• HAS A SUN, 13+ PLANETS,  176+ SATELLITES, ABOUT  1.1 TO 1.9 MILLION  ASTEROIDS, EXPONENTIAL  NUMBERS OF COMETS,  METEORO...
SOLAR
•   SUN: 99.86%•   PLANETS: 0.135%•   COMETS: 0.01% ?•   SATELLITES: 0.00005%•   MINOR PLANETS: 0.0000002% ?•   METEOROIDS...
MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR      SYSTEM
PROPERTIES OF THE        SUN• CONTAINS ABOUT 99.86% OF  THE TOTAL MASS OF THE  SOLAR SYSTEM  (JUPITER CONTAINS MOST OF  TH...
PROPERTIES OF THE        SUN• THE SUN IS WHITE-COLORED, IT  MAY APPEAR YELLOW BECAUSE  OF ATMOSPHERIC  SCATTERING OF BLUE ...
PROPERTIES OF THE        SUN• DIAMETER: 864,938 MILES  (1,391,980 KM)• MASS: 1.1989 X 1030 KG  (333,000 TIMES EARTH’S  MAS...
PROPERTIES OF THE             SUN• ROTATION: 27-36 EARTH DAYS• IS OF 4.57 B YRS OF AGE• THE SUN IS A NORMAL G2 STAR• IT WI...
ENERGY OF THE           SUN• THE ENERGY MOVES OUT  FROM THE SUN THROUGH  CONVECTION• THE ENERGY COMES FROM  THERMONUCLEAR ...
ENERGY IS CREATED IN THECORE WHEN HYDROGEN ISFUSED TO HELIUM. THIS ENERGYFLOWS OUT FROM THE CORE BYRADIATION THROUGH THERA...
• THE SUN MUST EXPEND  LARGE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY  TO ENDURE ITS OWN  GRAVITATIONAL DESIRE TO  COLLAPSE.• THE CORE OF THE SUN...
• THE ENERGY MOVES OUT  FROM THE CORE THROUGH  THE RADIATIVE ZONE.  SCIENTISTS CALCULATE THE  TEMPERATURE TO BE COOLER  TH...
• CONVECTION IS HOW ENERGY  MOVES FROM THE INNER PARTS  OF THE SUN TO THE OUTER  PART OF THE SUN THAT WE SEE.• JUST ABOVE ...
• ABOVE THE CHROMOSPHERE  IS THE CORONA—VISIBLE  DURING A TOTAL SOLAR  ECLIPSE. THE CORONA 4  MILLION DEGREES F. IT IS  AL...
• SOLAR FLARES OUTBURSTS  AS THE SUN’S MAGNETIC  FIELDS TWIST, TEAR AND  RECONNECT. CORONAL  LOOPS ARE MAGNETIC LOOPS  WIT...
• CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS  HAVE THE MOST ENERGY OF ALL  THESE SOLAR EVENTS.  SOMETIMES THEY HEAD TOWARD  THE EARTH WHERE TH...
HOW THE SUN CONVERTS MATTER INTO ENERGY??• THE CORE THAT’S MADE UP OF  CRUSHED MATTER MUST BE HOT  OF AT LEAST 60 MILLION ...
• THERMONUCLEAR REACTION  –SEEMS TO BE THE SUN’S  SECRET ON ENERGY  PRODUCTION; THE FUSION  OF ATOMIC NUCLEI UNDER  HIGH T...
• ENERGY FROM THE SUN,  IN THE FORM OF  SUNLIGHT AND HEAT,  SUPPORTS ALMOST ALL  LIFE ON EARTH VIA  PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AND  D...
REGIONS OF THE
1. CORE2. RADIATIVEZONE3. CONVECTIONZONE4. PHOTOSPHERE5.CHROMOSPHERE  6. CORONA  7. SUNSPOTS  8. GRANULES  9. PROMINENCE
• IS WHERE THE NUCLEAR  FUSION OF HYDROGEN (H)  & HELIUM (He) TAKES  PLACE• THE SOURCE OF THE SUN’S  & EARTH’S ENERGY• HAS...
