Mapping the Future of Green Innovation


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The gap between corporations actual climate actions and consumer perception exposes the laggards, bashfuls, leaders, and the lucky. Where is the opportunity for innovation and profit?

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Mapping the Future of Green Innovation

  2. 2. In the race for market leadership and differentiation, forward-thinking companies are looking to green innovation as a key to future profitability — and also as a shield against commoditization. This document is an overview of Maddock Douglas’ perspective on the business opportunity illustrated by the MapChange 2010 quadrant study. We would like to thank all of the leaders (in all of the sectors) who participated in the study for their interviews, insight and courage to deliver innovation that is good for your bottom line and good for the world.
  3. 3. How sustainable are you? And do your customers agree? Corporations across North America To create the study, Maddock Douglas’ are adopting green innovation for green innovation expert, Marc Stoiber, competitive advantage. and his Vancouver team partnered with Climate Counts and Angus Reid Public We expect that leaders who take full Opinion to survey and compare a sampling advantage of this burgeoning opportunity of the top North American brands within will drive long-term growth and increase these 10 sectors: revenue (Reference: The Economist Intelli- gence Unit: Business and the Sustainability 1 Food & Beverage Challenge). Those who wait for sustainabil- ity mandates to be imposed before acting 2 Apparel will likely lose valuable ground. 3 Household We believe in order to compete, companies will need to generate “on brand” sustainable 4 Internet, Software & Media innovation quickly and communicate it 5 Electronics effectively. 6 Airlines MapChange™ 2010 tracks both the climate change actions of more than 7 Hotels 90 leading U.S. corporations and consumer perception of those actions. 8 Food Services The study illustrates that a significant 9 Consumer Shipping disparity exists between the actual sustainable activity of brands and 10 Banks consumers’ perception of sustainable activity of those brands. To download MD’s MapChange 2010 Study or MD’s Sustainability Leadership Perspective, go to
  4. 4. The 90+ corporations in this year’s study are among the world’s most well-known brands. Like most pioneers of movements, they will potentially draw both positive and negative attention. Either way, they should be commended for taking simple, measurable steps of public accountability, transparency and progress — regardless of the various stages of sustainability from which they are starting. 2
  5. 5. Innovation Takes Courage Innovation Takes Courage We believe that participants in the We believe the time has come for MapChange study are driving the sustainability to be completely business and sustainability discussion integrated into companies’ core business from a position of strength and are strategies and innovation efforts already using the intelligence gleaned (reference: Harvard Business Review from the report. To date, innovators September 2009 — “Why Sustainability across industries and continents is Now the Key Driver of Innovation” ) have been requesting to be included in instead of just a noteworthy CSR initiative MapChange 2011 and subsequent reporting to public relations departments. studies (e.g., Australia, New Zealand, Spain, London). The MapChange study utilized Climate Counts’ company scorecard for “actual” Some companies may choose not to climate action scores because of its participate and remain absent from future simplicity, clarity and usefulness in studies, perhaps because they are nervous providing clear benchmarks for addressing about potentially being tagged as a poor this increasingly complex challenge. performer. In reality, absence from the We think the Climate Counts rating process study could make them appear to be (widely available to companies throughout fence-sitters, which probably is not the the global marketplace) and “i2 — Industry case. We see very little benefit come Innovators” program, are among the most from resisting involvement. useful steps towards creating a road map, accessing resources, and guiding corporate evolution towards a more sustainable and profitable future. 3
  6. 6. Quadrants & Recommendations 100 ACTUAL THE BASHFULS E THE LEADERS PERCEIVED 0 100 THE LAGGARDS E G THE LUCKY 0 Each brand in the study received an “actual” and a “perceived” sustainability score between 0 and 100. The MapChange Study then plotted the results on a classic perceptual map. Although each brand’s situation is different, we believe quadrants share common traits, course corrections and innovation opportunities as categorized by the descriptions on the next page. 4
