Battle of Chaeronea ended Greek freedom and independence.
Macedonian kingdom successfully conquered many city-states but let them retain self-government in local affairs.
GREEK CITY- STATES
Alexander the Great
Alexander was proclaimed King of Macedonia after the gruesome death of his father.
Alexander – 20 years old when he became King in 336 BC
Under Arisotle’s teaching, he had learned science, geography, and literature
As a young boy, Alexander learned to ride a horse, use weapons, and command troops.
Invasion of Persia
Alexander carried out Philip’s plan to invade Persia.
He and his 35,000 men were able to defeat some 40,000 Persian men at the Granicus River in Anatolia.
His victory alarmed Darius III.
PERSIANS VERSUS THE MACEDONIANS DARIUS III ALEXANDER III (THE GREAT) 50,000-70,000 men Less than 35k men
Alexander ordered his finest troops to break through a weak point in the Persian lines. After doing it successfully, the frightened Persian King fled along with his panicked army.
Their fleeing gave Alexander power/ supremacy over Anatolia.
332 BC Alexander entered Egypt and founded the city of Alexandria . It would be known for its lighthouse, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
He looted Persian wealth after occupying the capitals of Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis (Persia’s royal capial). He left Persia and proceeded to South Asia in 327 BC.
In 323 BC Alexander returned to Babylon.
It is in this year that the great Alexander fell ill of fever and eventually died.
Alexander and his lovers
Hephaestion – Macedonian nobleman and general of Alexander’s army
Lucian wrote in his book On Slips of the Tongue that Hephaestion stayed the whole night with Alexander in the latter’s tent.
Diogenes of Sinope accused Alexander of being “ruled by Hephaestion’s thighs”.
Arrian tells of an account on Alexander’s great grief when Hephaestion died. He says Alexander “flung himself on the body of his friend and lay there nearly all day long in tears, and refused to be parted from him until he was dragged away by force by his Companions."
Of course Alexander also has female lovers named Campaspe (from Larisa), Barzine (a noble Persian), and Roxana (Roshanak in Iranian, meaning little star).
Bagoas – a Persian eunuch/ lady boy who, according to some accounts, developed an intimate relationship with Darius and Alexander (He was a calamite).
After Alexander’s death, a vibrant new culture emerged.
Greek culture (also known as the Hellenic) blended with the Egyptians, Persian, and Indian influences. This blending became known as the Hellenistic Culture .
KOINE - is the popular spoken language used in Hellenistic cities such as Alexandria.
TRADE AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY
Became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization.
It occupied a strategic site on the western edge of the Nile delta.
Became an international community (rich mixtures of customs and traditions from Egypt and from Aegean.
Alexandria’s Greatest Attractions
Residents and visitors admired Alexandria’s great beauty.
Its greatest attractions were its famous museum and the library.
MUSEUM- temple dedicated to the MUSES, Greek goddesses of arts and sciences.
The MUSEUM and the Library
The Museum was an institute of advanced study.
Contained art galleries, zoo, botanical gardens, and even a dining hall.
The Alexandrian Library contained collections of half a million papyrus scrolls which included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature.
It was the first true research library in the world where it helped promote the work of a gifted group of scholars.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
During the Hellenistic period, the center of scholarship gradually shifted away from Athens.
Hellenistic scholars succeeded brilliantly in preserving Greek and Egyptian learning in the sciences.
ASTRONOMY MATH AND PHYSICS PHILOSOPHY AND ART
ARISTARCHUS OF SAMOS
Disproved the previous belief that the sun was smaller than Greece.
Estimated that the sun was at least 300 times larger than the earth.
Proposed that the earth and other planets revolve around the sun.
Incorrectly placed the earth at the center of the solar system.
Closely calculated the earth’s true size.
Highly regarded astronomer, poet, historian, and mathematician.
Used geometry to compute the earth’s circumference at 24,662 miles.
Mathematics and Physics
His works were used by Erathosthenes and Aristarchus
Highly regarded mathematician who opened a school of geometry in Alexandria.
THE ELEMENTS- 465 carefully presented geometry propositions and proofs.
ARCHIMEDES of SYRACUSE
Accurately estimated the value of pi (the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter).
Explained the law of the lever and invented the compound pulley to lift heavy objects.
Philosophy and Art
Hellenistic scholars also believed that the universe followed rational principles.
Philosophy- offered the best way to understand these principles.
STOICISM and EPICUREANISM
Zeno (335-263 BC) founded stoicism.
It believed in a divine power who controlled the universe.
Proposed that people should live a virtuous life in harmony with the natural law.
Vices such as human desires, power, and wealth were dangerous distractions that should be controlled.
It was founded by Epicurus.
The universe was composed of atoms and ruled by gods who had no interest in humans.
Believed that the only real objects were those that the five senses perceived.
Epicurus taught that the greatest good and the greatest pleasure came from virtuous conduct and the absence of pain.
REALISM in SCULPTURE
Colossus of Rhodes
Hellenistic sculpture moved away from harmonic balance and idealized forms of the classical age.
Creations this time were more realistic and emtional works.