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Acids and bases
 

Acids and bases

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Form 4 syllabus

Form 4 syllabus

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    Acids and bases Acids and bases Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 7ACIDS AND BASES
    • What is acid?
      • a substance that ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+
      What is base?
      • a substance that reacts with an acid to
      form only salt and water
      What is alkali?
      • Soluble bases that produce OH¯ ions in water
    • Chemical properties of acid
      • Sour taste
      • pH less than 7
      • Corrosive
      • Conduct electricity
      • Acid can react with
      a) bases to produce salts and water
      b) metals to produce salts and hydrogen gas
      c) carbonates to produce salts , carbon dioxide gas and water
    • Chemical properties of base
      • Bitter/smooth/soapy
      • pH more than 7
      • Corrosive
      • Conduct electricity
      • Base can react with
      a)Acid to produce a salt and water
      b)Heated with ammonium salt to produce ammonia gas
      video
    • Uses of acids in daily life
      • Sulphuric acid – paints, detegents, polymers, fertilisers
      • Carbonic acid- make carbonated drinks
      • Ethanoic acid- vinegar
      Uses of base in daily life
      • Sodium hydroxide – soaps, detergents, bleaching agents
      • Magnesium hydroxide – toothpaste
      • Ammonia- fertilisers
    • Role of water in the formation of hydrogen ions
      • In the presence of water, an acid will ionize to form the hydrogen ions, H+
      • So, water is essential for the formation of hydrogen ions that cause acidity
    • Role of water in the formation of hydroxide ions
      • In the presence of water, alkali will dissociate to form hydroxide ions, OH¯
      • Hence, water is essential for the formation of hydroxide ions that cause alkalinity
    • pH scale
      • A set of numbers used to show the degree of acidity and alkalinity of a solution
      • pH values of less than 7 indicates an acidic solution
      • pH values of more than 7 indicates an alkaline solution
      • pH values of 7 indicates a neutral solution
    • pH values
      Higher pH value
      • more alkaline
      • higher concentration of hydroxide ion
      Lower pH value
      • more acidic
      • higher concentration of hydrogen ion
      When acids meets base
    • pH is actually a measurement of the concentration of hydrogen, H+ in a solution
      The higher the concentration of the H+
      ions, the lower the pH value, and more acidic the solution is
      The higher the concentration of the OH¯ ions, the higher the pH value and the more alkaline solution the solution is.
    • Acid
      • Strong acidis an acid that dissociate (ionize ) completely in water to form hydrogen ion,H+ of high concentration
      • Weak acidis an acid that dissociate (ionize ) partially in water to produce hydrogen ions,H+ of low concentration.
    • Mineral acids such as hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid are strong acids
      Weak acids-ethanoic acid, methanoic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid
    • Alkali
      • Strong alkaliis produce when a base dissociates completely in water to produce hydroxide ions, OH- of high concentration
      • Weak alkaliis produced when a base dissociates partially to produce hydroxide ions, OH- of low concentration.
    • Strong alkali- sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide
      Weak alkali- ammonia solution
    • EDITED BY :
      NoorLailibintiMohamad Elias
      D20091034948
      ISMP KIMIA 2009/2010
      Thank you