  7. 7. THE BASHFULS THE LEADERS (low perceived, high actual) (high perceived, high actual) Brands not getting “deserved credit” Most influential brands in the market according to the MapChange Study Organizations known for big-picture, Highly accountable brands in need of whole-systems thinking improved communications and/or more Seem to be consistently maintaining green consumer-facing innovations green innovation pipeline and practices based on consumer insight/needs MD Recommendations: Showcase green innovations as a core business MD Recommendations: Capitalize on priority and create ongoing dialogue leadership position; replace/acquire with the public to openly share your THE LAGGARDS and expose disparity commitment to sustainability. between you and THE LUCKY (while sharing/teaching the willing and worthy THE LAGGARDS how to catch up). (low perceived, low actual) Least accountable brands according THE LUCKY to the MapChange Study (high perceived, low actual) Could be unaware that sustainability Brands enjoying “undeserved credit” drives innovation and possibly short-lived benefit of Might be living in the past; short-term perception focused; resistant to change At risk of being exposed as not what they seem in the eyes of the public MD Recommendations: Develop short- Could be unaware that sustainability term and long-term green vision and drives innovation corresponding plans for prioritized actions; begin deliberate transition to green MD Recommendations: Transparently consumer-facing innovations as well as identify and disclose green realities in measurable internal practices; be more the context of intentions and future willing to look beyond where you are today (short-term and long-term green vision) for what you will become tomorrow. consumer-facing innovations and eco-friendly milestones. 5
  8. 8. Food & Beverage MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate Counts / Angus Reid Public Opinion 6
  9. 9. Food & Beverage MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective Can your next drink or snack really change the world? Maybe not, but the company that makes it certainly could. With tremendous distribution networks, packaging needs and consumer demand, these companies have a large climate footprint as a baseline and a lot of room to improve. According to the MapChange Study, General Mills has a perceived sustainability score of 82 — but the brand’s actual score is 49. We think that’s a pretty big difference. Currently, that gap doesn’t seem to be hurting their numbers — or the numbers of other industry-leading brands. For example, General Mills was named a top corporate citizen by Corporate Responsibility Magazine in seven responsibility categories with a lower-weighted emphasis on green. However, the short-lived advantage of a strong, but shallow green perception, alone, will likely only last so long. We believe it is not what large companies stand to gain — but what they stand to lose that’s important. Some brands in this sector are setting new standards for business as a whole, while others seem lost in the supermarket. All of them make products known for casual times with friends and family; as a whole, we think the sector needs work to avoid being known for being too relaxed about green innovation leadership. 7
  10. 10. Apparel MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate C Climate Counts / A t Counts Angus Reid Public Opinion t Angus Reid Public Opinion id bli i i 8
  11. 11. Apparel MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective Consumer wardrobes—and the fickle world of fashion—may change at breakneck pace, but does it change the world? We think it can. The Apparel sector has seen notable leadership on climate issues from some companies, but no green innovation from others. The unpredictable nature of the category suggests there is an opening for challenger brands and/or new product lines from exemplary green leaders like Nike. Unlike with other market segments, data suggests that green clothing appears to be an incremental new category rather than intruding on the share of traditional clothing (according to the nonprofit trade association Organic Exchange). Consumers are apparently not switching to green clothing, but instead are adding a few green items to their existing wardrobe (source: Mintel Green Living, January 2009). Curiously, it appears the largest apparel manufacturer in the world (and its portfolio of lifestyle brands with loyal enthusiast fan bases), “should” be dominating with green innovation, but doesn’t look that way. The supply of organic cotton appears to be lagging behind the increased demand from leading manufacturers, which makes availability in preferred retail channels spotty. While the entire sector has faced scrutiny on developing world labor issues for years, we believe the time has also come for the industry to realize it has an impact on climate change, environmental and sustainability issues, as well (e.g., pesticide and land use for cotton, supply chain and labor factor cost optimization). 9
  12. 12. Household MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate C Climate Counts / A t Counts Angus Reid Public Opinion t Angus Reid Public Opinion id bli i i 10
