Bio Project


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Bio Project

  1. 1. St.Xaviers Senior Secondary School 4,Raj Niwas Marg, Delhi-54 why Do We Fall ill 2009-2010
  2. 2. Index <ul><li>Significance of Health </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Means of spread </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul>
  3. 3. Certificate <ul><li>This is to certify that SURBHI BANGANI of class 9-E has has successfully created this project based on the topic Why Do We Fall ill. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Acknowledgement <ul><li>I am thankful to my parents for allowing me to use the internet and for supporting me. </li></ul><ul><li>I would like to thank my brother for helping me to complete this project. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Significance of Health <ul><li>What does this word health means? </li></ul><ul><li>We have heard the word “HEALTH” used frequently all around us. </li></ul><ul><li>It implies the idea of being WELL. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a state of being well enough to function well PHYSICALLY,MENTALLY AND SOCIALLY. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Personal and Community issues <ul><li>The health of all organisms depend on their SURROUNDINGS or their ENVIRONMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>The environment includes the physical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>For eg:health is at risk in a cyclone in many ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore public cleanliness is important for individual health. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Disease <ul><li>A disease is an illness that affects the body (a single area or the whole system) and/or mind within a single organism (World Health Organization). </li></ul><ul><li>Basically when a person is in a diseased state, they are no longer classified by modern and traditional medical diagnosis as “healthy”. </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of common diseases worldwide are: Influenza A virus, Asthma, HIV/AIDS, HPV, Malaria, and Sickle Cell Anemia. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, diseases are generally classified into three categories, which include: Genetic, infectious, and non-infectious. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Infectious diseases <ul><li>An infectious disease is a clinically evident disease resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes pathogenic viruses , pathogenic bacteria , fungi , protozoa and aberrant proteins known as prions . </li></ul><ul><li>These pathogens are able to cause disease in </li></ul><ul><li>animals and plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious pathologies are usually qualified as contagious diseases which is also called communicable diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through one or more of diverse pathways including physical contact with infected individuals. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Non Infectious Diseases <ul><li>In contrast to infectious, non infectious conditions are neither contagious nor communicable . </li></ul><ul><li>They arise from inside the body as a result of hereditary conditions or other causes, such as dietary deficiencies. </li></ul><ul><li>The essay Disease classifies noninfectious diseases as follows: hereditary or genetic diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>For eg : glandular diseases, or conditions involving a group of cells that filters material from the blood (e.g., diabetes mellitus, also included in the present essay) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Causes of Diseases <ul><li>The disease is caused from two sources: </li></ul><ul><li>- From outside with food, air, water, medications, etc. -Produced in our body as a result of its own life processes and life processes of bacteria living in it. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Chinese pathology, there are three principal causes of the disharmony that brings about disease: external factors, emotions, and irregularities in day-to-day living. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Means of spread. <ul><li>Disease can be spread through: </li></ul><ul><li>AIR </li></ul><ul><li>WATER </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL ACT </li></ul>
  12. 12. Through Air. <ul><li>This occurs through the little droplets thrown out by an infected person who sneezes or coughs. </li></ul><ul><li>Someone standing close by can breathe in these droplets and the microbes get a chance to start a new infection. </li></ul><ul><li>For ex: common cold,pneumonia and tuberculosis. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Through water <ul><li>This occurs if the excreta from someone suffering from an infectious gut disease get mixed with the drinking water used by people leaving nearby. </li></ul><ul><li>For eg: cholera. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Through sexual Act <ul><li>This occurs through physical contact between two people. </li></ul><ul><li>There are microbial diseases that are transmitted by sexual contact from one partner to the other. </li></ul><ul><li>For eg:AIDS, syphilis. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Principles of Treatment <ul><li>The initial cause of the diseased state may lie within the individual organism itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The disease is then said to be idiopathic, innate, primary, or “essential.” </li></ul><ul><li>It may result from a course of medical treatment, either as an unavoidable side effect or because the treatment itself was ill-advised; in either case the disease is classed as iatrogenic. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>There are two ways to treat the diseases: </li></ul><ul><li>-One would be to reduce the effects of the diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>-Other can be to kill the cause of diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>For the first, we can provide treatment that will reduce the symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>For ex:medicines bring down fever,reduce pain. </li></ul><ul><li>For the later,use of medicines to kill microbes. </li></ul><ul><li>Microbes are bacteria, fungi,virus. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Prevention of Diseases <ul><li>Disease prevention is the deferral or elimination of specific illnesses and conditions by one or more interventions of proven efficacy. </li></ul><ul><li>It is useful to distinguish among three levels of prevention—primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Primary prevention&quot; refers to the prevention of diseases before their biological onset. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, pasteurizing milk essentially eliminates bacterial pathogens that could cause illnesses, and measles immunization prevents clinical illness before it can get started. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Secondary Prevention <ul><li>Secondary prevention&quot; refers to the prevention of clinical illness through the early and asymptomatic detection and remediation of certain diseases and conditions that, if left undetected, would likely become clinically apparent and harmful. </li></ul><ul><li>This is often referred to as &quot;screening.“ </li></ul><ul><li>There are many examples of secondary disease prevention, including routine bacteriological culturing for sexually transmitted organisms in asymptomatic persons; routine serological testing for preclinical infections such as syphilis . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tertiary Prevention <ul><li>&quot;Tertiary prevention&quot; refers to the prevention of disease progression and additional disease complications after overt clinical diseases are manifested. </li></ul><ul><li>For ex:lowering a high blood cholesterol level after a heart attack can prevent the occurrence of further heart attacks. </li></ul>
  20. 20. References From Wikidepia, Google Yahoo Books