Gender,HIV/AIDs Transmission: Socio Economic And Socio Cultural Impact in Tanzania


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The research was done in Tanzania and presented at Banaras Hindu University International Conference who also published Complete article in "EDUCATION FOR THE NEW MILLENNIUM" by Nutan Publication Chapter 6 ISBN: 978 81 927002 1 2

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Gender,HIV/AIDs Transmission: Socio Economic And Socio Cultural Impact in Tanzania

  1. 1. Gender, HIV/AIDS Transmission and Social Economic and Social Cultural Impact
  2. 2. Made by: Sandeep Singh ( B.Pharmacy . Cert. Medical Tourism , Cert.Internal Audit Training Program of NABH, Pg.Cert. Quality Management In Allopatic Clinics, MBA- Health Care Services Masters public health, Masters Hopsital Administration (pursing), International Fellowship On Health Technology Assessment (HTICIIT Madras In Collaboration with WHO India, NHSRC and QCI) ,Cert. Health Technology Assessment
  3. 3. Tanzania Tanzania is a country in East Africa. The country’s eastern boarder is formed by the Indian Ocean. The country is divided into 30 administration regions. Tanzania has a tropical climate. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10 and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20 °C (68 °F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25–31 °C or 77– 87.8 °F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15–20 °C or 59–68 °F). Annual temperature is 20 °C (68.0 °F). The climate is cool in high mountainous regions.
  4. 4. AIESEC is an international not-for profit organization that provides students with leadership training and internship opportunities at forprofit and non-profit organizations. "AIESEC" was originally the French acronym for Association internationale des étudiants en sciences économiques et commerciales As of September 2013, the AIESEC network includes over 86,000 members in 124 countries and territories. It is the largest student run organization in the world, being present in over 2,400 universities across the globe, provides more than 24,000 leadership experiences to its members and sends students and graduates on 20,000 international exchanges yearly.[1] AIESEC is supported by over 8,000 of partner organizations around the globe who look to AIESEC to support the development of youth and to access talented individuals keen on personal growth.
  5. 5. HIV/AIDS is a major health problem globally. UNAIDS latest report on the global AIDS epidemic (UNAIDS, 2012) estimated that there are almost 34 million people world-wide are living with HIV/AIDSmore than ever before.  This is due to the positive effect of anti retroviral therapy that provides the life-prolonging effect.  Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s most severely affected area with 69% of all people living with HIV/AIDS.  
  6. 6. Acquired means you can get infected by it and you can infect someone.  Immune deficiency - particular form of weakness in human body which has function to fight against diseases.  Syndrome - particular group of health related problems that constitute the disease ( 2008-2010)  AIDS happen due to a particular virus called HIV 
  7. 7. HIV/AIDS can be caused by different factors the first one and the main being having unprotected sex with an already infected person, sharing of needles or sharp objects, infant born from an infected mother’s womb, particular transfusion of an infected blood.  HIV/AIDS affects up to 50% of people in groups both most at risk and most stigmatized such as sex workers, injecting drug users and men who have sex with men. 
  8. 8. Need of the study  This study proposes to explore the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Scope In order to study the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, the researcher interacted with: The patients and staff of a few hospitals; The students of different organizations
  9. 9.     Impact on children being orphaned by HIV/AIDS. Impact of sex education Social and economic Impact Policies In Tanzania and its impact
  10. 10. Primary data With the help of questionnaires circulated in a few hospitals of Dar es Salaam;Universities and other educational institute and to some public places like Malls. By conducting focused interview with: TACAIDS. Chakuwama Orphanage Dr Sameer (District Hospital)  Secondary data: The secondary data was collected from online journals, research papers, books and internet sources.  
  11. 11. Two patients have been taken off their HIV drugs after bone-marrow transplants seemed to clear the virus from their bodies, doctors report. One of the patients has spent nearly four months without taking medication with no sign of the virus returning.  The team at Brigham and Women's Hospital, in the US, caution that it is far too soon to talk about a cure as the virus could return at any point. The findings were presented at the International Aids Society Conference. (BBC News By James Gallagher, 3 July 2013) 
  12. 12.  One of the major factors that play a role in the dynamics of HIV infection is the level of empowerment. The low level of education, especially in women and patriarchal system puts women in a subservient position. Consequently, women have lesser control over their own bodies and lack negotiating skills for their protection. (Moore et al 2003)
  13. 13.   During the last eighteen years, Tanzania has undertaken many different approaches in attempting to slow the spread of HIV infection and minimize its impact on individuals, families and the society in general. Since 1983, when the first 3 AIDS cases in Tanzania were reported, the HIV epidemic has progressed differently in various population groups while national response has developed itself into phases of programmed activities led by the National AIDS Control Programme since 1985. Tanzania decreased from 7 percent to 6 percent (TACAIDS, et al., 2005; TACAIDS et al., 2008). Nevertheless, the number of people estimated to be infected with HIV has held steady because of ongoing new infections, population growth, and the availability of life-sustaining treatment for those infected. The cumulative number of clients on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) as of June 2012 was 626,444, surpassing the anticipated target of 440,000 by 2011 (MoHSW, 2012).
  14. 14.  In 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) published an interim policy on collaborative TB/HIV activities in response to demand from countries for immediate guidance on actions to decrease the dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The term interim was used because the evidence was incomplete at that time. Since then, additional evidence has been generated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, operational research and best practices from programmatic implementation of the collaborative TB/HIV activities recommended by the policy.
  15. 15. The limitations are mentioned below, so that the findings of the study can be perceived in their correct perspective:  Study has been restricted to one major city of Tanzania, so the findings may not reflect the true picture of the entire nation.  The selection of respondents was based on the convenience, i.e. 1062 samples. It might not be true representative of entire universe.  Although care has been taken to get accurate results, yet because of the risk of ambiguities and misinterpretation on the part of the responses, some element of inaccuracy might have crept in.
  16. 16. Are you aware of any of your government's programs intended to help prevent hiv infection? yes no don’t know no response 2% 27% 60% 11% Some sixty percent of respondents reported to have information on HIV/AIDS government programs to reduce its impact.
  17. 17. Do you think children should be taught about how to protect themselves from getting HIV/AIDS before they become sexually active? 4% 2% 2% yes no don’t know no response 92% Ninety two percent of the respondents who took part in the survey think that children should be made aware of HIV/AIDS before they become sexually active so as to make them cautious and mentally prepared for their sexual behavior once they become active.
  18. 18. Do you think children get orphaned due to HIV/AIDS? yes no don’t know 7% no response 4% 15% 74% Seventy four percent think that children can be orphaned from HIV/AIDS and some seventy seven percent have heard of such children.
  19. 19. Do you think HIV/AIDS patients increase financial burden on the family? 4% 17% yes no 53% 26% don’t know no response Only 53 percent perceived HIV/AIDS patients to be a financial burden for their families.
  20. 20. RESPONDENTS  Most of the respondents were students or those currently having no occupation. SOURCE OF INFORMATION ON HIV/AIDS  More than two thirds of the respondents reported to have heard about HIV/AIDS through school, Television and Radio whereas less than a half respondents heard about HIV aids from family members, friends and other means. This shows that among the respondents, people are more likely to hear about HIV/AIDS through school, Television and Radio than from family, friends and other means.
  21. 21.  Seventy nine percent of the respondents disagreed to the statement that, “Infected people should be ashamed of themselves”. Seventy percent disagreed to the proposition that, “Infected people should be expelled from the community”. This shows that more people think that HIV/AIDS is a common social problem and it could happen to anyone equally so there is no need to discriminate those infected.
  22. 22.  Only 53 percent perceived HIV/AIDS patients to be a financial burden for their families. This is presumably because it takes considerable time before someone is worn out completely by the disease to the extent that they can no longer work. For the most part, the infected could still be economically active and look healthy. This is also enhanced by new drugs and medication currently in the market that help to weaken the HIV virus and enable the individual to live longer.
  23. 23.  From the survey, more than sixty percent of respondents disagreed that men needed more than one sexual partners. Also eighty five percent of respondents disagreed that women need more than one sexual partner. This shows generally that people disagree on having multiple sex partners as it may spread HIV/AIDS, albeit more disagreeability for women compared to men.  Ninety four percent of the respondent responded negatively towards forced sex. Eleven percent have reported being forced by a third person to have sexual intercourse with another person and some 19 percent have reported to have been forced to have sex by their partners.  These results show that despite more people being against forced sexual intercourse, it is still prevalent to some extent. Presumably, more women are forced to have intercourse by their partners than it is the case for men.
  24. 24.     There is still the need to improve efforts to alleviate the disease by launching more campaigns and advertising these campaigns massively to the public. There are issues that direct touch a child who has been orphaned due to HIV/AIDS. The impacts are huge but Loosing family members being the most psychological effect to children. HIV/AIDS affects an economy primarily through increased mortality and morbidity. Agriculture faces major challenges including unfavorable international terms of trade, mounting population pressure on land, and environmental degradation.
  25. 25.  The government of Tanzania through the ministry responsible should prepare curriculum that covers sex education and family planning to be adopted by schools at all levels from primary to High levels of education.  Very importantly government should put emphasis on two major issues which are health and education.  There is a need of amendment in Law regarding marriage age. According this has led to early child births which put the mother and her child in huge danger of infection and death.