  13. 13. Household MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective Most of the necessities of day-to-day life fall within the Household products sector. It appears that consumers (especially parents) align their basic daily needs with values that relate to a safe, clean house and secure future — which includes supporting companies that are addressing climate change. But the production of basic household goods is resource intensive; it has a multifaceted impact on the environment through packaging, disposal and more. That is why we think this sector is a very visible example of innovation being good for the world AND the bottom line. Consumers are ready to pay for sustainable innovations. Although they might be overwhelmed by choice (especially in this sector), the majority appear to believe that every choice can/should be a green choice — evidenced by green cleaning products having successfully made the transition to mainstream acceptance and widespread availability through retail distribution. Consumers also have opinions on who’s making the effort. More often than not, it’s the popularity of new products that will drive higher green perception scores. We believe the market for green cleaning products will continue to outperform conventional cleaning products and continue to grow. Accordingly, even though commoditization is affecting both the industry leaders and the followers, many companies in this sector are injecting innovation into everything from their new products and services to packaging and social technology adoption in order to stand out. 11
  14. 14. Internet, Software & Media MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate Counts / Angus Reid Public Opinion 12
  15. 15. Internet, Software & Media Certainly, the flow of words, ideas and entertainment seems clean enough. But MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective major Internet and software companies are some of the largest corporations in the world — with employees across the globe, countless suppliers and distributors, and a stronghold on our hearts and minds. Innovation has always been the name of the game in Silicon Valley, but we expect the way these successful companies affect climate change leadership during the next decade will be among their most important ideas to date. How do the best-known players in this sector stack up on climate protection? It appears that Google, Microsoft and Yahoo rank higher in consumer perception (despite having significantly lower “actual” scores) than General Electric — considered to be one of the pioneers of green products and green communication. Relatively speaking, there is a distinct perceived difference between producing tangible products and producing something as ethereal (and seemingly nonpolluting) as binary code. Media companies, while perhaps best known for their role in worldwide communications, are large conglomerates that have their hands in scores of different businesses. With their astounding influence in the marketplace, we anticipate this group will need to play an even larger role in delivering green innovation across their portfolio and in providing substantive green information to audiences that are ready for it. We believe the ones that take the lead will do more good AND make more money. 13
  16. 16. Electronics MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate Counts / Angus Reid Public Opinion 14
  17. 17. Electronics MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective Whether you are wired or wireless, you know the companies in the Electronics sector well. The best of these companies seem to make sure the latest technology is consistent with the most current thinking about corporate climate leadership. They’re doing everything from reducing emissions in their production processes, to offering new products that require less energy, to taking back products that are obsolete and turning them into the next big thing. The range of scores in this sector is intriguing. Most notably, this sector showcased one of the strongest examples of a company with both well-aligned “actual” and “perceived” scores (i.e., HP had a differential of only 10 points). It appears HP has been producing sustainability-driven products since the 1990s — and a remarkable communications campaign touting them as well. We think by acting early on this future trend and sticking close to sound consumer insights, HP widened the gap between the market leader and the followers. In short, HP has had more time to fail faster — to develop processes, materials, practices and partnerships (e.g., Sustainability Consortium, their in-house think tank). In a category where many of the products are disposed of within their first year of existence, we suspect companies view the endless life cycle analysis of their new product pipeline as an immense challenge that takes the notion of real innovation to a higher level. We believe that if you’re not already growing with green or going there soon, you’re probably behind your competitors already. 15
  18. 18. Airlines MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate C Climate Counts / A t Counts Angus Reid Public Opinion t Angus Reid Public Opinion id bli i i 16
  19. 19. Airlines MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective The airline industry runs on carbon-based fuels, plain and simple. It’s an industry that requires innovation to drive growth and lead in the fight against global warming. Note to airlines: “It’s hard to read the label when you’re inside the jar.” We anticipate the first airline to get themselves “outside the jar” (where they can see all the viable business opportunities) will reap the leadership benefits. Maybe the open-minded innovators at Virgin Airlines are working on this already. It appears that a few of the airlines have made significant effort towards improving the energy efficiency of their aircraft and are working to incorporate their climate-focused programs into their overall business strategies and innovation pipeline. But overall, we think the entire sector lags behind in actual scores while decent perceived scores leave most of them grouped into THE LUCKY quadrant. This is a dangerous place to be, considering it appears that none has shown any leadership in supporting public policy relevant to climate change, and they have only shown limited work in setting goals, measurement and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. We think public relations efforts supporting flight offsets are the least they can do, but we believe this is a weak attempt at planning for the future of your business. 17
