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  • 1. UNIT – V PART – A 1. Define plumbing. Plumbing in a general term which indicates the practice, material and fixtures used in the installation or maintenance of all pipings, fixtures, appliances and other appurtenances used in connection with other public or private water supply systems as well as sanitary or drainage systems, within or adjacent to any building or its connection with any point of public disposal. 2. What is “Plumbing water supply”? Plumbing water supply system is consisted of supply distribution pipes (called service pipes), connections, domestic storage tanks, flushing storage tanks etc in a building. 3. What is plumbing sanitary or drainage system? Plumbing sanitary or drainage system consists of water closets, urinals and other such appliances like traps, solid waste and sewers, flushing cisterns etc in a building. 4. Name the components of water connection system. a) Ferrule b) Goose neck c) Service pipe d) Stop cock e) Water meter. 5. Write the importance of underground storage tanks. Underground storage tanks are necessarily required to collect water from municipal supply lines, if the water pressure in the main is insufficient to reach the overhead tank. The water collected in the underground tank is then pumped into the overhead tank. The installation of pump on the municipal mains is always prohibited by the municipal authorities, as it reduces the water pressure in the adjoining houses or buildings. 6. Give examples for metal tanks used for water storage purpose.
  • 2. Metal tanks fabricated from mild steel or galvanized iron sheets have been used in the houses over the years, as they can be easily fabricated and are light durable and easy to install are the examples of metal tanks. 7. What are the advantages of mild steel (M.S) metal tanks? a) easily fabricated b) light c) durable and d) easy to install. 8. Explain HDPE . HDPE is High Density Polyethylene Pipes are used in special situation. These pipes are not brittle like other pipes and hence a hard fall at the time of loading, unloading, handling etc. HDPE pipes upto 630mm dia can be joined with detachable joints and can be detached at the time of shifting the pipe line from one place to another. HDPE pipes can be joined also by welding. 9. Write the advantage of automatic pumping system. a) It eliminates the need for overhead tanks and is ideal for existing buildings when new overhead tank. Cannot be constructed and also for new buildings and when the tanks placed on roof cannot generate enough pressure at upper floors. b) The system is able to supply water at much higher pressure than it is possible from local overhead tanks. c) System is more reliable in such situations in hot climatic regions; the water supplied from overhead tanks becomes too warm, while in cold regions, it may freeze. 10. What is “bib cock”? Bib cock is a type of valve provided at the end of service pipes for with drawing water at the consumer houses. By rotating the handle of the bib cock, the orifice opening, through which the water passes, can be increased or decreased, thereby controlling the outflow through the spout. 11. What is the use of ventilation in the buildings?
  • 3. The ventilation is usually achieved by providing a fresh air inlet connected to the lower-most manhole or inspection chamber. Fresh air from the atmosphere will enter through this inlet into the manhole, and finally goes out at top through the vent pipe. The air along with foul gases will finally escape out from the cowl provided at the top. A flap valve is provided at the inlet of fresh air into the inspection chamber, to avoid the escape of foul gases in the street or courtyard. 12. What are called sanitary fittings? Plumbing is the practice, materials and fixtures used in the installation or maintenance of all pipes in connection with both water supply and sanitary systems within or adjucent to any building. The entire system of piping, fittings and the appurtenances are known as plumbing system. Sanitary plumbing system includes the pipes, fittings are the appliances used in a house plumbing system, to receive the human excreta and sullage wastes of the house. 13. List out the various sanitary fittings. Sanitary fittings are: 1. Water closets (WC), 2. Urinals, 3. Flushing cistern for water closets 4. Bath tubs, 5. Washing basins, 6. Kitchen sinks. 14. Write any five principles of sanitary plumbing system a) The house sewer should be connected to the street sewer, keeping the outfall level of the house sewer sufficiently higher than the water level of the public sewer to avoid backflow.
