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Kingdoms archaebacteria

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biology : bacteria , 3rd chapter, part2

biology : bacteria , 3rd chapter, part2

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  • Who lives in the temperature extremes? Photosynthesis???
  • Here is a wild application that caught my eye… Enzyme needs to work in soapy (alkaline) solution
  • Different from temperature Halophiles - Osmosis 3) Because interior tends to be normal...
  • Transcript

    • 1. Review
      • Remember from earlier this year that there
      • are two broad categories of organisms:
        • *Prokaryotes – have No membrane bound organelle
        • *Eukaryotes – have membrane bound organelle
    • 2. Important Features
      • -all are prokaryotes
      • -all have plasmids (small circular packages of DNA)
      • -most have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
      • -flagella are made with a globular protein called flagellin- no 9+2 arrangement
    • 3. Cytosol Granules (Small chunks of food)
    • 4.  
    • 5. Locomotion (Methods of Movement)
      • Bacterial Flagellum- lacks microtubules
      • Pili- short, thin appendages
    • 6. Bacteria
      • E. coli
      E. coli
    • 7. Nutrition
      • Autotrophs- manufacture organic compounds
        • Photoautotrophs- use light energy & CO 2
        • Chemoautotrophs-use inorganic substances like H 2 S, NH 3 , and other nitrogen compounds
      • Heterotrophs- obtain energy by consuming organic compounds
        • parasites- get energy from living organisms
        • saprobes (saprophytes)- get energy from dead, decaying matter; also called decomposers
    • 8. Oxygen Preferences
      • obligate aerobes must have oxygen
      • obligate anaerobes cannot live in oxygen
      • facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen
    • 9. 2 Bacteria Kingdoms
      • Kingdom Archaebacteria - are ancient bacteria that live in extreme environments
      • Kingdom Eubacteria - are generally referred to as bacteria or germs, and are considered more recent. Most types of bacteria belong in this kingdom.
      • First appeared approximately 3.7 BYA
    • 10. The Archaebacteria:
      • do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
      • have ribosomes similar to eukaryotes
      • have unique lipids in their plasma (cell) membranes
    • 11. The Archaebacteria also:
      • have some genes that resemble eukaryotic genes
      • usually are not pathogenic (they don’t usually make us sick!)
      • live in extreme environments:
        • high concentrations of salt
        • extremes of pH and temperature
    • 12. 3 Archaebacterial Groups
      • Methanogens
      • Halophiles
      • Thermoacidophiles = live in extremely hot, acid environments
    • 13. Methanogens
      • anaerobic bacteria that get energy by turning H 2 and CO 2 into methane (CH 4 )
      • live in mud, swamps, and the guts of cows, humans, termites and other animals
    • 14. Halophiles
      • are organisms that live in environments with extremely high salt concentrations
        • some extreme halophiles can live in solutions of 35 % salt. (seawater is only 3% salt!)
      • halophile means “salt loving”
      • most halophiles are aerobic and heterotrophic; others are anaerobic and photosynthetic, containing the pigment bacteriorhodopsin
    • 15. Diversity of Halophilic Organisms
      • halophiles are found in salt lakes, salt marshes, subterranean salt deposits, dry soils, salted meats, hypersaline seas, and salt evaporation pools
      • the Red Sea was named after the halobacterium that turns the water red during massive blooms.
    • 16. Halophile Environments solar salterns Owens Lake, Great Salt Lake, coastal splash zones, Dead Sea
    • 17. Thermoacidophiles
      • Like temperature and pH extremes
        • Hot = up to 110 ºC
        • Cold = down to 1 ºC
        • Acid = as low as pH 2
        • Alkali = as high as pH 9
      • they are chemoautotrophs, using H 2 S
      • the first Extremophile was found about 30 years ago
    • 18. Extreme Temperatures
      • Thermophiles - High temperature = 60-80 0 C
        • Thermal vents and hot springs
        • May go hand in hand with chemical extremes
      • Psychrophiles - Low temperature
        • Arctic and Antarctic
          • 1/2 of Earth’s surface is oceans between 1 0 C & 4 0 C
          • Deep sea –1 0 C to 4 0 C
          • Most rely on photosynthesis
    • 19. Thermophile Environments Hydrothermal Vents in the ocean, and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park
    • 20. Psychrophile Environments Alan Hills Ice Field: Antarctica
    • 21. Thermophile Applications
      • many industrial processes involve temperature extremes, which is a problem for most enzymes
        • Enzymes to work on foods that need to be refrigerated
        • Perfumes - most don’t tolerate high temperatures
        • Cold-wash detergents
        • PCR reactions
    • 22. Chemical Extremes
      • Acidophiles - Acidic
        • Again thermal vents and some hot springs
      • Alkaliphiles - Alkaline
        • Soda lakes in Africa and western U.S.
      • Halophiles - Highly Salty
        • Natural salt lakes and manmade pools
        • Sometimes occurs with extreme alkalinity
    • 23. Acidophiles
      • Enzymes used to increase efficiency of animal feeds
        • enzymes help animals extract nutrients from feed
          • more efficient and less expensive
      Life at High Temperatures, Thomas M. Brock
    • 24. Acidophile Environments
    • 25. Alkaliphiles
      • “ Stonewashed” pants
        • Alkaliphilic enzymes soften fabric and release some of the dyes, giving worn look and feel
      • Detergents
        • Enzymes to dissolve proteins or fats
        • Alkaliphilic enzymes can work with detergents
    • 26. Alkaliphile Environments e.g. Mono Lake alkaline soda lake, pH 9, salinity 8%
    • 27. Examples of Unusual Habitats
      • The bacterium pseudomonas was found living on a desert plant in the Negev Desert. The plant secretes salt through salt glands on its leaves.
      • Bacillus was found in the nasal cavities of desert iguanas. These iguanas have salt glands in their nasal cavities that secrete KCl brine during osmotic stress.
    • 28. Special Techniques for Survival
      • While external environments are “extreme”, internal cell environments are “normal”.
        • Ways to protect the cell:
          • Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles sometimes excrete protective substances and enzymes
          • Acidophiles often lack cell wall
          • Some moderate halophiles have high concentrations of a solute inside to avoid “pickling”
        • Many microbes contain unusual enzymes
    • 29. Interesting Facts
      • The term “red herring” comes from the foul smell of salted meats that were spoiled by halobacterium.
      • There have been considerable problems with halophiles colonizing leather during the salt curing process.
    • 30. Future Applications
      • Many possible applications using halophiles are being explored such as:
        • genetically engineering halophilic enzymes, encoding DNA into crops to allow for salt tolerance
        • treatment of waste water
    • 31. Summary
      • Now you know something about Extremophiles
        • where they live
        • how they survive
      • They are interesting because
        • they have enzymes that work in unusual conditions

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