  20. 20. Hotels MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate C Climate Counts / A t Counts Angus Reid Public Opinion t Angus Reid Public Opinion id bli i i 18
  21. 21. Hotels MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective The world’s largest hotel chains seem to be seeking practical ways to address a range of broad environmental impacts in their operations, from toxic chemical use to indoor air quality to water. With its large number of “one-time-use” items and water consumption emphasis, we think the hotel industry can see the potential financial benefits of integrating green innovation into their future business strategy. However, few appear to be aligning such actions as part of a larger and more comprehensive carbon management strategy for competitive advantage. Marriott has made significant changes to its massive supply chain by replacing depleted inventories of supplies with newly developed green products, including recycled plastic key cards and pillows made of 100% recycled material. But an average sector score of 19 out of a possible 100 suggests the sector has much work ahead and lots of opportunity for leaders to make progress. We believe the brands that fall into THE LUCKY and THE LAGGARDS quadrants are overdue to demonstrate tangible progress before the court of public opinion makes its ruling. We suspect fixing this is a clear opportunity for green leadership. As an example, some competitive chains offer smaller boutique hotels that are completely carbon neutral. Note: We need to see this sector innovate around getting much more serious about energy use and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. The industry overall has been struggling to adopt a certification program that can be applied universally. Many of the forward-thinking hotels appear to be seeking special LEED certification with the U.S. Green Building Council. 19
  22. 22. Food Services MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate C Climate Counts / A t Counts Angus Reid Public Opinion t Angus Reid Public Opinion id bli i i 20
  23. 23. Food Services MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective The Food Services sector is a fixture of every mall food court or freeway exit. It’s the fast and convenient comfort food we see everywhere — in the form of cafés, fast food chains and affordable, family-friendly restaurants. In the past, the sector has focused on issues like packaging, animal welfare and fair trade, but we think it is now under a spotlight for its impact on the planet. We believe Starbucks shows that alignment of performance and perception does happen. The coffee giant’s MapChange 2010 “perceived” and “actual” scores are nearly identical. McDonald’s, on the other hand, is no stranger to the consequences of communication being too far out in front of actual performance. In 2009, McDonald’s took their lumps in the media for what some called textbook “greenwashing” when hundreds of European McDonald’s changed their famous red sign behind the Golden Arches to green (source: Chicago Tribune), while it appears simultaneously making vague claims about environmental action rather than embarking on more tangible and consumer satisfying green innovations. The data suggests that “green” is confusing for many consumers. For instance, it appears that some equate generally good, and/or healthy things, with green as suggested by the incongruous MapChange scores for Wendy’s. “The public has difficulty discerning between sustainability and social innovation… so perhaps Wendy’s’ healthier offerings have formed its image as a green company.” — The New York Times, Green Inc. Blog 2.25.10. We anticipate that there is an opportunity — particularly in this category — for a leader to control the language and the rate of change. 21
  24. 24. Consumer Shipping MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate C Climate Counts / A t Counts Angus Reid Public Opinion t Angus Reid Public Opinion id bli i i 22
  25. 25. Consumer Shipping MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective The consumer shipping industry — or the logistics/express delivery industry, as it’s sometimes called — has a considerable climate impact. With so many packages traveling by ground and air all over the world every day, the industry’s annual greenhouse gas emissions could run into the millions of tons. The results for the four leading shippers — DHL (and its parent Deutsche Post World Net), the U.S. Postal Service, UPS and FedEx — suggests an industry that has begun to address its climate impact, but has a long way to go. Commercial shippers UPS and DHL score about equally well in how green their actions are, but when it comes to consumer perception of the two brands, It appears “Brown” delivers green to its competitive advantage — with much higher perceived scores than DHL. These large discrepancies are common throughout the study. These gaps reinforce the need for individual brands to deliberately distinguish themselves by constantly innovating — and proudly communicating their true sustainability more accurately, more consistently and more transparently. We believe there is no greater advantage than a rich innovation pipeline. 23
