Kingdoms archaebacteria

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biology : bacteria , 3rd chapter, part2

biology : bacteria , 3rd chapter, part2

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  • Who lives in the temperature extremes? Photosynthesis???
  • Here is a wild application that caught my eye… Enzyme needs to work in soapy (alkaline) solution
  • Different from temperature Halophiles - Osmosis 3) Because interior tends to be normal...

Transcript

  • 1. Review
    • Remember from earlier this year that there
    • are two broad categories of organisms:
      • *Prokaryotes – have No membrane bound organelle
      • *Eukaryotes – have membrane bound organelle
  • 2. Important Features
    • -all are prokaryotes
    • -all have plasmids (small circular packages of DNA)
    • -most have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
    • -flagella are made with a globular protein called flagellin- no 9+2 arrangement
  • 3. Cytosol Granules (Small chunks of food)
  • 4.  
  • 5. Locomotion (Methods of Movement)
    • Bacterial Flagellum- lacks microtubules
    • Pili- short, thin appendages
  • 6. Bacteria
    • E. coli
    E. coli
  • 7. Nutrition
    • Autotrophs- manufacture organic compounds
      • Photoautotrophs- use light energy & CO 2
      • Chemoautotrophs-use inorganic substances like H 2 S, NH 3 , and other nitrogen compounds
    • Heterotrophs- obtain energy by consuming organic compounds
      • parasites- get energy from living organisms
      • saprobes (saprophytes)- get energy from dead, decaying matter; also called decomposers
  • 8. Oxygen Preferences
    • obligate aerobes must have oxygen
    • obligate anaerobes cannot live in oxygen
    • facultative anaerobes can grow with or without oxygen
  • 9. 2 Bacteria Kingdoms
    • Kingdom Archaebacteria - are ancient bacteria that live in extreme environments
    • Kingdom Eubacteria - are generally referred to as bacteria or germs, and are considered more recent. Most types of bacteria belong in this kingdom.
    • First appeared approximately 3.7 BYA
  • 10. The Archaebacteria:
    • do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls
    • have ribosomes similar to eukaryotes
    • have unique lipids in their plasma (cell) membranes
  • 11. The Archaebacteria also:
    • have some genes that resemble eukaryotic genes
    • usually are not pathogenic (they don’t usually make us sick!)
    • live in extreme environments:
      • high concentrations of salt
      • extremes of pH and temperature
  • 12. 3 Archaebacterial Groups
    • Methanogens
    • Halophiles
    • Thermoacidophiles = live in extremely hot, acid environments
  • 13. Methanogens
    • anaerobic bacteria that get energy by turning H 2 and CO 2 into methane (CH 4 )
    • live in mud, swamps, and the guts of cows, humans, termites and other animals
  • 14. Halophiles
    • are organisms that live in environments with extremely high salt concentrations
      • some extreme halophiles can live in solutions of 35 % salt. (seawater is only 3% salt!)
    • halophile means “salt loving”
    • most halophiles are aerobic and heterotrophic; others are anaerobic and photosynthetic, containing the pigment bacteriorhodopsin
  • 15. Diversity of Halophilic Organisms
    • halophiles are found in salt lakes, salt marshes, subterranean salt deposits, dry soils, salted meats, hypersaline seas, and salt evaporation pools
    • the Red Sea was named after the halobacterium that turns the water red during massive blooms.
  • 16. Halophile Environments solar salterns Owens Lake, Great Salt Lake, coastal splash zones, Dead Sea
  • 17. Thermoacidophiles
    • Like temperature and pH extremes
      • Hot = up to 110 ºC
      • Cold = down to 1 ºC
      • Acid = as low as pH 2
      • Alkali = as high as pH 9
    • they are chemoautotrophs, using H 2 S
    • the first Extremophile was found about 30 years ago
  • 18. Extreme Temperatures
    • Thermophiles - High temperature = 60-80 0 C
      • Thermal vents and hot springs
      • May go hand in hand with chemical extremes
    • Psychrophiles - Low temperature
      • Arctic and Antarctic
        • 1/2 of Earth’s surface is oceans between 1 0 C & 4 0 C
        • Deep sea –1 0 C to 4 0 C
        • Most rely on photosynthesis
  • 19. Thermophile Environments Hydrothermal Vents in the ocean, and Obsidian Pool in Yellowstone National Park
  • 20. Psychrophile Environments Alan Hills Ice Field: Antarctica
  • 21. Thermophile Applications
    • many industrial processes involve temperature extremes, which is a problem for most enzymes
      • Enzymes to work on foods that need to be refrigerated
      • Perfumes - most don’t tolerate high temperatures
      • Cold-wash detergents
      • PCR reactions
  • 22. Chemical Extremes
    • Acidophiles - Acidic
      • Again thermal vents and some hot springs
    • Alkaliphiles - Alkaline
      • Soda lakes in Africa and western U.S.
    • Halophiles - Highly Salty
      • Natural salt lakes and manmade pools
      • Sometimes occurs with extreme alkalinity
  • 23. Acidophiles
    • Enzymes used to increase efficiency of animal feeds
      • enzymes help animals extract nutrients from feed
        • more efficient and less expensive
    Life at High Temperatures, Thomas M. Brock
  • 24. Acidophile Environments
  • 25. Alkaliphiles
    • “ Stonewashed” pants
      • Alkaliphilic enzymes soften fabric and release some of the dyes, giving worn look and feel
    • Detergents
      • Enzymes to dissolve proteins or fats
      • Alkaliphilic enzymes can work with detergents
  • 26. Alkaliphile Environments e.g. Mono Lake alkaline soda lake, pH 9, salinity 8%
  • 27. Examples of Unusual Habitats
    • The bacterium pseudomonas was found living on a desert plant in the Negev Desert. The plant secretes salt through salt glands on its leaves.
    • Bacillus was found in the nasal cavities of desert iguanas. These iguanas have salt glands in their nasal cavities that secrete KCl brine during osmotic stress.
  • 28. Special Techniques for Survival
    • While external environments are “extreme”, internal cell environments are “normal”.
      • Ways to protect the cell:
        • Acidophiles and Alkaliphiles sometimes excrete protective substances and enzymes
        • Acidophiles often lack cell wall
        • Some moderate halophiles have high concentrations of a solute inside to avoid “pickling”
      • Many microbes contain unusual enzymes
  • 29. Interesting Facts
    • The term “red herring” comes from the foul smell of salted meats that were spoiled by halobacterium.
    • There have been considerable problems with halophiles colonizing leather during the salt curing process.
  • 30. Future Applications
    • Many possible applications using halophiles are being explored such as:
      • genetically engineering halophilic enzymes, encoding DNA into crops to allow for salt tolerance
      • treatment of waste water
  • 31. Summary
    • Now you know something about Extremophiles
      • where they live
      • how they survive
    • They are interesting because
      • they have enzymes that work in unusual conditions