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PM 01 - Introduction to Project Management
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PM 01 - Introduction to Project Management

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  • 1. Project Management: A Managerial Approach
    Chapter 1 – Projects in Contemporary Organizations
  • 2. Overview
    Project Management Growth Factors
    Project Aspects
    Project Criteria
    Project Life Cycle
    Project Management Profession
  • 3. Introduction
    Much of project management developed by the military
    Navy’s Polaris program
    NASA’s space program
    Strategic defense initiative
    Project management has found wide acceptance in industry External vs internal to organisation
    It has many applications outside of construction
    Managing legal cases
    Managing new product releases
  • 4. Forces Of Project Management
    Forces driving Project Management:
    1. exponential expansion of human knowledge -> dev, prod & dist.
    2. growing demand for a broad range of complex, sophisticated, customized goods and services -> product design an integ. & inherent part of prod and dist
    3. evolution of worldwide competitive markets for the production and consumption of goods and services -> what, when and how to distribute output
    4. Expansion of global markets
    Team-based problem solving v. individual
    All of these contribute to the need for organizations to do more and to do it faster
    Project management is one way to do more faster
  • 5. Projects Tend to be Large
    Projects tend to be large
    The Channel Tunnel, or Chunnel
    Denver International Airport
    Panama Canal expansion project
    Three Gorges Dam, China
    Projects are getting larger over time
    Flying: balloons  planes  jets  rockets  reusable rockets
    The more we can do, the more we try to do
  • 6. Project Management Also Getting Smaller
    More people are seeing the advantages of project management techniques
    The tools are become cheaper
    The techniques are becoming more widely taught and written about
  • 7. The Professionalism of Project Management
    Complexity of problems facing the project manager
    Growth in number of project oriented organizations
    The Project Management Institute (PMI) was established in 1969
    By 1990 it had 7,500 members
    1995, over 17,000 members
    1998--exploded to over 44,000 members
    This exponential growth is indicative of the rapid growth in the use of projects
    Importance of PMI as a force in the development of project management as a profession
  • 8. Project Manager
    Project manager is the key individual on a project
    Project manager is like a mini-CEO
    While project manager always has responsibility, may not have necessary authority
  • 9. Trends in Project Management
    Achieving strategic goals
    Achieving routine goals
    Improving project effectiveness
    Virtual projects
    Quasi-projects
  • 10. Organizational Imperatives
    Traditional hierarchical management declining
    Consensual management increasing
    Increasing reliance on systems engineering
    Projects integral to organizational strategy
  • 11. The Definition of a “Project”
    Must make a distinction between terms:
    Program - an exceptionally large, long-range objective that is broken down into a set of projects
    Task - set of activities comprising a project
    Work Packages - division of tasks
    Work Units - division of work packages
    A specific, finite task to be accomplished
  • 12. The Definition of a “Project”
    Definition used by PMI:
  • 13. Project Management A Working Definition
    Project:
    A problem with a known solution scheduled for completion—unique and non-routine activities
    Project Management:
    The science and art of solving the problem within predetermined time and resource parameters
  • 14. Characteristics of a Project
    Temporary
    Have a supported purpose/importance
    Performance specifications (form, fit, function)
    Have a life cycle with finite due date
    Interdependencies
    Uniqueness
    Resource requirements and tradeoffs
    Stakeholder Conflict
  • 15. Quasi-Projects and Fuzzy Goals
    Tasks without Specific Targets
    No Who, What, When, Where, How Much
    Implied Performance, Cost, Time Constraints
    “Projects” to Determine Project Scope
    Warning: If these Become Projects, Expect Delays, Cost Overruns, Dissatisfied Customers
  • 16. Objectives of a Project
    Project Objectives:
    Performance
    Time
    Cost
    Expectations of clients inherent part of the project specifications
    There are ancillary (process) goals:
    Improving the organisation’s project management competency & methods
    Individual managerial experience gained
    The health of the project team and the organisation
    Environment
  • 17. Objectives of a Project
    3 Project Objectives:
  • 18. Why Project Management?
    The main purpose for initiating a project is to accomplish some goal
    Project management increases the likelihood of accomplishing that goal
    Project management gives us someone (the project manager) to spearhead the project and to hold accountable for its completion
  • 19. Why Project Management?
    Companies have experienced:
    Better customer relations
    Shorter overall delivery times
    Lower costs and higher profit margins
    Higher quality and reliability
    Higher worker morale
  • 20. Why (not) Project Management?
    Companies have also experienced some negatives:
    Greater organizational complexity
    Increased likelihood of organizational policy violations
    Higher costs
    More management difficulties
    Low personnel utilization
    Says managers cannot accomplish the desired outcome
    Conflict
  • 21. The Project Life Cycle
    Stages of a Conventional Project:
    Slow beginning
    Buildup of size
    Peak
    Begin a decline
    Termination
  • 22. The Project Life Cycle
  • 23. The Project Life Cycle
    Time distribution of project effort is characterized by slow-rapid-slow
  • 24. Definition
    Planning
    Implementation
    Delivery
    Level of effort
    1. Goals
    2. Specifications
    3. Scope
    4. Responsibilities
    5. Teams
    1. WBS
    2. Budgets
    3. Resources
    4. Risks
    5. Schedule
    1. Status reports
    2. Change Orders
    3. Quality Audits
    4. Contingencies
    1. Train user2. Transfer documents3. Release resources4. Reassign staff5. Lessons learned
    Project Management Life Cycle
  • 25. Proactive Project Life Cycle
    High
    Project Manager Roles and Responsibilities
    Level
    of
    Value
    of
    Effort
    Change Management System
    Closed-Loop Planning-Monitor-Control System
    Project Evaluation (Audit) Process
    Low
    Define Plan Implement Delivery
    Scope WBS/OBS/Schedule Resource (Re)allocation “Learn Curve”
    Tradeoffs Detailed Budget Cost Containment Final Report
  • 26. The Project Life Cycle
    Projects also exist which do not follow the conventional project life cycle
    Comprised of subunits that have little use as a stand alone unit, yet become useful when put together
  • 27. The Project Life Cycle
    Unlike the more conventional life cycle, continued inputs of effort at the end of the project produce significant gains in returns (eg. Baking a cake, software project, chemical reaction project, writing a book/thesis)
  • 28.
  • 29. The Project Life Cycle
    Risk during project life cycle
    With most projects there is some uncertainty about the ability to meet project goals
    Uncertainty of outcome is greatest at the start of a project
    Uncertainty decreases as the project moves toward completion
  • 30. Project Life Cycle:Reduce Uncertainty of Cost Estimate
  • 31. END