  26. 26. Banks MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective 100 ACTUAL PERCEIVED 0 100 0 Data Source Climate C Climate Counts / A t Counts Angus Reid Public Opinion t Angus Reid Public Opinion id bli i i 24
  27. 27. Banks MD’s MapChange2010 Perspective By 2020, green practices will influence 66% of consumers when they choose a financial service provider. (source: April 2009 Mintel forecast estimates that in 2020, two thirds or “66% of U.S. consumers will be classified as True or Light Greens, meaning that green practices will play a role in their choice of financial services providers” — up from 51% in 2010). We believe those who are ahead in complying with earth-friendly legislation and satisfying consumer preference will fulfill the unmet needs in the market faster than the competition. They will likely drive profit to the bottom line and take market share from others. Take CitiGroup for example. CitiGroup has an actual sustainability score of 67 — the highest score in the banking sector. Yet CitiGroup is rated 6th out of 12 by consumers in terms of sustainability with a perceived score of 49. This gap indicates that, while CitiGroup is taking the initiative to go eco-friendly, their efforts are not readily recognized by consumers (because those efforts are not necessarily customer facing). For those with a lower actual score, like Capital One (12), and higher perceived score (57), we think the opportunity to infuse more sustainability practices into innovative products, services and business models is just as large. We believe the gap in scores doesn’t represent a glaring problem for most banks, yet. Currently, it represents opportunity. 25
  28. 28. “ The markets agree… companies that embrace sustainability have achieved the highest share price growth over the past three years, whereas companies with the worst performance focused less on sustainability.” The Economist Intelligence Unit, and Deloitte’s: “The Green Gap” 2009 26
  29. 29. The 5 ‘C’s of Sustainability Branding The 5 ‘C’s of Sustainability Branding From the MapChange Study research 4. CONVERSATIONAL Sustainability and five years of experience building and branding is more effective as a two-way growing green brands, Marc Stoiber, conversation rather than one-way com- VP of Green Innovation at Maddock Douglas, munication. Honesty and transparency will created “The 5 ‘C’s of Sustainability go a long way with consumers. Disclosing Branding,” a tool that outlines the five things what you’re doing well and what you we think brand sustainability must be in could be doing better will instill trust. And order to succeed. trust breeds loyalty. Inviting consumers to participate in a conversation about 1. COMPETITIVE To compete, brands must your process will further strengthen the innovate — and the best new innovations brand/consumer relationship. tend to be sustainable. All other benefits being equal, sustainability differentiates 5. CREDIBLE Sustainability strengthens and provides tangible competitive brands. But greenwashing, even if advantage. unintended, damages them. The key is sequence. As long as sustainability efforts 2. CONSUMER FACING Get the most are in place, functioning and measurable benefit out of new sustainability initiatives before being announced, they will be by making them something the consumer viewed as credible. And proven, objective will see. Consumer-facing changes will credibility paired with innovation and have the most immediate impact on public communication is the key to sustainable perception and, potentially, financial brand success. performance. 3. CORE Tying sustainability to a brand’s core business is another way to ensure it resonates with consumers. If a brand sells hamburgers, its sustainability has to be about hamburgers, (e.g., organic beef, recycled wrapper). Don’t do something that is unrelated to what people know you for, or they won’t reward your efforts. 27
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  31. 31. Methodology Overview Methodology Overview The MapChange 2010 Study used two PERCEIVED SUSTAINABILITY distinct methods to calculate actual To measure consumer brand perception, and perceived leadership in addressing Angus Reid Public Opinion conducted an climate change. online survey of 2,032 American adults. The results were weighted to ensure a ACTUAL SUSTAINABILITY random sample that was representative To measure actual brand sustainability, of the entire adult American population. we used Climate Counts’ newly released 2010 corporate climate scores. For the A “maxdiff” methodology was used to past three years, Climate Counts has assist the respondents in evaluating the audited the brands within all 10 sectors 97 companies represented across 10 dif- using a scorecard that tracks corporate ferent sectors, meaning that respondents climate action in four key areas: were asked to “choose the best and worst measurement of impact, reduction of