Instructor and Practitioner Legal Practitioner, Educator and Trainer Minister of Religion, Consultant and Author
  2. 2. The basis and technique of all metaphysical healing and spiritual mind treatment … „You shall decree a thing, and it shall be established for you.‟ Job 22:28. „He sent his word and healed them, and delivered them from their destructions.‟ Psalms 107:20. „It is true unto me according to the Word of God.‟ Psalms 119:25. „Death and life are in the power of the tongue.‟ Proverbs 18:21. „He calls those things which are not as though they were.‟ Romans 4:17.
  3. 3. William James on New Thought … … the American people‟s ‘only decidedly original contribution to the systematic philosophy of life.’ – Professor William James.
  4. 4. William James on New Thought … 'the religion of healthy- mindedness' - William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience.
  5. 5. William James on New Thought The greatest discovery of my generation is that man can alter his life simply by altering his attitude of mind. - William James.
  6. 6. New Thought … New Thought made its appearance in New England USA about 1800- 1825 in the form of a revival of Neoplatonism
  7. 7. New Thought … Neoplatonism  a religious philosophy  a form of idealistic monism …  everything exists in or to minds ... or as 'Mind'  all reality is of the same substance---mental  the physical world is produced by the mind  we experience the physical world through the medium of ideas … and not directly
  8. 8. New Thought … „The one most important realization of all is that there is One Mind of God, and that the human mind conscious and subjective, is the gift of Divine Mind for use in a personal way. In truth the individual mind is like a wave on the surface of the ocean, one of millions of similar waves. Each wave is an individual in itself, but one with every other wave in the deeps of the ocean. The water of the wave is the water of the ocean. … … cont’d
  9. 9. New Thought … … cont’d „The creative power of mind in man is the same as the creative power of God. He projects universes in Divine imagining; we project our limited creativeness in the tiny self and our civilization, but we use the same power.‟ - Bro Mandus (1907 - 1988) Crusader, October 1960. Bro Mandus was the founder of the World Healing Crusade.
  10. 10. New Thought … Neoplatonism … the Universe is the Infinite Utterance of one of an infinite number of Infinite Thoughts, which cannot but emanate from an Infinite and Thinking Source.
  11. 11. New Thought …  Neoplatonism the primeval Source of Being is the One and the Infinite … the source of all life absolute causality the only real existence.
  12. 12. New Thought … Neoplatonism the high origin of the human soul … its departure from its first estate the way by which the soul may again return to the Eternal and Supreme … the Infinite One.
  13. 13. New Thought … For this is the dream divine that has dawned: Man, as a part Of the unified Whole, A throb in the heart Of the Cosmical Soul, In the All-Life, shall life beyond. - from In the Gardens of God (1904) by James Arthur Edgerton.
  14. 14. New Thought … Numerous people … despite their individual differences … were:  in rebellion against the then current Calvinism …  which had for so long ruled New England religious thought  in reaction against the religious skepticism of the previous century (the 'American Enlightenment')  interested in Eastern religions, mysticism and ‘alternative healing’
  15. 15. New Thought … A new interest in esoteric Christology also emerged in the 19th century …
  16. 16. New Thought … ‘Spirits in rebellion’ … the spokespeople of this movement ‘were and are actually in rebellion, even though they regard themselves as the true proponents of original Christianity’ (Martin A Larson, New Thought Religion)
  17. 17. New Thought … The name New Thought – aka Metaphysics and the Metaphysical Movement – was taken in the 1890s … generally replacing such names as „Mind Cure‟ and „Mental Science‟.
  18. 18. New Thought … „New Thought … is not so much an organization as it is a point of view.‟ – C S Braden, These Also Believe (New York: Macmillan, 1949), p 143.
  19. 19. New Thought … New Thought is essentially a diverse and non-creedal mind-healing spiritual and metaphysical philosophy and movement … as well as a way of life …
  20. 20. Ralph Waldo Emerson … Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) …  Unitarian minister  Transcendentalist  philosopher, poet, essayist  the 'Sage of Concord'  the spiritual father of New Thought
  21. 21. Ralph Waldo Emerson … 'God is one and omnipotent. Man is the noblest work of God.' 'As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. …' - Ralph Waldo Emerson.
  22. 22. Ralph Waldo Emerson  '… the thought is always prior to the fact.'  'A man is what he thinks about all day long.'  'They conquer who believe they can.'  „Once you make a decision, the universe conspires to make it happen.‟  „Do the thing you fear and the death of fear is certain.‟ - Ralph Waldo Emerson.
  23. 23. Theodore Parker Theodore Parker (1810-1860) …  American Unitarian minister and Transcendentalist  great social reformer and abolitionist …  his words and sayings had a great influence on Abraham Lincoln and Martin Luther King Jr  referred to God as ‘our Father and our Mother’ and in terms such as …  ‘Perpetual Presence’ and ‘Infinite Presence who lives and moves and has Your being in all that is above us and around us and underneath us … [and] it is in You that we also live and move and have our being …’
  24. 24. Phineas P. Quimby „Phineas P. Quimby was one of those adventurers, more common perhaps in the New World than the Old, who navigating the sea of knowledge without the charts and compass of education, end always by discovering to their own intimate satisfaction results which have eluded the wisdom of the ages.‟ – H. A. Fischer.
  25. 25. Phineas P. Quimby  Phineas P Quimby (1802-1866) …  'Father of New Thought'
  26. 26. The first true psychoanalyst Phineas P. Quimby ‘the modern world's first true psychoanalyst’ (Dr Ervin Seale)
  27. 27. Alternative healing Quimby's system of ‘alternative’ healing … a metaphysical form of insight-oriented psychotherapy (together with autosuggestion) …
  28. 28. The new psychology … the beginning of the ‘New Psychology’ and ‘Mental Therapeutics’ …
  29. 29. Psychosomatic medicine In addition, Quimby paved the way for … the whole field of modern psychosomatic medicine …
  30. 30. Depth psychology New Thought understood the nature of functional illness long before depth psychology.