• THE HOTTEST PART OF THE  SUN AND OF THE SOLAR  SYSTEM, HAS .3 SOLAR  RADIUS• IS MADE OF HOT, DENSE  GAS IN THE PLASMIC S...
• EACH GAMMA RAY IN THE SUNS  CORE IS CONVERTED INTO  SEVERAL MILLION VISIBLE LIGHT  PHOTONS BEFORE ESCAPING  INTO SPACE• ...
RADIATIVE ZONE• LOCATED BETWEEN THE SOLAR  CORE AND THE CONVECTION  ZONE• TRANSPORTS SOLAR ENERGY  TOWARD THE SUN’S EXTERI...
• ENERGY IS TRANSPORTED  PRIMARILY BY CONVECTION• CONVECTION IS THE CONCERTED,  COLLECTIVE MOVEMENT OF  ENSEMBLES  OF MOLE...
PHOTOSPHERE• PHOTOS -"LIGHT" AND SPHAIRA -  "SPHERE‖• PERCEIVED TO EMIT LIGHT• SUNS PHOTOSPHERE HAS A  TEMPERATURE BETWEEN...
CHROMOSPHERE• LITERALLY, "SPHERE OF COLOR―, IS  ROUGHLY 2,000 KILOMETERS DEEP. IT  SITS JUST ABOVE THE  PHOTOSPHERE AND BE...
PHENOMENA OBSERVED IN   THE CHROMOSOPHERE• FILAMENTS AND PROMINENCES• FILAMENTS ARE LARGE REGIONS  OF VERY DENSE, COOL GAS...
• FILAMENTS (DARK-COLORED)  APPEAR ON THE ―EDGE‖ OF  THE SUN, BRIGHTER THAN  THE DARK OUTER SPACE  BEHIND THEM. IN THAT CA...
• SPICULE -A DYNAMIC JET OF  ABOUT 500 KM DIAMETER IN  THE CHROMOSPHERE OF  THE SUN.• ARE LONG THIN FINGERS OF  LUMINOUS G...
CORONA• OUTERMOST REGION OF  THE SUN’S ATMOSPHERE,  CONSISTING OF PLASMA (HOT  IONIZED GAS)• HAS A TEMPERATURE OF  APPROXI...
• SOLAR WIND, WHICH FLOWS  RADIALLY OUTWARD THROUGH THE  ENTIRE SOLAR SYSTEM, IS FORMED  IN THE CORONA. IT EXPANDS FROM  T...
• A FLOW OF CHARGED  PARTICLES FROM THE SUN  (THE SOLAR WIND)  PERMEATES THE SOLAR  SYSTEM. THIS CREATES A  BUBBLE IN THE ...
SUNSPOTS• ARE DARK, PLANET-SIZED REGIONS  THAT APPEAR ON THE "SURFACE"  OF THE SUN. A LARGE SUNSPOT  MIGHT HAVE A TEMPERAT...
• SUNSPOTS ARE CAUSED BY  THE SUNS MAGNETIC FIELD  W/C PRODUCE ―SOLAR  STORMS‖ LIKE SOLAR  FLARES AND CORONAL MASS  EJECTI...
GRANULES• GRANULES ON  THE PHOTOSPHERE OF  THE SUN ARE CAUSED  BY CONVECTION CURRENTS• A TYPICAL GRANULE HAS A  DIAMETER O...
• 60 EARTH ELEMENTS ARE  DETECTED IN THE SOLAR  SPECTRUM• THE SUN IS MOSTLY MADE  UP OF HYDROGEN AND  HELIUM
PHENOMENA OF THE   SOLAR ATMOSPHERE• ARE ASSOCIATED W/ RADIO FADE-  OUT, MAGNETIC STORMS & POLAR  AURORAS1)SUNSPOTS -ARE A...
