On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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The earliest humans must have had and passed on knowledge about plants and animals to increase their chances of survival. This mayhave included knowledge of human and animal anatomy and aspects of animal behavior (such as migration patterns). However, the firstmajor turning point in biological knowledge came with the Neolithic Revolution about 10,000 years ago. Let’s trace the history of Biology
PREHISTORY Homo sapiens – 1.75 million B.C. origin (4.5 billion B.C.) Human speech – 50, 000 B.C. Writing – 4, 000 B.C. The age of the Earth has been determined to be 4.54 billion years old Pre history is a term used to describe a period before the recorded history. The term "prehistory" can be used to refer to all time since the beginning of theuniverse, although it is more often used in referring to the period of time since life appeared on Earth, or even more specifically to the time since human-likebeings appeared. In dividing up human prehistory, prehistorians typically use the Three age system, whereas scholars of pre-human time periods typically use the well defined Rock record and its internationally defined stratum base within the geologic time scale. The three-age system is the periodization of human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies; the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. technology stone age bronze age iron age paleolithic mesolithic neolithic chalcolithic most advanced advent of ferrous- first use of stone - development of - primitive technological - copper age metal working metallurgy tools human technology & social development
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (4000 B.C. to 476 A.D.) classical Greece hellenistic period Roman empire The history of science in Classical Antiquity encompasses both those inquiries into theThe ancient cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the workings of the universe aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar Indian subcontinent, and China, among others, or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and those abstract investigations knownproduced renowned surgeons and students of the as natural philosophy. The ancient peoples who are considered the first scientists may natural sciences such as Susruta and Zhang have thought of themselves as natural philosophers, as practitioners of a skilled Zhongjing, reflecting independent sophisticated profession (for example, physicians), or as followers of a religious tradition (for systems of natural philosophy example, temple healers).The encyclopedic works of Aristotle, Archimedes, Hippocrates, Galen, Ptolemy, Euclid, and others spread throughout the world. These works and the important commentaries on them were the wellspring Zhang of science. Hippocrates Aristotle Zhongjing known for Edwin Smith Papyrus (460 B.C.) of Egypt (384 B.C.) of China developing the established Focused on (150 A.D.) process of (16th cent. B.C.) medicine as a biological embalming, which profession causation and was used for the diversity ofSusruta of India wrote the medical mummification, in life performed masterpiece Treatise on order to preservecataract surgery Cold Pathogenic and human remainsbefore 800 B.C. Miscellaneous Diseases and forestall decomposition
CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY (4000 B.C. to 476 A.D.) Theophrastus Pliny the Elder (371 B.C.), Galen (129 – 199 (23 A.D.) known Aristotle’s A.D.) was arguably for his successor at the the most knowledge of Lyceum, wrote a accomplished of plants and series of books all medical nature, and was on Botany researchers of the most prolificZhuangzi, Taois antiquity. He compiler of t philosopher contributed zoological of China (4th greatly to the descriptions cent. B.C.) understanding of expressed numerous ideas related scientific to disciplines The decline of the Romans led to theevolution, such including disappearance and destruction ofas denying the anatomy, physiolo much knowledge. fixity of gy, pathology,phar biological macology,neurolo species and gy, philosophy, an speculating d logic middle ages that specieshad developed differing Herophilus (335-280 B.C.) & Erasistratus attributes in (304 – 250 B.C.) amended Aristotle’s response to physiological work. They performed differing experimental dissections and theyenvironments founded the school of anatomy in Alexandria.
MIDDLE AGES (476 A.D. – 1449) Avicenna (980–1037) introduced 8th to 13th cent. – Islamic Golden Age clinical trials and clinical pharmacology in The Canon of Medicine Avenzoar (1091–1161) was an early adherent of Al-Jahiz (781-869) experimental dissection and autopsy, which he described early carried out to prove that the skin disease evolutionary ideas in scabies was caused by a parasite, a discovery zoology; such as which upset the theory of humorism. He also struggle for existence. Abu Rayhan introduced experimental surgery, where animal He also introduced the Biruni (973- testing is used to experiment with surgical idea of food chain. 1048) described techniques prior to using them on humans the idea of During a famine in Egypt in 1200, Abd-el-latif (1162-1231) artificial observed and examined a large number of skeletons, and heAl Dinawari (828- selection and discovered that Galen was incorrect regarding the formation896) is considered argued that of the bones of the lower jaw and sacrumthe founder of nature works inArabic botany for much the same Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati developed an early scientifichis Book of Plants, in way, an idea that method for botany, introducing empirical and experimentalwhich he described has been techniques in the testing, description and identification ofat least 637 species compared to numerous materia medica, and separating unverifiedand discussed plant natural selection. reports from those supported by actual tests anddevelopment from observationsgermination to Rhazes (865–925) Indeath, describing anatomy and physiology, thethe phases of plant Persian physician carried outgrowth and the an early experiment to Renaissance andproduction of discredit the Galenic theory Reformationflowers and fruit of humorism
RENAISSANCE and REFORMATION (1450-1600) Andreas VesaliusOtto Brunfels (1530s) (1543) inaugurated the Leonhart Fuchs Heironymus Bockoften called a father modern era of Western (1530) (1539) of medicine with his Errata recentiorum The first edition of botany, because, in treatise De humani medicorum ("Errors his Kreutterbuch his botanical corporis fabrica, which of recent ("plant book") writings, he relied was based on doctors“), his first appeared in 1539. not so much on the dissection of corpses. publication, in He describedancient authors as on He was the first in a which he argued for Germanhis own observations series of anatomists the use of "simples" plants, includingand described plants who gradually replaced (herbs) rather than their according to the scholasticism with the noxious names, characteristi latter empiricism in "compounds" of cs, and medical physiology and arcane ingredients uses. He developed medicine, relying on concocted in his own system to first-hand experience medieval medicine classify 700 plants rather than authority Modern Era and abstract reasoning
MODERN ERA (1600 onwards) 1628 1665 1667-1674 1673 1730William Harvey Jan Robert Hooke Carolus Linnaeus - English Swammerdam - published the - laid the physician who -the first to seminal foundations for was the first to observe and Micrographia the modern describe describe red based on scheme ofcorrectly and in blood cells observations Anton Van binomial detail the - was one of the with his own Leeuwenhoek nomenclature. systemic first people to compound -Father of He is known as circulation and use the microscope in microbiology. the father of properties of microscope in 1665 - best known for modern blood being dissections - His work on his work on the taxonomy pumped to the insects improvement of body by the demonstrated the microscope heart. Harveys that the various and for hisDe motu cordis phases during contributionsin 1628 was the the life of an towards thebeginning of the insect establishment of end for Galenic microbiology theory.
bioinformatics computational astrobiology theoretical biology genomics biophysics Synthetic biology ecology & Classical genetics,environmental modern synthesis & science 21st Century biological evolutionary theory sciences biochemistry, biotechnology, microbiology 20th Century biological genetic & molecular sciences engineering biology & genomics morphology embryology bacteriology geography cytology geology 19th Century: Emergence of Biological Disciplines