  31. 31. ‘Park’ Phineas P Quimby …  Park to his friends and neighbours  born Feb. 16, 1802, in Lebanon, New Hampshire  Maine clockmaker and inventor …  little formal education  father, blacksmith
  32. 32. A healer in waiting …  Quimby developed tuberculosis …  became disillusioned with the method of treatment prescribed by his physician  gave up hope of recovery.  A friend suggested that he take up a physical outdoor activity, such as horseback riding, to improve his condition.  His severe physical ailments prevented him from trying this suggestion …  He tried the next best thing and embarked on carriage trips.  This produced remarkable results.  His recovery prompted much thought on the matter.
  33. 33. The travelling hypnotist … Phineas P Quimby  attended a performance by travelling French physician and mesmerist (Dr Robert Collyer), in Belfast ME, 1838  then decided that he too had a talent for inducing trances …  began travelling with his partner and prop, Lucius Burkmar …  who would obediently fall into a stupor during performances …
  34. 34. The travelling hypnotist  Under Quimby's control, Lucius Burkmar was supposedly able to …  traverse time and space  read minds  diagnose illnesses among members of the audience  prescribe herbal cures. Quimby saw the mental and placebo effect of the mind over the body … when medicines prescribed by Burkmar, with no physical value, cured patients of diseases.
  35. 35. Quimby the mesmerist …  Between 1843 and 1857 Quimby worked as a mesmerist … travelling with Lucius Burkmar through the small towns of Maine and New Brunswick … lecturing giving exhibitions of mesmerism … incl. as a sideshow attraction at county fairs inspired by the French mesmerist Charles Poyen („Professor of Animal Magnetism‟) … who brought mesmerism to the USA
  36. 36. ‘Life energy’  Franz Mesmer (1734-1815) attributed the effects produced to a supposed 'life energy' or 'fluid' or ethereal medium … believed to reside in the bodies of animate beings (i.e., those who breathe)  he chose the word animal to distinguish his supposed vital magnetic force from those referred to at that time as „mineral magnetism‟, „cosmic magnetism‟ and „planetary magnetism‟.
  37. 37. The power of creation „Lucius [Burkmar] became the foil or mirror through which Quimby could observe the workings of mind-- -his own and that of others. He saw his ideas take form and concluded that the individual had the power of creation. Therefore oneself is the cause of one‟s experience. There is no god to punish one. One‟s reward and one‟s punishment are in oneself.‟ – Dr Ervin Seale, Mingling Minds: Phineas Parkhurst Quimby’s Science of Health and Happiness (DeVorss, 1986) pp 11-12.
  38. 38. Performing miracles … „Quimby has been doing miracles. He has cured a man that couldn‟t walk nor speak.‟ – Lucius Burkmar, writing in his daily journal.
  39. 39. Performing miracles … „Quimby, the great American healer, knew that when he thought of his patient he was in command of the other person‟s mind and body; then he contemplated his divine perfection. He duplicated many of the miracles recorded in the Bible. Quimby‟s inner conviction that what was true of God was true of his patient was the word that he sent. He sent his word and healed them [Ps 107:20].‟ – Dr Joseph Murphy, How to Use Your Healing Power.
  40. 40. Opposition  Early in his career Quimby was occasionally made to feel unwelcome or even threatened with mobs as many observers felt that his work bore too stark a resemblance to witchcraft.
  41. 41. Quimby the mesmerist … „One of my first objects was to ascertain what mind is; for if the mind dies with the body, then all the fuss and trouble of living and using our minds to be of importance, hereafter, would be of no value. So I made it my first object of inquiry. … When I first commenced operating on the mind I put persons into a mesmeric sleep … At last I found I could make my subjects read my thoughts and here was a new discovery.‟
  42. 42. Quimby the mesmerist … „My first experiment was made before I knew what I wanted to prove. For when I put my subject [Lucius Burkmar] to sleep, after trying a few experiments, I thought I would leave; instantly the boy jumped up, went to the table and brought my hat. This was unexpected, but it was just what I wanted to know, if he could read my thoughts. … cont’d
  43. 43. Quimby the mesmerist „… At first I was all aback, but after recovering myself, I said to myself, If you will replace my hat on the table, I will stop a little longer. Without saying a word, he sprang up, took my hat and returned it to the table. Here was another fact I had gotten, not an opinion but a truth.‟
  44. 44. Quimby the magnetist Worked also as a ‘magnetist’ … but gradually began to doubt the theory of animal magnetism changed his practice to mental healing through visualization
  45. 45. The magnetic doctor … „the magnetic “doctor” Quimby, the parent mental healer of America, who after various experiments believed that he had discovered, in mental control, the secret of Christ‟s healing power‟ – Georgine Milmine.
  46. 46. The magnetic doctor Quimby would place his hands on the sick patient‟s head and abdomen … and encourage ‘magnetic healing forces’ to flow through them.
  47. 47. Animal magnetism  Animal magnetism …  a term proposed by Franz Mesmer in the 18th century …  the term 'magnetism' was adopted by analogy … referring to some interpersonal and general effects of reciprocal influence and/or entanglement Mesmer observed.
  48. 48. Magnetic force  The theory became the basis of treatment in Europe and the USA that was based on non- verbal elements such as …  gaze  passes (movements of the hands near the body accompanied by intention of the operator)  mental elements (e.g. will and intention)  and sometimes also the „laying on of hands‟.
  49. 49. Impact of magnetic healing  Magnetic healing was very popular into the 19th century …  a strong cultural impact.  From some of the practices of animal magnetism branched out …  Hypnotism  Spiritualism  New Thought,  so-called „magnetic healing‟  parapsychological research.