SUNSPOTS APPEAR AS DARKSPOTS ON THE SURFACE OFTHE SUN. THEY TYPICALLYLAST FOR SEVERAL DAYS,ALTHOUGH VERY LARGE ONESMAY LIV...
2) SOLAR PROMINENCES• BILLOWING ARCHES OF  HOT GASES STREAMING  FROM A SUNSPOT GROUP  TO ANOTHER• CAN GROW HIGH ABOUT 1  M...
• THEY MAY BE QUIESCENT  (REMAINS MOTIONLESS FOR  SEVERAL HRS THAT CAN  GROW TO THOUSANDS OF  KM ABOVE SOLAR SURFACE)  OR ...
3) SOLAR FLARES• THE MOST VIOLENT SOLAR  PHENOMENA• SUDDEN PHOTOSPHERIC  ERUPTIONS EJECTING  FOUNTAINS OF VERY HOT GASES  ...
• THEY EMIT ELECTRICALLY  CHARGED PARTICLES TRAPPED IN  THE EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD TO  FORM THE VAN ALLEN RADIATION  BELTS...
4) PLAGES• ARE BRIGHT REGIONS IN  THE CHROMOSPHERE OF  THE SUN, TYPICALLY FOUND  IN REGIONS OF THE  CHROMOSPHERE  NEAR SUN...
5) SPICULES -A DYNAMIC JET  OF ABOUT 500 KM DIAMETER IN  THE CHROMOSPHERE OF  THE SUN• LASTS FOR ONLY FEW MINUTES• ARE LON...
6) PHOTOSPHERIC GRANULATIONS• DUE TO THE CONVECTION  OPERATING BELOW THE  PHOTOSPHERE. CONVECTION  PRODUCES COLUMNS OF  RI...
7) SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS• THE ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN THE  SUN GENERATE A  COMPLEX MAGNETIC FIELD WITH  EXTENDS OUT INTO  INT...
THE SUNS CORONA ISTHREADED WITH A COMPLEXNETWORK OF MAGNETICFIELDS. SOLAR STORMS ANDFLARES RESULT FROMCHANGES IN THE STRUC...
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
The Sun
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The Sun

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The Sun

  1. 1. • HAS A SUN, 13+ PLANETS, 176+ SATELLITES, ABOUT 1.1 TO 1.9 MILLION ASTEROIDS, EXPONENTIAL NUMBERS OF COMETS, METEOROIDS, SPARSE GAS & DUST PARTICLES
  2. 2. SOLAR
  3. 3. • SUN: 99.86%• PLANETS: 0.135%• COMETS: 0.01% ?• SATELLITES: 0.00005%• MINOR PLANETS: 0.0000002% ?• METEOROIDS: 0.0000001% ?• INTERPLANETARY MEDIUM: 0.0000001% ?
