• Google Search Engine
• Android OS
• Android Architecture
• Versions of Android
• Future of Android
• Introduction to SDK & IDE
Google began in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey
Brin when they were both PhD students at Stanford University in Stanford, California.
While conventional search engines ranked results by counting how many times the
search terms appeared on the page, the two theorized about a better system that
analyzed the relationships between websites.
They called this new technology PageRank; it determined a website's relevance by
the number of pages, and the importance of those pages, that linked back to the
Page and Brin originally nicknamed their new search engine "BackRub", because the
system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a site. Eventually, they
changed the name to Google, originating from a misspelling of the word "googol", the
number one followed by one hundred zeros, which was picked to signify that the
search engine was intended to provide large quantities of information. The domain
name for Google was registered on September 15, 1997, and the company was
incorporated on September 4, 1998.
And the GOOGLINESSbegan!
Android OS - OriginAndroid OS - Origin
• Android was Founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy
Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White who work at GOOGLE. In
Rubin’s words “….smarter mobile devices that are more aware of it’s
owners location and preferences.”
• Android was bought by Google in 2005
• On the 5th
of the November 2007, the Open Handset Alliance (OHA), a
consortium of several companies (Google, HTC, Sony, Dell, Intel,
Motorola, Qualcomm, Texas Instruments, Samsung Electronics, LG
Electronics & others) was unveiled with the goal to develop open
standards for mobile devices.
Android is not a single piece of hardware; it’s a complete, end-to-end
software platform that can be adapted to work on any number of
hardware configurations. Everything is there, from the Boot Loader to the
However, we need some Hardware to run Android OS on our device and
it varies from version to version:
•Camera: Rear, Front (Optional)
•Optional Sensors: Ambient Temperature, Light, Pressure, Relative
Operating SystemOperating System
• Android OS uses Linux for it’s device drivers, memory management,
process management and networking.
• The next level up contains the Android native libraries. They are all
written in C/C++ internally, but you’ll be calling them through Java
Interfaces. Though, for the past few months Google has been
distributing SDK (Software Development Kit) as well as NDK (Native
• In this layer, you can find the Surface Manager, 2D and 3D graphics,
Media Codecs, the SQL Database (SQLite) and a Native Web
Browser engine (WebKit).
• All android applications are Java programs or bundles and need a
JVM (Java Virtual Machine) to run them. Dalvik Virtual Machine
is used by Android OS to run the applications.
• Dalvik was slow and had loads of glitches so, Google
pushed an updated JVM called Android Run Time (ART)
in the Kitkat version of Android OS.
Network ConnectivityNetwork Connectivity
It supports Wireless Communication using:
•GSM Mobile Technology
•2G / 3G
•802.11 Wi-Fi Networks
• Android is a multi-process system, in which each application (and
parts of the system) runs in its own process.
• Most security between applications and the system is enforced at the
process level through standard Linux facilities, such as user and
Group IDs that are assigned to applications.
• Additional finer-grained security features are provided through a
“permission” mechanism that enforces restrictions on the specific
operations that a particular process can perform, and per-URI
permissions for granting ad-hoc access to specific pieces of data.
Android ArchitectureAndroid Architecture
Understanding Android Architecture is crucial to App Development and
Designing. This gives us an idea about how the Android OS is stacked.
How the Applications runs. How the User views and interacts with our