  50. 50. The ‘secret’ Quimby discovered … „… one thing Quimby had discovered was that people are often healed by a little dose of psychology and a big does of mesmerism.‟ – John H. Gerstner, The Theology of the Major Cults (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1960).
  51. 51. The ‘secret’ Quimby discovered „[Quimby] had drawn certain conclusions about illness from his experience with hypnotism, gradually moving into the field of curing the sick through reasoning with them about the causes of their diseases.‟ – Jewel Spangler Smaus, Mary Baker Eddy: The Golden Days (1966), p 136.
  52. 52. The founding father of New Thought  Quimby‟s fame and alleged success as a healer grew …  He came to be seen as a respected medical clairvoyant …  he disliked being referred to as a clairvoyant, faith healer, mesmerizer, or spiritualist …  although he maintained a lifelong interest in hypnosis  he preferred instead to be called a „healing physician‟ or „mind healer‟ …  many Spiritualists consulted him … but he had no formal or informal connection with Spiritualism.  He is now considered a---if not the---founding father of the „New Thought‟ movement.
  53. 53. ‘Quimbyism’  He opened a „Quimbyism‟ practice in Salisbury MA  many thousands of people sought his services  billed himself as „Dr. Phineas P. Quimby‟ even though his education ended at grade school and his only training was in clock repair.  His methodology was, he said, based on metaphysical and/or Christian precepts …  taught that religious beliefs were at the root of many physical illnesses.
  54. 54. Metaphysical healer Phineas P Quimby …  also influenced by ideas of Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772)  became a metaphysical healer and lyceum circuit lecturer … little formal education … but very widely read …
  55. 55. Religion and Christianity Phineas P Quimby … not religious by orthodox standards … suspicious of both orthodox medicine and established churches … yet often referred to Christianity in his teachings …
  56. 56. Jesus and ‘the Christ’ Phineas P Quimby …  in the 1860s he distinguished, as the Egyptian Gnostic Cerinthus (c100 CE) had done, between Jesus and „the Christ‟:  ‘Jesus embodied . . . an intelligence called Christ, embracing all the attributes of man, and being a revelation of a higher wisdom than had before appeared on the earth.‟  Phineas P. Quimby, essay, „The Body of Jesus and the Body of Christ,‟ Quimby Resource Center, 1863.
  57. 57. Mental healing and New Thought Phineas P Quimby …  his experiences and practices of mental healing … in the field of (what has been called, somewhat disparagingly) „suggestive therapeutics‟ …  the real beginnings of and foundation for New Thought …
  58. 58. Marvelous cures „Numerous tales of Quimby‟s marvelous cures were circulated among his patients, and his extreme confidence that everyone could be cured was reassuring.‟ – Jewel Spangler Smaus, Mary Baker Eddy: The Golden Days (1966), p 137.
  59. 59. Immense conviction „Quimby had immense conviction founded on his own experience of success in changing bodily symptoms through cleansing a person‟s mind. … [I]n a telling phrase, he said of himself in an advertising circular: 'in his explanation lies the cure.'‟ – Jewel Spangler Smaus, Mary Baker Eddy: The Golden Days (1966), p 137.
  60. 60. Metaphysical healer … Phineas P Quimby …  well-known as a metaphysical (spiritual) healer in Portland, Maine … treated over 12,000 people in the last 8 years of his life …
  61. 61. Metaphysical healer … Phineas P Quimby … first experimented with various physical remedies … the result was just the same regardless of the particular remedy … thus, the healing lay NOT in the medicine but in the mind!
  62. 62. Metaphysical healer … Phineas P Quimby … taught 'the explanation is the cure' …
  63. 63. One mind upon another „What [Mary Baker Eddy] did not realize at the time was the powerful role which mental suggestion was playing in [Quimby‟s] cures. Quimby did not consider himself a mesmerist, but the influence of one mind upon another which he had learned so well in the hypnotic exhibitions remained the major factor in his method. The force of the clockmaker-hypnotist‟s personality was felt by most who met him.‟ – Jewel Spangler Smaus, Mary Baker Eddy: The Golden Days (1966), p 137.
  64. 64. Metaphysical healer … Phineas P Quimby … demonstrated that the human body … moves … as it is moved upon by the mind …
  65. 65. Metaphysical healer … … that is, the body … acts as it is acted upon, and becomes, in effect, a mirror of one's mind – a most important discovery!
  66. 66. The power of the imagination „I tell you a lie and you believe it, immediately your inventive power or imagination commences to create that which I have said. I explain the operation of a machine to you and your inventive power immediately creates it according as you understand it. This is the power of imagination. … I never use the word as others do. When people think they have a disease which I know they have not, I do not ascribe it to their imagination, but to the fact that they have been deceived.‟ (P. P. Quimby)
  67. 67. The way of health and happiness  Wisdom (or the way of health and happiness) is the result of the proper and sensible use of one‟s creative power  If you think on whatsoever things are true, beautiful, noble, exalted, and Godlike … one‟s creative mind will respond accordingly  … action and reaction  If one‟s thoughts are wise, one‟s actions will be wise.
  68. 68. ‘What we believe, that we create’ Phineas P Quimby …  ‘Man acts as he is acted upon.’  ‘Man is belief expressed.’  ‘To believe is to act.’  ‘What we believe, that we create.’  ‘To believe a thing is to make it.’  ‘We create the enemy which disturbs us.’
  69. 69. ‘What we believe, that we create’ Phineas P Quimby …  ‘Disease is the misery of our belief. Happiness is the health of our wisdom.’  ‘A disease and an opinion are one and the same.’  ‘Every thought contains a substance either good or bad.’  ‘God never made any intelligent pain or ache.’
  70. 70. ‘What we believe, that we create’ Phineas P Quimby …  God or Wisdom has never made anything to torment mankind.’  ‘To know that you exist is nothing, but to know what disturbs you is of great value to everyone.’  ‘Man believes in heaven and hell as independent of himself [i.e. as distant localities], so he lives in hell all his life trying to get to heaven.’
  71. 71. Ideas, beliefs and opinions in other words … our ideas, beliefs and opinions activate our mind and condition us mind is simply a medium for ideas and impressions … both a receiver and a transmitter of impressions we become an expression of our beliefs.
  72. 72. Ideas take form „I discovered that ideas took form and the patient was affected just according to the impression contained in the idea.‟
  73. 73. Rigid and obsessional thinking  Impressions → assumptions and presumptions  Assumptions and presumptions → beliefs  Beliefs harden into obsessions and other rigid, even fixed, states of mind  All such thinking is … a process of fixation … „attaching one‟s senses to an idea‟ (Quimby).
  74. 74. The mischief of belief … „The question is often asked why I talk about religion and quote Scripture while I cure the sick. My answer is that sickness being what follows a belief the belief contains the evil which I must correct. As I do this a chemical change takes place. Disease is an error the only remedy for which is the truth. The fear of what will come after death is the beginning of man's troubles, for he tries to get evidence that he will be happy, and the fear that he will never arrive at happiness makes him miserable. … cont’d
  75. 75. The mischief of belief „The facts prove that what we believe may follow. We really believe in disease, hence it is the result of our belief. People never seem to have thought that they are responsible for their belief. To analyze their beliefs is to know themselves, which is the greatest study of man. All theories for the happiness of man contain more misery than happiness, either directly or indirectly. To destroy the beliefs of man is to leave him where God left him: to work out happiness by His own wisdom. One half of the diseases arise from a false belief in the Bible. It may seem strange that the belief in the Bible affects us, yet every belief affects us more or less, directly or indirectly.‟
  76. 76. ‘Mind over matter’  NOT a teaching of Quimby, but a „derived teaching‟ … cf Mrs Julius [Annetta] Dresser, author of The Philosophy of P. P. Quimby  Quimby did NOT divide mind from matter … but called mind „spiritual matter‟
  77. 77. ‘Mingling minds’ Phineas P Quimby … ‘Our minds mingle like atmospheres, and each person has his identity in that atmosphere.’ ‘Our atmospheres mingle’ ‘Mind on mind’
  78. 78. Moods, feelings and beliefs We are all immersed in a great pool of mind. The moods, feelings, beliefs, etc, of others are impressed upon us …
  79. 79. The ‘race mind’ and ‘mass hypnosis’ Our mind is a great reservoir containing the mental experiences and reactions of the ages BUT we can rise above … •the „race mind‟ •„mass hypnosis‟.
  80. 80. ‘My explanation is the cure’ „My practice is unlike all medical practice. I give no medicine, and make no outward applications. I tell the patient his troubles, and what he thinks is his disease: and my explanation is the cure. …
  81. 81. ‘The truth is the cure’ … If I succeed in correcting his errors, I change the fluids of the system and establish the truth, or health. The truth is the cure. This mode of practice applies to all cases.‟ - Phineas P Quimby.
  82. 82. The higher power „There is no intelligence in anything that can be seen by the eye; one can only see the working of intelligence in matter.‟ „There is no intelligence in the body or in the mind but only in the higher power that governs them.‟
  83. 83. Quimby’s ideas … Horatio W. Dresser explained Quimby's ideas in a seven element list: 1. The omnipresent Wisdom, the warm, loving Father of us all, Creator of all the universe, whose works are good, whose substance is an invisible reality. 2. The real man, whose life is eternal in the invisible kingdom of God, whose senses are spiritual and function independently of matter. 3. The visible world, which Dr Quimby once characterized as 'the shadow of Wisdom's amusements'; that is, nature is only the outward projection or manifestation of an inward activity far more real and enduring. … cont’d
  84. 84. Quimby’s ideas … 4. Spiritual matter, or fine interpenetrating substance, directly responsive to thought and subconsciously embodying in the flesh the fears, beliefs, hopes, errors, and joys of the mind. 5. Disease is due to false reasoning in regard to sensations, which man unwittingly develops by impressing wrong thoughts and mental pictures upon the subconscious spiritual matter. 6. As disease is due to false reasoning, so health is due to knowledge of the truth. To remove disease permanently, it is necessary to know the cause, the error which led to it. 'The explanation is the cure.' 7. To know the truth about life is therefore the sovereign remedy for all ills. This truth Jesus came to declare. Jesus knew how he cured and Dr Quimby, without taking any credit to himself as a discoverer, believed that he understood and practiced the same great truth or science.
  85. 85. Exposition of Quimby's method of healing … „A patient comes to see Dr. Quimby. He renders himself absent from everything but the impression of their feelings. These are quickly daguerreotyped on him. They contain no intelligence but shadow forth a reflection of themselves which he looks at. This contains the disease as it appears to the patient. Being confident that it is a shadow of a false idea, he is not afraid of it but laughs at it. Then his feelings in regard to the disease which are health and strength are daguerreotyped on the receptive plate of the patient which also throws forth a shadow. The patient seeing this shadow of the disease in a new light gains confidence. This change of feeling is daguerreotyped on the doctor again, which also throws forth a shadow and he sees the change and continues to treat it in the same way. So the patient's feelings sympathize with him. The shadow changes and grows dim and finally the light takes its place and there is nothing left of the disease.‟ (P. P. Quimby)
  86. 86. Exposition of Quimby's method of healing  „The nearest [Quimby] comes to a description of the process is in the following illustration … … 'Then [Quimby‟s] feelings in regard to the disease, which are health and strength, are daguerreotyped on the receptive-plate of the patient.'‟ – Horatio Dresser, in The Quimby Manuscripts.
  87. 87. ‘I tell them it is in their mind’ „When I tell them how they feel, I tell them it is in their mind. This of course they do not believe. … [A] great many people think that I believe all disease is of the imagination but this is wrong. I always admit disease for it is what I feel and that is real.‟ (P. P. Quimby)
  88. 88. What is ‘disease’? … „This deception I call the disease and the effect that follows they [i.e. the medical doctors] call the disease.‟ (P. P. Quimby)
  89. 89. What is ‘disease’? …  Disease is „in the mind‟ …  in the sense that the symptoms in the flesh (e.g. physical pain, bodily dysfunction) are the result and effect of a deception in the mind … „the shadow of a false idea‟ (Quimby)  in the sense that what one is thinking may be making one, e.g., nervous, anxious, fearful, angry …  THESE STATES OF MIND ARE ‘DIS-EASE’---THEY PRODUCE DISEASE!  but NOT in the sense that one is (necessarily) thinking sickness per se
  90. 90. What is ‘disease’? • Disease is „error‟ … • only health is „truth‟ • The „disease‟ is the disturbed mind … • it is part of the person‟s knowing. • What is seen is always the result of something unseen.
  91. 91. What is ‘disease’? „Disease is what follows an opinion. It is made up of mind directed by error and truth is the destruction of an opinion.‟ „A truth to a person who cannot understand it is a belief.‟ „Our misery comes from our belief, not the thing believed.‟
  92. 92. Is there a place for medicine? … „I believe that there is virtue in medicine, which, when taken by the patient, conveys impressions to the mind and these impressions often result in the entire restoration of health.‟ „The true design of all medicine is to lead the mind to certain results and then it, the mind, will restore the body.‟
  93. 93. Is there a place for medicine? … „By the action of my mind upon my patient in his waking state, I can produce the same results which flow from the taking of medicine. I can produce an emetic or cathartic, a dizziness or pain in the head, relieve pain in any part of the system and restore patients by acting directly upon their minds.‟
  94. 94. Is there a place for medicine? „I never make war with medicine but [with] opinions.‟
  95. 95. Disease is not independent of the person … „What we see [body, form, function, action, etc] has as much to do with the man as the engine of a steamboat lying at a wharf in Portland with the intelligence of the maker in New York.‟
  96. 96. Disease is not independent of the person … „Did you ever see the liver complaint walking around by itself?‟
  97. 97. Disease is not independent of the person „So when I say the disease is in the mind, I mean that it does not exist anywhere else.‟
  98. 98. Distinction between ‘beliefs’ and the ‘Truth’ •Beliefs and opinions manifest and express themselves automatically … without our conscious thought.
  99. 99. Distinction between ‘beliefs’ and the ‘Truth’ •Because we don‟t detect the cause within ourselves, we therefore suppose it to be outside.
  100. 100. Distinction between ‘beliefs’ and the ‘Truth’ •Disease is never entirely, if at all, independent of the person.
  101. 101. His early experiments with Burkmar „What we believe, that we create.‟ „I found that not only my thoughts but also my beliefs affected my subject. If I really believed a thing, the effect would follow whether I was thinking of it or not.‟
  102. 102. The ‘white tablet’  The dominant mental atmosphere of the parents during the creative act … determines the type of child that comes forth.  A child is like a white tablet on which anyone who came along could write something …
  103. 103. An ‘old fiddle’ Quimby also said that children are like an old fiddle … Anyone can come along and strike a tune of them.
  104. 104. The conscious and subconscious minds  Quimby can be said to have „discovered‟ the subconscious (unconscious) mind!  He understood that there were …  two separate functions of the mind … conscious and subconscious … a remarkable discovery at that time!  „Thoughts‟ = the conscious function of mind  „Beliefs‟ and „Opinions‟ = the subconscious function of mind
  105. 105. The subconscious mind „… man has an unconscious power that is not admitted [i.e. known or realized] which governs his acts.‟ - Phineas P. Quimby.
  106. 106. Two minds  There are two minds (or two „levels‟ of mind) … the mesmerized state---aka the „excited‟ state (or „subconscious‟ or „subjective‟ mind) our ordinary waking mind---aka the „standard‟ state (or „conscious‟ or „objective‟ mind).
  107. 107. The ‘argumentative method’ … The Quimby ‘argumentative method’ of healing (as described by Quimby‟s son George): „to change the mind of a patient and disabuse it of its error and establish truth in its place, which, if done, was the cure.‟
  108. 108. The ‘argumentative method’ … The Quimby ‘argumentative method’ of healing „Can a theory be found capable of practice which can separate Truth from error? I undertake to say there is a method of reasoning which, being understood, can separate one from the other. Man is made up of truth and belief and if he is deceived into a belief that he has or is liable to have a disease, the belief is catching and the effect follows it.‟ - Phineas P Quimby.
  109. 109. The ‘argumentative method’ … The Quimby ‘argumentative method’ of healing …  spiritual reasoning …  you convince the patient and yourself that the sickness is due to:  false beliefs  groundless fears  negative patterns in the subconscious mind …
  110. 110. The ‘argumentative method’ The Quimby ‘argumentative method’ of healing …  spiritual reasoning …  you explain that the basis of all healing is … a change of belief  you ‘build up’ evidence for the healing power within  you render a verdict in the „courthouse‟ of the mind … in favour of yourself and the patient.
  111. 111. The use of water As Quimby worked with a patient, he often:  dipped his hands in a bowl of water, and  rubbed the person‟s head, or  asked the patient to drink a glass of water. Sometimes he simply talked with the patient ..  firmly explaining his views of the way the mind worked on the body … producing heat and cold, pain in this place or that.
