Modernism in USA


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Things that happened during the 1930-1970

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Modernism in USA

  1. 1. Modernism in USA
  2. 2. American Modernism An artistic and cultural movement in the United States starting at the turn of the 20th century with its core period between World War I and World War II and continuing into the 21st century.
  3. 3. Armory show in New York (1913) -the first opportunity for Americans to see the new art that had been developing in Europe. The Centers of Modernism: 1. Artist's self-consciousness about questions of form and structure. 2. Obsession with primitive material and stylistic innovations.
  4. 4. Modernism was also revolutionary in the sense that it challenged the issues that blocked the human progress. Rejections of the Modernism movement: • Certainty of Enlightenment thinking • Nihilism or rejection of religious beliefs • Ideology of Realism • Tradition • It also reacts against historicism, artistic conventions, and institutionalization of Art
  5. 5.  By 1930, Modernism had entered popular culture. Popular culture, derived from its own realities (particularly mass production), fueled much modernist innovation.  Modern ideas in art appeared in commercials, advertisements, and logos, being an early example of the need for clear, easily recognizable and memorable visual symbols.  Modernism was also shaped through the economic and technological progress in U.S. which accelerated the daily life of an individual.
  6. 6. Examples of Modernist magazine advertisements
  7. 7. Visual Arts
  8. 8. Marsden Hartley (January 4, 1877 - September 2, 1943) an American Modernist painter, poet, and essayist. Often combines a thick brushstrokes and vibrant colors.
  9. 9. Hartley's assimilation were both Cubism (the collage like juxtapositions of visual fragments) and Expressionism (the coarse brushwork and dramatic using bright colors and black). However, his purpose inclusion of medals, banners, military insignia, the Iron Cross, and the German imperial flag does evoke a specific sense of Germany during World War I as well as a collective psychological and physical portrait of a particular officer. Portrait of a German Officer (1914) Oil on canvas 68 1/4 x 41 3/8 in.
  10. 10. Other paintings of Hartley The Ice Hole (1908) Painting No. 48(1913) Handsome drinks (1916)
  11. 11. Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956) known as Jackson Pollock was an influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was well known for his unique style of drip painting.
  12. 12. Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in 1936 at an experimental workshop in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros. He later used paint pouring as one of several techniques on canvases of the early 1940s, such as Male and Female and Composition with Pouring I. After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor, and he developed what was later called his "drip" technique. He uses synthetic resin-based paints called alkyd enamels, which, at that time, was a novel medium and hardened brushes, sticks, and even basting syringes as paint applicators. Pollock's technique of pouring and dripping paint is thought to be one of the origins of the term action painting.
  13. 13. Male and Female (1942) Oil on canvas 73.1” in x 49” in Pollock was heavily influenced by fellow painters, Joan Miro and Pablo Picasso. It is obvious that the distortion of the human form present in Male and Female stems from the similar Surrealist and Cubism art forms. This painting portrays a man and woman using bold colors and in an extreme abstract form. The figure on the right appears to have a blackboard type surface as a body displaying numbers and mathematical symbols. The image to the left is less identifiable except for the appearance of two long lashed eye openings. They appear to be joined in the center by a surface containing 3 triangles and what looks like a partial, almost ghostlike child figure.
  14. 14. Other paintings of Pollock The Key (1946) Oil on linen 59” x 82” inches Convergence (1952) Oil on canvas 93.5” x 155” inches
  15. 15. Other paintings of Pollock She-Wolf (1943) Oil, gouache, and plaster on canvas 41 7/8 x 67" The Deep (1953) Oil and enamel on canvas 59.3 in × 86.8 in
  16. 16. Other paintings of Pollock Number 8 (1949) Oil, gouache, and plaster on canvas 41 7/8” x 67“ inches Number 11 (1952) enamel & aluminium paint with glass on canvas 83.5” × 192.5” inches Known also as “Blue Poles”
  17. 17. Georgia Totto O'Keeffe (November 15, 1887 – March 6, 1986) The world’s famous female American modernist that devoted to creating imagery that expressed what she called “the wideness and wonder of the world as I live in it.” O’Keeffe’s images—instantly recognizable as her own —include abstractions, largescale depictions of flowers, leaves, rocks, shells, bones and other natural forms, New York cityscapes and paintings of the unusual shapes and colors of architectural and landscape forms of northern New Mexico.
  18. 18. Cow’s Skull Red White and Blue (1931) 39 7/8 x 35 7/8 inches The painting depicts a cow skull centered in front of what appears to be a cloth background. In the center of the background is a vertical black stripe. On either side of that are two vertical sripes of white laced with blue. At the outside of the painting are two vertical red stripes. O'Keeffe used a weathered cow's skull to represent the enduring spirit of America or depicting Jesus Christ on the cross with touches on the strong ties to Christianity. The painting prominently displays the three colors of the American flag behind the cow skull. Although she said made it as a joke on the concept of the "Great American Painting," the picture has become a quintessential icon of the American West.
  19. 19. Other paintings of O’Keeffe Georgia Ram's Head White Hollyhock and Little Hill (1935) Oil on canvas 36 x 24 inches Cow's Skull with Calico Roses (1931) Georgia Ram's Head White Hollyhock and Little Hill (1928) Oil on canvas Oil on canvas 36 x 24 inches 29 7/8 x 39 7/8 inches
  20. 20. Other paintings of O’Keeffe Sky Above Clouds IV (1965) Oil on canvas 96 x 288 in The Black Place II (1944) Oil on canvas 23 7/8 x 30 inches
  21. 21. John Marin (December 1870 – October 1953) was an early American modernist artist. He is known for his abstract landscapes and watercolors.
  22. 22. The Sea, Cape Split, Maine (1939) Oil on canvas Movement: Boats and Objects, Blue Gray Sea (1947) Oil on canvas 24 1/4 x 29 1/4 inches 29 x 36 1/4 inches John Marin used oil paint as thinly as he did watercolor, the medium for which he is best known.
  23. 23. Mark Rothko was an American painter of Russian Jewish descent. He is generally identified as an Abstract Expressionist, although he himself rejected this label and even resisted classification as an "abstract painter."
  24. 24. No.5/No.22 Oil on Canvas Untitled
  25. 25. Number 12 (1951) Saffron (1957)
  26. 26. Robert Motherwell was an American painter, printmaker, and editor. He was one of the youngest of the New York School (a phrase he coined), which also included Philip Guston, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, and Mark Rothko.
  27. 27. From the Lyric Suite, 1965
  28. 28. Elegy to the Spanish Republic, 54, 1957-61
  29. 29. