ICT for Food and Environmental Security in Africa

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1. Introduction: state of the art in ICT4D

2. Creating Partnerships in ICT4D: opportunities for engaging public organizations, private sector, NGO & International Organizations, Higher Education Institutions
 
3. ICT contribution to Food Security:
a. Climate-­‐smarter agriculture;
b. Smallholder-­‐inclusive value chains
c. High-­‐potential ICT applications
 
4. ICT contribution to Environmental Security
a. What is Environmental Security
b. Why does it matter for Africa?
c. How can ICT help?

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  • Public organizationsNational/Local level: Increase organizational efficiency/effectiveness, Support policy developmentRegional level: Foster integration of infrastructure, policies, markets, aid initiativesGlobal level: Set up open data repositories and link them to researchers/developers/companiesPrivate sector doing businessIncreasing efficiency: market integration, value-chain optimizationPrivate sector doing non-profitFacilitating knowledge sharing: e.g. Barilla Forum, Danone Institute, Unilever Foundation, etc.Private sector doing bothInnovation hubs: Afrilabs network (e.g. Nairobi iHub), Caribbean BetaSingle Initiatives (e.g. Apps4Africa, ChangeMakers EXPO) where CTA can offer meaningful mentoringNGOs & International organizationsAdvocacy: e.g. Aid works initiative by Gates FoundationHigher Education Institutions working on ICT4(AR)DAccess to joint funding opportunities and expand impactICTD Player has much to offer: access to data, partners, key stakeholders, piloting testbeds, and publication venuesHEIs can offer content, support in solutions scanning, scientific backstopping, scaling-up
  • Public organizationsNational/Local level: Increase organizational efficiency/effectiveness, Support policy developmentRegional level: Foster integration of infrastructure, policies, markets, aid initiativesGlobal level: Set up open data repositories and link them to researchers/developers/companiesPrivate sector doing businessIncreasing efficiency: market integration, value-chain optimizationPrivate sector doing non-profitFacilitating knowledge sharing: e.g. Barilla Forum, Danone Institute, Unilever Foundation, etc.Private sector doing bothInnovation hubs: Afrilabs network (e.g. Nairobi iHub), Caribbean BetaSingle Initiatives (e.g. Apps4Africa, ChangeMakers EXPO) where CTA can offer meaningful mentoringNGOs & International organizationsAdvocacy: e.g. Aid works initiative by Gates FoundationHigher Education Institutions working on ICT4(AR)DAccess to joint funding opportunities and expand impactICTD Player has much to offer: access to data, partners, key stakeholders, piloting testbeds, and publication venuesHEIs can offer content, support in solutions scanning, scientific backstopping, scaling-up
  • Public organizationsNational/Local level: Increase organizational efficiency/effectiveness, Support policy developmentRegional level: Foster integration of infrastructure, policies, markets, aid initiativesGlobal level: Set up open data repositories and link them to researchers/developers/companiesPrivate sector doing businessIncreasing efficiency: market integration, value-chain optimizationPrivate sector doing non-profitFacilitating knowledge sharing: e.g. Barilla Forum, Danone Institute, Unilever Foundation, etc.Private sector doing bothInnovation hubs: Afrilabs network (e.g. Nairobi iHub), Caribbean BetaSingle Initiatives (e.g. Apps4Africa, ChangeMakers EXPO) where CTA can offer meaningful mentoringNGOs & International organizationsAdvocacy: e.g. Aid works initiative by Gates FoundationHigher Education Institutions working on ICT4(AR)DAccess to joint funding opportunities and expand impactICTD Player has much to offer: access to data, partners, key stakeholders, piloting testbeds, and publication venuesHEIs can offer content, support in solutions scanning, scientific backstopping, scaling-up
  • Public organizationsNational/Local level: Increase organizational efficiency/effectiveness, Support policy developmentRegional level: Foster integration of infrastructure, policies, markets, aid initiativesGlobal level: Set up open data repositories and link them to researchers/developers/companiesPrivate sector doing businessIncreasing efficiency: market integration, value-chain optimizationPrivate sector doing non-profitFacilitating knowledge sharing: e.g. Barilla Forum, Danone Institute, Unilever Foundation, etc.Private sector doing bothInnovation hubs: Afrilabs network (e.g. Nairobi iHub), Caribbean BetaSingle Initiatives (e.g. Apps4Africa, ChangeMakers EXPO) where CTA can offer meaningful mentoringNGOs & International organizationsAdvocacy: e.g. Aid works initiative by Gates FoundationHigher Education Institutions working on ICT4(AR)DAccess to joint funding opportunities and expand impactICTD Player has much to offer: access to data, partners, key stakeholders, piloting testbeds, and publication venuesHEIs can offer content, support in solutions scanning, scientific backstopping, scaling-up
  • E.g. Google 42M$ investment in WeatherBill
  • ICT for Food and Environmental Security in Africa

    1. 1. Wireless Networking for Science in Africa WorkshopICT for food and environmental security in Africa Simone Sala Postdoctoral Research Scholar at Columbia University Senior Research Fellow at MIT International Development Initiative March 21, 2013 International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) – Trieste, Italy
    2. 2. Index1. Introduction: state of the art in ICT4D2. Partnerships in ICT4D: opportunities for broader impact3. ICT contribution to Food Security & ARD a. Climate-smarter agriculture b. Smallholder-inclusive value chains c. High-potential ICT applications for FS & ARD4. ICT contribution to Environmental Security a. What is Environmental Security b. Why does it matter for Africa? c. How can ICT help?
    3. 3. 1 ICT4D: where are we?• Widespread expansion of ICT access figures – Cheaper access to mobile/broadband services – Improved ease of use• Rise of the social web• Mobile phones as the personal gateway for work/life
    4. 4. 1 ICT4D: where are we? (Let’s not forget ICT4D Dark side..)
    5. 5. 1 ICT4D: where are we? (Let’s not forget ICT4D Dark side..)• “Widespread expansion of ICT access figures” – Still, various kinds of digital divides• “Rise of the social web” and participation – Content issues?• Devices’ availability (e.g. mobile phones) – Waste management issues? – Rush to natural resources to build devices?• Proliferation of portals, lack of sustainability and proven impact – ‘Solutions seeking problems’ approach• ICT feeding inequalities at various levels
    6. 6. 1 ICT4D: where do we go now?• Horizontal ICT4D is likely to split in vertical sub-sectors – ICT for Education, Health, Governance, Agriculture, Natural Resources Management, Conflict Prevention/Resolution…• Technology will become the minor limiting factor in ICT4D initiatives• Web 2.0 ICT4D: from social conversation to engagement to impact- driven social networking• Borders likely to blur: Research/Practice, Profit/NonProfit, Public/Private, North/South
    7. 7. 1 ICT4D: where do we go now? (i.e. implication for Professionals/ORGs)• Repositioning in appropriate ICT4D niches – ICT for AgriFood likely to grow in figures and expand across Developed/Developing regions• Rising importance of Facilitation/Mediation skills in ICT4D projects – Among must-haves: credibility with partners, capacity to catalyze action of stakeholders from different fields, ability to shape relevant information flows, power to develop local-to-global value-added networks• Survival of the fittest: quickest and most engaged organizations – Strengthen social presence to enable broader impact and expanded reach of ICT4D programmes – Social Networks to spot and surf big waves (of innovation)
    8. 8. 2 Partnerships in ICT(4D): key for success Regional level: Foster integration of infrastructure, markets, aid initiatives National/Local level: Increase Global level: Set up open data organizational repositories and link them to Publi efficiency/effectiveness researchers/developers/companies c ICT(4D HEIs ) Private Player Non & Inter- GOs
    9. 9. 2 Partnerships in ICT(4D): key for success Private sector doing business: Publi increasing efficiency (market c integration, value-chain optimization) ICT(4D Private sector doing HEIs ) Private non-profit: facilitating Player knowledge sharing Private sector doing both: Non & Inter- Innovation/Tech hubs GOs
    10. 10. 2 Partnerships in ICT(4D): key for success Publi c ICT(4D HEIs ) Private Player Non & Inter- GOs Advocacy Awareness raising
    11. 11. 2 Partnerships in ICT(4D): key for success Publi Not only efficiency, c > insights too ICT(4D HEIs ) Private Player Systematization & Innovation Non & Inter- Broader impact GOs
    12. 12. 3 ICT contributions to Agricultural & Rural Development (ICT4ARD): interactions Food Security Smallholder- Climate-smart inclusive value Agriculture chains
    13. 13. 3a Case #1: ICT for climate-smart agricultureICT can be a catalyzer for:• Awareness raising on global/local climate issues – Dissemination of climate change awareness messages via low/high tech• Monitoring of climate parameters and climate-driven natural resources – Smartphone, sensors, remote sensing integration as a two-way channel for monitoring• Climate change Mitigation – Support establishment of mitigation practices, track impact of carbon sequestration initiatives• Adaptation to climate change – Information systems to map vulnerabilities, strengthen agricultural system resilience to shocks, disseminate short-term information, share knowledge A system approach to climate-smart agriculture
    14. 14. 3b Case #2: Smallholders-inclusive value chains via ICTs Sustainable Partnership AgriBusiness Producers CompaniesICT-powered strategies: a catalyzer to make local system competitive• Include trusted channels and InfoMediaries – Capacity strengthening – Technology adoption – Community ownership mechanisms• Set up ad hoc Communication systems (i.e. monitor production, facilitate transactions, enable traceability, support branding)• Integrate management tools (e.g. logistics, process management)
    15. 15. 3c Shaping the future: examples of high- potential ICT applications for FS/ARD• Big Data for improving weather insurance• Gamification approaches applied to Development issues• From Knowledge to Geo-Knowledge to support Extension services• Cloud computing for improving efficiency, reducing time- to-market, increasing income – Link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snZPevfRuus
    16. 16. 3c Big Data for climate-smart agriculture, foodsecurity and smallholder-inclusive value chains• Next Decade: 44 times as much data and content – 35 zettabytes in 2020!• Farmers needs better forecast• Weather insurance companies needs (better) weather data• Both Public and Private sector can reap benefits• Positive side-effects to Global/Local Research• Key enablers: – Extension agents a privileged facilitator – Mobile infrastructure/phones as a gateway – Facilitators to create the suitable environment
    17. 17. 4a Environmental security: what is it?• What is security? – The meaning of security changes across time• Different interpretation of environmental security – Environment as key for National Security – The end of the Cold War and the transition of Environment in the Military • Military Global • Inter-dependence Warming – Environmental scarcity as a trigger for conflict – Environment as a driver of cooperation
    18. 18. 4a Environmental security: what is it? Climate change vs Environmental Security • Current scenario: climate change and the re-ignition of the debateNegative impacts• Increasing water scarcity Positive impacts• Decreasing agri. productivity • Areas will experience benefits! Climate • Need for joint initiative to• Higher frequency and Change mitigate/adapt intensity of natural disasters• … • … • Mitigation of effects in the ‘global• Increasing competition balance’• Migration from rural to urban areas • Increase in technical/political or abroad cooperation• Threat to economic growth • Greener production• Distrust between North/South countries
    19. 19. 4a Environmental security: what is it? Environment as driver of conflict vs. cooperation • Negative pole: driver of conflict – Cross-border water & grazing rights: • Senegal vs Mauritania Border War (1991) – Land distribution • Chiapas, Mexico (1994) – Access to water/land • Soccer War Honduras/El Salvador (1969) • Positive pole: source of cooperation – 1950-2000: 1228 cooperative events vs 507 conflict episodes in water management. – Technical cooperation on Water: EXACT-ME (Jordan, Israel, Palestine) – “Peace Parks” (?) • KAZA, Great Limpopo TF Park, Ai-Ais/Richtersveld TF Park • Siachen Glacier, northern Kashmir
    20. 20. 4b Environmental security: why does it matter in Africa? Environmental conflicts in Africa • 22 recorded conflicts (1980-2005) • Clear evidence of land degradation & water scarcity in fueling conflict • Migrations sometimes make conflicts escalate in neighboring countries • Sahel hotspot: often systematic/collective violence • Land distribution typical driving factor for conflictsSource: Carius et al. (2006)
    21. 21. 4b Environmental security: why does it matter in Africa? The impact of climate change • Higher water stress in N/S Africa; < water stress in E/O Africa – Broadly 75-250M affected in 2020 • High risk of higher food insecurity – Exceptions: Ethiopia, Mozambique • Increasing stress on infrastructures & economies (due to sea-level rise & environmental refugees) • Different distribution of diseases (e.g. malaria in E/S Africa) • Open questions: Sudano-Sahelian area, extreme events?
    22. 22. 4b Environmental security: why does it matter in Africa? The impact of climate change
    23. 23. 4b Environmental security: why does it matter in Africa? Water, Energy, Food (WEF) Nexus
    24. 24. 4b Environmental security: why does it matter in Africa? Water, Energy, Food (WEF) Nexus • Increasing population and higher quality of life • Increasing water, food & energy demand: +30/50% between 2010-2030 • Inequalities push for short-term answers that can jeopardize medium/long-term sustainability • “Any strategy that focuses on one part of the water-food-energy nexus without considering its interconnections risks serious unintended consequences”. (World Economic Forum, 2011)
    25. 25. 4b Environmental security: why does it matter in Africa? African richness to be capitalized • Cooperation & success stories – Africa covered by transboundary basins for 62% – 2 or + countries sharing 80 basins – 150 agreements, 10 River Basin Organizations – Various Transboundary Conservation Protected Areas & Peace Parks • Conflict Resolution normative tools – African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources – International Conference on the Great Lakes Region – RBOs
    26. 26. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Record data and information INFORMATION & Transform data COMMUNICATION and information TECHNOLOGY into knowledge Broadcast & Communicate Information and Knowledge
    27. 27. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Broadcast & Record data Transform data and information Communicate and information into knowledge Information and Knowledge Analysis & Implementation Capacity Observation & Building & Strategic Planning Management Networking Conflict Knowledge Prevention Sharing Decision Support Natural Conflict Resources Resolution Upscaling Monitoring Resources Management Crowd- Environmental sourced Peacebuilding monitoring
    28. 28. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Some examples • End-to-end conflict-sensitive water management via ICT • Geomatics for mapping environmental security hot-spots • Capacity Building & Networking via ICT for natural resources management
    29. 29. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Water management • Three main services ICT can offer 1. Monitor the state of water, including quality and use, for conflict prevention – Shared water data bank in Jordan/Israel/Palestine for climate adaptation 2. Collaboration and networking for conflict resolution – Conflict over the use of Syr Darya & Amu Darya rivers among Upstream countries (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) and Downstream countries (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) • Graph Model for Conflict Resolution, GMCR - Scenario Analysis confirmed the existing treaty as the most favourable for the countries
    30. 30. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Water management • Three main services ICTs can offer 3. Support to policy making towards a sustainable use of water resources & post-conflict recovery – USAID-sponsored DSS to manage water quality degradation in Upper Litani River, Lebanon – Remote Sensing, DSS & GeoDB to plan equitable management of Bung Boraphet water basin, Thailand – Participatory GIS to design water service provision in peri-urban post-conflict Angola
    31. 31. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Geomatics • Identification of environmental scarcity hot spots – Mount Kenya – Bordering areas with Ethiopia and Somalia (east of lake Turkana) – Mount Elgon – Lake Victoria – Mombasa A case study on Kenya @ my Lab: GeoLab, University of Milan (Bocchi et al. 2006)
    32. 32. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Geomatics Wajiri Conflict 1992-95 Pokomo/ Orma Clashes 2000 Inter-State Cooperation A case study on Kenya, 2006
    33. 33. 4c Environmental security: how can ICTs help? Capacity building & networking • International level – Strauss Center CCAPS, http://ccaps.aiddata.org/conflict • Local level – SNA-K (Kenya): land access related conflict mitigation via open forums, radio, workshops and SMS-Based Violence Prevention & Education – Babati, Tanzania (Mandara, 2007): PGIS for land conflict mitigation
    34. 34. Conclusions• The shape of ICT4D is likely to change a lot • ICT4D  ICT4Dx!• ICT does/can already play a difference to support food and environmental security• WEF nexus will be core driving force to be targeted for medium/long-term Sustainable Development (not only in Africa!)• To lead the way in ICT4Dx Actors will need to: • Be innovation rather than ICT oriented • Strengthen theirs facilitation skills • Develop a cross-pollination prone attitude
    35. 35. 4c For further information, link, advice, et al. Simone Sala • Web: www.simonesala.it • Twitter: @hereissimone

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