  112. 112. The method Referring to himself characteristically in the third person, Quimby once wrote:  „In this way, Quimby went on taking up and explaining almost every idea [the patient] ever had and putting a different construction, till R. thought he did not know anything.‟
  113. 113. The ‘absolute method’ … The Quimby ‘absolute method’ of healing …  used by Quimby in the latter years of his healing career … you mention the name of the patient …
  114. 114. The ‘absolute method’ … The Quimby ‘absolute method’ of healing …  you contemplate the qualities and attributes of God … you silently think of God as … Infinite Intelligence Boundless Love the Source and Restorer of Perfect Health, etc …
  115. 115. The ‘absolute method’ The Quimby ‘absolute method’ of healing … you feel and envision … the Power and Love of God … being focused on the patient.
  116. 116. The Quimby ‘psychoanalytic’ method  Quimby did not ask the patient questions.  He did not encourage the patient to „babble‟ about his complaints.  He told the patient how he felt and why.  He „read‟ the patient‟s mental and psychic state.  He used his imagination constructively … and taught others how to do the same.
  117. 117. God and Jesus 'Everyman is a part of God, just so far as he is wisdom.' 'Jesus was the man who brought the true light or Christ to light. Christ was His religion, the God in Him. … What truth did Jesus come to bring to the world? One simple fact that man is a progressive being, that his happiness and misery are of his own make … .' - Phineas P Quimby.
  118. 118. The power of suggestion ‘The suggestion you give to another, you are giving to yourself.’ – Phineas P Quimby.
  119. 119. The power of suggestion ‘The cure depends on your faith. Your faith is what you receive from me.’ – Phineas P Quimby.
  120. 120. Quimby on prayer … It’s like a defence lawyer pleading the case before the judge … showing their client to be a victim of lies and false beliefs …
  121. 121. Quimby on prayer … SO, AFFIRM THE TRUTH … DENY THE FALSE. YOU ARE THE JUDGE. YOU RENDER YOUR OWN VERDICT!
  122. 122. Quimby in action … from The Quimby Manuscripts  Quimby once called on a woman who was:  aged  lame  bound down  on crutches …
  123. 123. Quimby in action …  The cause of the ailment … The woman was imprisoned by a creed so small and contracted that … she could not … stand upright or move ahead …
  124. 124. Quimby in action … The cause of the ailment … She was living in a tomb of fear and ignorance … She took the Bible literally … and it frightened her!
  125. 125. Quimby in action …  In this tomb, the presence of God was trying to … burst the bars break through the bands rise from the dead!
  126. 126. Quimby in action … Quimby diagnosed her case as … a mind cloudy and stagnated due to excitation and fear …
  127. 127. Quimby in action … … caused by her inability to see clearly the meaning of the scriptural passages she had been reading.
  128. 128. Quimby in action … This condition showed itself in her body by … a heavy and sluggish feeling … which would terminate in paralysis.
  129. 129. Quimby in action … Quimby asked the woman what was meant by this Bible verse … ‘Yet a little while I am with you, and then I go unto him that sent me.’ (Jn 7:33)
  130. 130. Quimby in action … She replied: „It means that Jesus went to heaven‟ …
  131. 131. Quimby in action …  Quimby made plain what the passage really meant by interpreting that being with her „a little while‟ meant his explanation of her symptoms, feelings, and their cause …  that is, he had compassion and sympathy for her momentarily … but he could not remain in that mental state …
  132. 132. Quimby in action … The next step? … to go to „him that sent me‟ … which is the presence of God in all persons …
  133. 133. Quimby in action … Quimby then travelled in his mind and … contemplated perfect health … which is a part of God …
  134. 134. Quimby in action … He said to the woman: „Therefore, where I go, you cannot come, for you are in Calvin's* belief, and I am in health.‟ * Calvinists, for the most part, considered the New Testament healings the evidence of ‘miraculous powers’ of ‘temporary duration’.
  135. 135. Quimby in action … This explanation produced … an instantaneous sensation in the woman … a change came over her mind …
  136. 136. Quimby in action …  The sign of demonstration (or answer to prayer) occurs as „a feeling of rest from striving, a feeling that after all you no longer want it, since subjectively it is done. There is a let down because the creative act has been accomplished. It is finished.‟ (Dr Joseph Murphy)
  137. 137. Quimby in action … The old woman walked … without her crutches!
  138. 138. Quimby in action … She had been, as it were, dead in error …  To bring her to life or truth was … to raise her from the dead.
  139. 139. Quimby in action …  Quimby:  „I quoted the resurrection of Christ and applied it to her own Christ or health; it produced a powerful effect on her.‟
  140. 140. The power of the indwelling healing Christ „Quimby quoted the resurrection of Christ and applied it to her own Christ or health; this produced a powerful effect on her. He also explained to her that the truth which she accepted was the angel or idea which rolled away the stone of fear, ignorance, and superstition, thereby, releasing the healing power of God which made her whole.‟ - Dr Joseph Murphy, The Power of Your Subconscious Mind.
  141. 141. His exalted mood „Quimby took on all the challenges, sickness, and lacks of all kinds. He was able to stop in its tracks the thing which his quaking patients feared would come upon them. He introduced in the field of consciousness man operating from an exalted, Godlike state of consciousness. He was full of grace (wisdom and love) and understanding. His exalted mood brought about an electronic introduction of grace and confidence in his patients who reported blessings, healings, and gifts divine from the One Source. The vibrations of fear could not and did not persist in the mental atmosphere of such a worker.‟ – Dr Joseph Murphy.
  142. 142. ‘Christian Science’ … Phineas P Quimby used the phrase „Christian Science‟ as early as 1863 … He also referred to his method of healing as … the „Science of Christ‟, „Christ Science‟ and „The Quimby System‟
  143. 143. ‘Christian Science’  Presbyterian minister William Adams had previously used the term 'Christian Science' before Quimby … in his book The Elements of Christian Science (1st ed, 1850; later ed, 1857).
  144. 144. Quimby the author Phineas P. Quimby Author of the books … Questions and Answers (1862). The Quimby Manuscripts (1921, posthumous). Immanuel (1960, posthumous). The Complete Writings of P. P. Quimby (1988, posthumous). See also Phineas Parkhurst Quimby: The Complete Writings, 3 vols (DeVorss), ed. by Ervin Seale.
  145. 145. His last hour on earth An hour before he breathed his last, Quimby said to his son: „I am more than ever convinced of the truth of my theory. I am perfectly willing for the change myself, but I know you all will feel badly, and think I am dead; but I know that I shall be right here with you, just as I always have been. I do not dread the change any more than if I were going on a trip to Philadelphia.’
  146. 146. His mission ‘It is to the sick and not to the well, that this is written; to open their eyes, so that they can see how they have been deceived.’ ~ Phineas P. Quimby.
  147. 147. Transmission of the teachings  Phineas P Quimby transmitted his ideas and methods to a number of his patients, among them: Warren Felt Evans Mary Baker Eddy … then Mary Morse Patterson Julius A and Annetta (Seabury) Dresser
  148. 148. Warren Felt Evans … Warren Felt Evans (1817-1889) …  Methodist, later Swedenborgian, minister of religion ...  had been healed by Quimby  'the first real philosopher of New Thought' … and the first person to give literary form to New Thought  ‘the recording angel of metaphysics’ (Vahle)  pioneer writer of New Thought  wrote 2 books on 'Quimbyism' before Mary Baker Eddy published her Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures in 1875
  149. 149. Warren Felt Evans …  Warren Felt Evans (1817-1889) … 'Disease being in its root a wrong belief. Change that belief and we cure the disease. By faith we were thus made whole … .' - The Mental Cure. 'Everything exists for us in thought. That of which we do not think has for us no existence.' - Esoteric Christianity, 1886.
  150. 150. Warren Felt Evans The ‘key’ to all spiritual healing … according to Dr Evans „My substance was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and curiously wrought in the lowest parts of the earth. Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being unperfect; and in thy book all my members were written, which in continuance were fashioned, when as yet there was none of them.‟ Ps 139:15-16. ___________________________________________ The Living Intelligence ... the Creator of the body … has ‘a pattern and prototype’ (Dr Joseph Murphy) of all organs, cells, tissues, etc … and can therefore remake and re-create anything damaged in the body.
  151. 151. Mary Baker Eddy … Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) …  treated by Quimby in 1862 …  made attempts to help others through Quimby‟s method …  once even gave a public lecture on the subject  author of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (1st ed, 1875)  founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science), 1879  founder of the independent, non- denominational daily newspaper The Christian Science Monitor … 'Stand porter at the door of thought.'
  152. 152. Quimby treats Mrs Eddy (then Mrs Patterson) „… So he rubbed Mrs Patterson‟s head after putting his hands in water, and then put her to sleep. When she awoke, all sickness was gone.‟ – John H. Gerstner, The Theology of the Major Cults (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1960).
  153. 153. Quimby treats Mrs Eddy (then Mrs Patterson) „Encouraged by Mr Quimby to expect a healing, Mrs Eddy did at first obtain temporary help, but she soon suffered a relapse, and later realized that whatever benefit she received was due more to her own faith in God than in Mr Quimby‟s forceful assurances and head manipulations. As a matter of fact, the basis of Eddy‟s lifelong researches had been along spiritual lines and while willing to concede only the highest motives to Mr Quimby, she came to understand how essentially foreign to his doctrine were the things that she held sacred. …‟ - Irving C. Tomlinson Twelve Years with Mary Baker Eddy: Recollections and Experiences (Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1945), p 34.
  154. 154. Eddy on Quimby … „P. P. Quimby stands upon the plane of wisdom with his truth. Christ healed the sick, but not by jugglery or with drugs. As the former speaks as never man before spake, and heals as never man healed since. Christ, is he not identified with truth, and is not this the Christ which is in him? We know that in wisdom is life, “and the life was the light of man.” P. P. Quimby rolls away the stone from the sepulchre of error, and health is the resurrection. But we also know that “light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehended it not.”‟ – Mary Baker Eddy (then Mary M. Patterson), in a letter to the Portland Courier, c1862, quoted in The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science, by Willa Cather and Georgine Milmine, p 60.
  155. 155. Eddy on Quimby „[Quimby] was a humanitarian … He was somewhat of a remarkable healer, and at the time we knew him he was known as a mesmerist. We were one of his patients. He manipulated his patients, but possibly back of his practice he had a theory in advance of his method and, as we now understand it, and have since discovered, he mingled that theory with mesmerism. …‟ – Mary Baker Eddy, quoted in Mary Baker Eddy: A Biography (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1963), by Norman Beasley, on p 101.
  156. 156. The Dressers …  Julius A Dresser (1838-1893)  Annetta (Seabury) Dresser (1843-1935)
  157. 157. The Dressers … Julius A Dresser Dresser and Annetta (Seabury) Dresser continued more directly in the tradition of Quimby himself the first to formally organize what was to become known in time as the 'New Thought Movement' competed with Mary Baker Eddy
  158. 158. The Dressers … 'To realize that our real life is spiritual was to overcome the illusions of sense-experience with its manifold bondages.' - Julius A Dresser.
  159. 159. The Dressers … • Son Horatio W Dresser (1866-1954)  continued his parents‟ work  the first 'historian of the New Thought Movement'  published many books on New Thought as well as editing The Quimby Manuscripts (1921)
  160. 160. The Dressers … Warren Felt Evans and Julius A Dresser gave systematic form to Quimby‟s ideas the intellectual founders of New Thought and its allied movements the most influential figures in the actual organization of the movement which came to be known as New Thought.