  • 4. b) The plumbing system should contain enough number of traps, to avoid evolution of foul smells and the efficient functioning. c) Laterals should be laid at sufficient slope so as to develop self-cleansing velocities. d) The joints of the pipes should be made watertight. e) The layout of the system should be such as to permit easy cleaning in case of blockage. 15. Define house drain sizing. The size of pipe to be used in a house drain is determined by the number of units drained by it. Proper diameters are: for 2 units, 1 1/2"; for 9 units, 2"; for 25 units, 2 1/2". The size of any stack, house drain, or sewer must be, however, at least the size of the argest branch connected to it. The minimum size of a house drain receiving the discharge from a water closet should be 4" in diameter, and this pipe should continue full size to the vertical stacks receiving the discharge of water closets. Even without any water closets discharging into a system, the drainage system should have at least one 3" diameter stack extended full size through the roof. 16. How will you size the vent pipe? The proper size for the vent stack is determined by the total fixture units of the soil or waste stack it serves. A branch vent is sized by the number of units connected to it and the length of the pipe itself. No vent pipe should be less than 1 1/4" in diameter, nor should a vent stack's diameter be less than half the diameter of the soil stack it serves. This means that with a 4" soil stack, vents cannot be less than 2" pipe. In determining the length of vent piping, regard length of stack and branches as being continuous. 17. Write short note on smoke test in pipes. The smoke test requires the use of a smoke machine. All lower openings in the system are sealed, but the roof openings are left uncapped. Smoke is then pumped into
  • 5. the system until a considerable volume of it is seen issuing from the roof openings. Then they are capped. The machine continues to force smoke into the piping until a pressure equivalent to a rise of one inch in a water column gauge is reached. At this point, check all connections for signs of smoke. The principal objection to the smoke test is the possible damage it might do to interiors in the case of a line break. Make either the peppermint or the smoke test on old piping. The peppermint test is preferred because it can be detected in places, such as underground piping, where smoke cannot. As these tests are usually made in the presence of a local building or public health inspector, you should pre-test all connections before calling him in. You should also remember that excessive pressure in either the smoke or the air test will blow out your trap seals, defeating the entire purpose of the test. To avoid this, take care to use only recommended pressures. 18. What are the advantages of aeration system in water treatment system? • Plants are easy to operate, as the management of operation is for a maximum of two or three hours per day. • Extended aeration processes are often better at handling organic loading and flow fluctuations, as there is a greater detention time for the nutrients to be assimilated by microbes. • Systems are odor free, can be installed in most locations, have a relatively small footprint, and can be landscaped to match the surrounding area. • Extended aeration systems have a relatively low sludge yield due to long sludge ages, can be designed to provide nitrification, and do not require a primary clarifier. . 19. What are the disadvantages of aeration system in water treatment system? • Extended aeration plants do not achieve denitrification or phosphorus removal without additional unit processes.
  • 6. • Flexibility is limited to adapt to changing effluent requirements resulting from regulatory changes. 20. Explain FRP. FRP is Fibre Glass Reinforced Plastic or composite of glass fibre, polyester resin and fillers. These pipes possess better strength, durability, high tensile strength and are highly corrosion resistant. 21. List the different systems of plumbing. The different systems of plumbing are as follows. 1. Two pipe system 2. One pipe system 3. Single stack system 4. Partially ventilated single stack system. 22. What are the various kinds of vent piping? a) Main vent b) Branch vent: c) Fixture vent: d) Individual trap vent: e) Dual connection 23. What is meant by individual trap vent? A trap may be supplied with air near its crown by the installation of a vent at the trap itself. In this way, the possibility of a vacuum forming at this point is eliminated. 24. Write a note on branch vent in drainage piping.
  • 7. Connected to the main vent, this pipe serves two or more fixture vents. It and the fixture vent should be run to a height above the overflow level of the fixture being served. This prevents sewage from draining through the vent line if the fixture waste branch gets clogged. When properly connected, vent lines will remain free and any stoppages in the drain piping will be indicated by the backing up of waste into the fixture. 25. Write about the Single stack system This system is having a single pipe for soil, waste and vent without any separate ventilation pipe. It uses only one pipe, which carries night soil as well as sullage and the same pipe is extended up to 2 m above roof level with a cowl to act as vent pipe for removal of gases.