company in terms of their leadership in impact, engagement on public policy addressing climate change” out of a random related to climate change, and openness group of 3 to 6 companies (dependent on and transparency with consumers on the number of companies in each sector). corporate climate activities. The survey was divided into two parts, with five sectors in each, to mitigate respondent CLIMATE COUNTS SCORECARD fatigue and ensure the quality of the data. Climate Counts uses a 0 to 100 point For more of the MapChange Study scale and 22 criteria to determine if methodology and limitations, companies have: download the study at MEASURED their climate “footprint” REDUCED their impact on global warming SUPPORTED (or suggest intent to block) progressive climate legislation DISCLOSED (publicly) their climate actions clearly and comprehensively 29
  32. 32. After working with 25% of the Fortune 100, Maddock Douglas can say that green innovation is just one method of ensuring future growth. You need to develop and nurture a portfolio of relevant new products, services and business models in order to solidify your position with customers as an innovation leader — green or otherwise. This is not simply hollow rhetoric. 30 30
  33. 33. LOOKING FOR THE BLACK & WHITE BUSINESS CASE FOR GOING GREEN? MapChange 2011 identifies and prioritizes THE opportunities to capitalize on with green innovation; specifically quantifying where there is consumer demand and revenue opportunity for YOUR brands and sub-brands within YOUR vertical industry. Offered by Maddock Douglas in partnership with nonprofit MapChange 2011 sponsoring subscribers can leap ahead of competitors by using this study to decisively deploy resources and capital towards sustainability initiatives that matter, leading to clear revenue, profit and market capitalization opportunities related to “green” initiatives. We believe companies that are meaningfully committed to sustainability outperform their peers. According to a recent A.T. Kearney study, they outperformed their competitors by 15% (during the recession), adding an average of $650 million to their market capitalization. MapChange 2011, the standard for diagnostic and prescriptive green innovation, will be released in the fall of 2010. To reserve your place in MapChange 2011 and to become a sponsoring subscriber, contact Cindy Malone at or 630.563.6490. Deadline for inclusion is June 4, 2010.
  34. 34. About Maddock Douglas Wall Street has identified innovation as the For more information on the study highest indicator of future profitability. We or to obtain the map for your sector, believe your ability to innovate will either make please contact us: you a dominant force or make you extinct. MARC STOIBER For most businesses, innovating new products VP of Green Innovation or services means working with a long list of 630.563.6495 specialty partner firms, like research, ideation, industrial design, branding, advertising, online and media. That leads to a cumbersome, time- Press inquiries: consuming and inefficient process of handoffs. Sara Buschkamp 630.563.6451 Maddock Douglas: Agency of Innovation® Maddock Douglas was built from the ground up to manage the whole life cycle of your Headquarters innovation process from research to ideation 111 Adell Place, Elmhurst, IL to marketing strategy and branding through 630.279.3939 launch. Our services are rigorous, invigorating 630.279.0553 (fax) and battle tested. East Coast To date, 25% of the Fortune 100 have tapped 66 Fort Point St., Norwalk, CT 06855 Maddock Douglas to help drive innovation into Northwest the market. In turn, we’ve helped our clients 204-1650 Duranleau Street produce billions in topline revenue. Granville Is., Vancouver, BC V6H 3S4 About Green Innovation Since 2005, the experts at our newly acquired Vancouver office have been helping companies adopt environmentally innovative measures to create competitive advantage. Led by founder Marc Stoiber, their mission is to create and brand To reserve you place in MapChange your products and services that are good for the 2011 and to become a sponsoring world AND good for the bottom line. Marc is also subscriber, contact Cindy Malone an expert speaker on green brand innovation, at with engagements that include the TED or 630.563.6490. Vancouver Conference and Strategy’s Cause and Effect Conference.
  35. 35. MapChange2010 Isn’t a paper book on green a bit of a contradiction? We live in an imperfect world. And while critics may argue that a paper book is a bad use of energy and resources, we don’t agree. True, sending messages electroni- cally leaves a lighter footprint. And versions of this book have, in fact, already been sent electroni- cally to thousands of people. But books have their place. They can be pondered, put down and picked up, earmarked, scribbled on and passed along to friends in ways that e-mail simply can’t. And let’s not forget, all books are not created alike. This book was printed on 100% post-consumer waste paper. You can help us make this book an even better use of resources. Share ™ it with someone else who can use it — perhaps another leader who runs a company interested in green innovation or a writer who can spread the word. L E A D E R S H IP PE R SP ECTIV E M D ’s SUSTA I N AB IL ITY That way, this little book might just make a good impact on our world. Doing well by doing good.