  161. 161. Eddy and Quimby …  Both Christian Science and New Thought in all of its various forms have their origins in Quimby‟s ideas …  Mary Baker Eddy …  developed her own highly individualistic, even idiosyncratic, version of Quimby‟s ideas and methods …  would later claim to have been the 'discoverer' and 'founder' of those ideas and methods … … disparagingly referring to the late P. P. Quimby as an „unlearned man‟.
  162. 162. Eddy and Quimby …  Mary Baker Eddy claimed to have 'discovered' Christian Science in 1866 … … less than a month after the death of P. P. Quimby on Jan. 16, 1866  The matter went to the courts in 1883 …
  163. 163. Eddy and Quimby … Suit was won by Mary Baker Eddy … but only because …  Quimby‟s son George A. Quimby would not permit the 'Quimby Manuscripts' to be taken to court.  The other party to the proceedings (a former student of Eddy‟s) was impecunious.
  164. 164. Eddy and Quimby … „The religion which [Mrs Eddy] teaches certainly is hers, for which I cannot be too thankful; for I should be loath to go down to my grave feeling that my father was in any way connected with “Christian Science”.‟ – George A. Quimby, quoted in Mary Baker Eddy: A Biography (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1963), by Norman Beasley, on p 103.
  165. 165. Eddy and Quimby … The Quimby Manuscripts  published in 1921 Horatio W Dresser (ed)  Mary Baker Eddy got most of her essential ideas from Quimby guilty of plagiarism
  166. 166. Eddy and Quimby …  Mrs Eddy also copied extensively from the writings of the German idealist philosopher Hegel …  1875 edition of Eddy's Science and Health … 33 pages verbatim and 100 pages in substance … from Dr Francis Leiber‟s manuscript „The Metaphysical Religion of Hegel‟ … to which Mrs Eddy had access.
  167. 167. Christian Science … on New Thought „[New Thought affirms] the false belief that there is a supposititious opposite of the one Mind, existing independently instead of as simply the negation of the one Mind.‟ „NEW THOUGHT is the belief that one mind, through its thinking, can control and benefit another mind. „If, for the moment, the control seems to be good, that does not in any way change the evil of it. If you have one mind controlling another, you have two minds, and such a premise denies the allness of God as the one and only Mind. …
  168. 168. Christian Science … on New Thought … „The acceptance of more than one Mind embraces the full measure of evil, for if God is not all, then evil is something. „New Thought is the negation of the First Commandment, “I am the Lord thy God . . . . Thou shalt have no other gods before me” [Ex 20: 2, 3] - no other mind beside the one Ego, the one I, the one Mind.‟ – Herbert W. Eustace, CSB, in Christian Science: Its ‘Clear, Correct Teaching’ and Complete Writings.
  169. 169. Christian Science … on New Thought According to Christian Science, Quimby‟s theory and method is based on: • the power of suggestion … • mind over matter (but not God over suppositional „matter‟) • one human mind transferring its thoughts to another human mind, thereby affecting the body in some way • mental cause and effect • the „human mind sense of government‟* • and also the „manipulation of the head‟** Christian Science theory and method is said to be based on: • „spiritual understanding based on the One Mind’s omnipotence‟* • Divine Mind (the Mind which was in Christ Jesus), not human mind or human will, does the healing • spiritual cause and effect, not based on any aspect of physicality * Irving C. Tomlinson, Twelve Years with Mary Baker Eddy: Recollections and Experiences (Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, 1945), p 34. ** Norman Beasley, Mary Baker Eddy: A Biography (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1963), p 35.
  170. 170. Eddy and Quimby  Mary Baker Eddy died on 3 December 1910.  There's no truth to the persistent rumour that a telephone was installed in her tomb in case she returned to life.  The story arose from a phone line that was installed temporarily for watchmen at the site.
  171. 171. Eddy and Hopkins  However, there is a very real connection between Mary Baker Eddy and the New Thought Movement …  Much of New Thought filtered down through Eddy by means of one of her former pupils … Emma Curtis Hopkins
  172. 172. Emma Curtis Hopkins Emma Curtis Hopkins (1849-1925)  known as the 'Teacher of Teachers'  inspired by the medieval mystic Joachim of Fiore  broke from Mary Baker Eddy … 'When we are spiritual, we do not try to bring great things to pass, yet they come to pass. The most wonderful achievements of mankind have been brought to pass by confidence in some wonder-working unseen power.‘ (Emma Curtis Hopkins)
  173. 173. Emma Curtis Hopkins Emma Curtis Hopkins (1849-1925) …  brought together and focused the national New Thought movement in 1886-88 with the base in Chicago  then transmitted her ideas and methods to a number of students who would later become the founders of all of the major New Thought denominations, centres and schools, including …
  174. 174. The transmission of the teachings … ever onwards and upwards  Malinda E Cramer (c1846-1906) and Nona L Brooks (1861-1945) …  who founded Divine Science  Charles (1854-1948) and Myrtle (1845-1931) Fillmore …  who founded Unity (formerly known as the Unity School of Christianity)  Ernest Holmes (1887-1960) …  who founded the Centers for Spiritual Living (formerly known as the United Church of Religious Science)  H. Emilie Cady (1848-1941) …  who wrote Lessons in Truth and other seminal New Thought texts  Annie Rix Militz (1856-1924) …  who founded The Home of Truth  W. John Murray (1865-1925) …  who founded The Church of the Healing Christ in NYC in 1906 … the largest New Thought church in that city for some time. (Note. Emmet Fox was the pastor of that church from 1932 to 1951.)
  175. 175. The End Copyright © 2013 Ian Ellis-Jones All Rights Reserved. Some Images Courtesy Google Images. The information contained in this PowerPoint presentation is for educational purposes only. The information is not medical advice, is not intended to be a replacement for professional medical advice, and is not to be used to treat or diagnose any medical condition. If needed, such advice should be obtained from the services of a competent health care professional. No liability is accepted for any loss or damage that may arise from the use of or reliance on the information contained in this PowerPoint presentation.

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