  4. 4. MEMBERS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
  5. 5. PROPERTIES OF THE SUN• CONTAINS ABOUT 99.86% OF THE TOTAL MASS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM (JUPITER CONTAINS MOST OF THE REST).• IS MADE UP OF 92% HYDROGEN, 7% HELIUM AND THE REMAINDER OF VARIOUS
  6. 6. PROPERTIES OF THE SUN• THE SUN IS WHITE-COLORED, IT MAY APPEAR YELLOW BECAUSE OF ATMOSPHERIC SCATTERING OF BLUE LIGHT IN THE EARTH• G2V YELLOW DWARF STAR W/C IS THE CENTRAL & DOMINANT MEMBER, SOURCE OF LIGHT & HEAT OF ALL PLANETS AND
  7. 7. PROPERTIES OF THE SUN• DIAMETER: 864,938 MILES (1,391,980 KM)• MASS: 1.1989 X 1030 KG (333,000 TIMES EARTH’S MASS)• TEMPERATURE: 5,800 K (SURFACE), 15,600,000 K (CORE)
  8. 8. PROPERTIES OF THE SUN• ROTATION: 27-36 EARTH DAYS• IS OF 4.57 B YRS OF AGE• THE SUN IS A NORMAL G2 STAR• IT WILL KEEP SHINING FOR AT LEAST ANOTHER 5B YEARS• IS 149.60M KMS ( 92.96M MI) AWAY• SURFACE GRAVITY: 274.0 m/s2
  9. 9. ENERGY OF THE SUN• THE ENERGY MOVES OUT FROM THE SUN THROUGH CONVECTION• THE ENERGY COMES FROM THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS IN THE CORE• ENERGY RELEASE EQUALS TO THE DETONATION OF ABOUT 100 NUKE BOMBS PER
  10. 10. ENERGY IS CREATED IN THECORE WHEN HYDROGEN ISFUSED TO HELIUM. THIS ENERGYFLOWS OUT FROM THE CORE BYRADIATION THROUGH THERADIATIVE LAYER, BYCONVECTION THROUGH THECONVECTIVE LAYER, AND BYRADIATION FROM THE SURFACEOF THE PHOTOSPHERE, WHICH ISTHE PORTION OF THE SUN WE
  11. 11. • THE SUN MUST EXPEND LARGE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY TO ENDURE ITS OWN GRAVITATIONAL DESIRE TO COLLAPSE.• THE CORE OF THE SUN IS WHERE ENERGY IS FIRST FORMED WITH A TEMPERATURE OF 27 MILLION DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.
  12. 12. • THE ENERGY MOVES OUT FROM THE CORE THROUGH THE RADIATIVE ZONE. SCIENTISTS CALCULATE THE TEMPERATURE TO BE COOLER THAN THE CORE—IT IS ONLY A 4.5 MILLION DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.• THE SUN’S NEXT LAYER IS THE CONVECTION ZONE.
  13. 13. • CONVECTION IS HOW ENERGY MOVES FROM THE INNER PARTS OF THE SUN TO THE OUTER PART OF THE SUN THAT WE SEE.• JUST ABOVE THE PHOTOSPHERE IS THE CHROMOSPHERE WITH HUGE SOLAR FLARES AND LOOPS OF HOT GASES SHOOTING UP THOUSANDS OF MILES. THINGS BEGIN TO HEAT UP AGAIN
  14. 14. • ABOVE THE CHROMOSPHERE IS THE CORONA—VISIBLE DURING A TOTAL SOLAR ECLIPSE. THE CORONA 4 MILLION DEGREES F. IT IS ALSO VERY THIN. SOMETIMES, SOLAR WIND STREAM AWAY IN ALL DIRECTION FROM THE SUN AND CAN MOVE UP TO 1
  15. 15. • SOLAR FLARES OUTBURSTS AS THE SUN’S MAGNETIC FIELDS TWIST, TEAR AND RECONNECT. CORONAL LOOPS ARE MAGNETIC LOOPS WITH STRONG MAGNETIC FIELDS.• GIANT ARCHES OF GAS THAT ERUPT ON THE SUN ARE CALLED PROMINENCES THAT
  16. 16. • CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS HAVE THE MOST ENERGY OF ALL THESE SOLAR EVENTS. SOMETIMES THEY HEAD TOWARD THE EARTH WHERE THEY CAN CAUSE COMMUNICATIONS DISRUPTIONS AND DAMAGE SATELLITES. EARTH HAS A PROTECTIVE & POWERFUL MAGNETIC SHIELD AROUND IT WHICH PROTECTS US FROM
  17. 17. HOW THE SUN CONVERTS MATTER INTO ENERGY??• THE CORE THAT’S MADE UP OF CRUSHED MATTER MUST BE HOT OF AT LEAST 60 MILLION DEGREES CELSIUS• SUN PRODUCE ENERGY BY NUCLEAR REACTIONS WHERE LIGHTER ATOMS FUSE TOGETHER TO FORM HEAVIER ONES
  18. 18. • THERMONUCLEAR REACTION –SEEMS TO BE THE SUN’S SECRET ON ENERGY PRODUCTION; THE FUSION OF ATOMIC NUCLEI UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURES• THE SUN’S MAIN PARTS: ITS CORE, PHOTOSPHERE, CHROMOSPHERE, CORONA
  19. 19. • ENERGY FROM THE SUN, IN THE FORM OF SUNLIGHT AND HEAT, SUPPORTS ALMOST ALL LIFE ON EARTH VIA PHOTOSYNTHESIS, AND DRIVES THE EARTHS CLIMATE AND WEATHER.
  20. 20. REGIONS OF THE
  21. 21. 1. CORE2. RADIATIVEZONE3. CONVECTIONZONE4. PHOTOSPHERE5.CHROMOSPHERE 6. CORONA 7. SUNSPOTS 8. GRANULES 9. PROMINENCE
  22. 22. • IS WHERE THE NUCLEAR FUSION OF HYDROGEN (H) & HELIUM (He) TAKES PLACE• THE SOURCE OF THE SUN’S & EARTH’S ENERGY• HAS TEMPERATURE ABOVE
  23. 23. • THE HOTTEST PART OF THE SUN AND OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM, HAS .3 SOLAR RADIUS• IS MADE OF HOT, DENSE GAS IN THE PLASMIC STATE• GENERATES 99% OF THE
  24. 24. • EACH GAMMA RAY IN THE SUNS CORE IS CONVERTED INTO SEVERAL MILLION VISIBLE LIGHT PHOTONS BEFORE ESCAPING INTO SPACE• 3.6×1038 PROTONS (H NUCLEI) ARE CONVERTED INTO He NUCLEI PER SECOND, RELEASING MASS & ENERGY OF 4.3 MILLION TONNES PER SECOND,380 YOTTAWATTS (3.8×10
  25. 25. RADIATIVE ZONE• LOCATED BETWEEN THE SOLAR CORE AND THE CONVECTION ZONE• TRANSPORTS SOLAR ENERGY TOWARD THE SUN’S EXTERIOR BY MEANS OF RADIATIVE DIFFUSION• ENERGY TRAVELS THROUGH THE RADIATION ZONE IN THE FORM
  26. 26. • ENERGY IS TRANSPORTED PRIMARILY BY CONVECTION• CONVECTION IS THE CONCERTED, COLLECTIVE MOVEMENT OF ENSEMBLES OF MOLECULES WITHIN FLUIDS• IN THERMODYNAMICS "CONVECTION" OFTEN REFERS TO HEAT TRANSFER BY CONVECTION
  27. 27. PHOTOSPHERE• PHOTOS -"LIGHT" AND SPHAIRA - "SPHERE‖• PERCEIVED TO EMIT LIGHT• SUNS PHOTOSPHERE HAS A TEMPERATURE BETWEEN 4500 AND 6000 K (ABOUT 5,800 K)• INNERMOST SOLAR ATMOSPHERE• HAS GRANULES—CELLS OF GAS EACH ABOUT 1,000 KM IN DIAMETER
  28. 28. CHROMOSPHERE• LITERALLY, "SPHERE OF COLOR―, IS ROUGHLY 2,000 KILOMETERS DEEP. IT SITS JUST ABOVE THE PHOTOSPHERE AND BELOW THE CORONA• CAN ONLY BE SEEN DURING A TOTAL ECLIPSE, WHERE ITS REDDISH COLOR IS REVEALED• A WAVELENGTH OF 656.3 NM IS IN THE RED PART OF THE SPECTRUM, WHICH CAUSES THE CHROMOSPHERE TO HAVE ITS CHARACTERISTIC REDDISH COLOR
  29. 29. PHENOMENA OBSERVED IN THE CHROMOSOPHERE• FILAMENTS AND PROMINENCES• FILAMENTS ARE LARGE REGIONS OF VERY DENSE, COOL GAS, HELD IN PLACE BY MAGNETIC FIELDS. THEY USUALLY APPEAR LONG AND THIN ABOVE THE CHROMOSPHERE• DARK-COLORED BECAUSE THEY’RE COOLER THAN THEIR
  30. 30. • FILAMENTS (DARK-COLORED) APPEAR ON THE ―EDGE‖ OF THE SUN, BRIGHTER THAN THE DARK OUTER SPACE BEHIND THEM. IN THAT CASE WE CALL THEM PROMINENCES• FILAMENTS AND PROMINENCES ARE JUST THE SAME THING• FILAMENTS LAST FOR A FEW
  31. 31. • SPICULE -A DYNAMIC JET OF ABOUT 500 KM DIAMETER IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE SUN.• ARE LONG THIN FINGERS OF LUMINOUS GAS WHICH APPEAR LIKE THE BLADES OF A HUGE FIELD OF FIERY GRASS GROWING UPWARDS FROM THE
  32. 32. CORONA• OUTERMOST REGION OF THE SUN’S ATMOSPHERE, CONSISTING OF PLASMA (HOT IONIZED GAS)• HAS A TEMPERATURE OF APPROXIMATELY TWO MILLION KELVIN AND AN EXTREMELY LOW DENSITY• ITS SIZE & SHAPE IS AFFECTED BY
  33. 33. • SOLAR WIND, WHICH FLOWS RADIALLY OUTWARD THROUGH THE ENTIRE SOLAR SYSTEM, IS FORMED IN THE CORONA. IT EXPANDS FROM THE SUN TO THE END OF THE HELIOPAUSE• HELIOPAUSE- BOUNDARY OF THE HELIOSPHERE, THE SPHERICAL REGION AROUND THE SUN THAT IS FILLED WITH SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS• THE TAIL OF THE HELIOPAUSE IS
  34. 34. • A FLOW OF CHARGED PARTICLES FROM THE SUN (THE SOLAR WIND) PERMEATES THE SOLAR SYSTEM. THIS CREATES A BUBBLE IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM KNOWN AS THE HELIOSPHERE, WHICH TERMINATES AT THE
  35. 35. SUNSPOTS• ARE DARK, PLANET-SIZED REGIONS THAT APPEAR ON THE "SURFACE" OF THE SUN. A LARGE SUNSPOT MIGHT HAVE A TEMPERATURE OF ABOUT 4,000 K (ABOUT 3,700° C OR 6,700° F). THIS IS MUCH LOWER THAN THE 5,800 K (ABOUT 5,500° C OR 10,000° F) TEMPERATURE OF THE BRIGHT PHOTOSPHERE THAT SURROUNDS THE SUNSPOTS
  36. 36. • SUNSPOTS ARE CAUSED BY THE SUNS MAGNETIC FIELD W/C PRODUCE ―SOLAR STORMS‖ LIKE SOLAR FLARES AND CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS (CMES)• HISTORICAL RECORDS OF SUNSPOT COUNTS SHOW THAT SUNSPOT CYCLE HAS AN AVERAGE PERIOD OF ABOUT
  37. 37. GRANULES• GRANULES ON THE PHOTOSPHERE OF THE SUN ARE CAUSED BY CONVECTION CURRENTS• A TYPICAL GRANULE HAS A DIAMETER ON THE ORDER OF 1,000 KILOMETERS AND LASTS 8 TO 20 MINS BEFORE
  38. 38. • 60 EARTH ELEMENTS ARE DETECTED IN THE SOLAR SPECTRUM• THE SUN IS MOSTLY MADE UP OF HYDROGEN AND HELIUM
  39. 39. PHENOMENA OF THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE• ARE ASSOCIATED W/ RADIO FADE- OUT, MAGNETIC STORMS & POLAR AURORAS1)SUNSPOTS -ARE AS HOT AS 3,700 K• HAS TWO PARTS – THE DARK CENTRAL UMBRA & THE LIGHTER SURROUNDING AREA CALLED PENUMBRA. VARIATIONS IN THE NO.
  40. 40. SUNSPOTS APPEAR AS DARKSPOTS ON THE SURFACE OFTHE SUN. THEY TYPICALLYLAST FOR SEVERAL DAYS,ALTHOUGH VERY LARGE ONESMAY LIVE FOR SEVERAL
  41. 41. 2) SOLAR PROMINENCES• BILLOWING ARCHES OF HOT GASES STREAMING FROM A SUNSPOT GROUP TO ANOTHER• CAN GROW HIGH ABOUT 1 MILLION KILOMETERS ABOVE THE
  42. 42. • THEY MAY BE QUIESCENT (REMAINS MOTIONLESS FOR SEVERAL HRS THAT CAN GROW TO THOUSANDS OF KM ABOVE SOLAR SURFACE) OR ERUPTIVE (RARE & VERY ACTIVE, HAS SPEEDS OF UP TO 720KM/SEC AND COULD GROW ABOUT A MILLION KM)
  43. 43. 3) SOLAR FLARES• THE MOST VIOLENT SOLAR PHENOMENA• SUDDEN PHOTOSPHERIC ERUPTIONS EJECTING FOUNTAINS OF VERY HOT GASES OF MORE THAN 1,600,000 KM OUT INTO THE SPACE• ALWAYS OCCUR IN THE ERUPTIVE SUNSPOTS
  44. 44. • THEY EMIT ELECTRICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES TRAPPED IN THE EARTH’S MAGNETIC FIELD TO FORM THE VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELTS, GASES GO EXCITED AND EMITS AURORA BOREALIS (NORTHERN HEMISPHERE) OR AURORA AUSTRALIS (SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE)• SOLAR FLARES CAUSE RADIO DISTURBANCES ON EARTH AMIDST
  45. 45. 4) PLAGES• ARE BRIGHT REGIONS IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE SUN, TYPICALLY FOUND IN REGIONS OF THE CHROMOSPHERE NEAR SUNSPOTS• SUNSPOTS GO BEFORE A PLAGE IN THE SUN’S HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD REGION
  46. 46. 5) SPICULES -A DYNAMIC JET OF ABOUT 500 KM DIAMETER IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE SUN• LASTS FOR ONLY FEW MINUTES• ARE LONG THIN FINGERS OF LUMINOUS GAS WHICH APPEAR LIKE THE BLADES OF A HUGE FIELD OF FIERY GRASS GROWING UPWARDS FROM THE
  47. 47. 6) PHOTOSPHERIC GRANULATIONS• DUE TO THE CONVECTION OPERATING BELOW THE PHOTOSPHERE. CONVECTION PRODUCES COLUMNS OF RISING GAS JUST BELOW THE PHOTOSPHERE THAT ARE ABOUT 700 TO 1000 KM IN DIAMETER.
  48. 48. 7) SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS• THE ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN THE SUN GENERATE A COMPLEX MAGNETIC FIELD WITH EXTENDS OUT INTO INTERPLANETARY SPACE TO FORM THE INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELD. AS THE SUNS MAGNETIC FIELD IS CARRIED OUT THROUGH THE SOLAR SYSTEM BY THE SOLAR WIND
  49. 49. THE SUNS CORONA ISTHREADED WITH A COMPLEXNETWORK OF MAGNETICFIELDS. SOLAR STORMS ANDFLARES RESULT FROMCHANGES IN THE STRUCTUREAND CONNECTIONS OF THESEFIELDS.SUN’S MAGNETIC FIELD

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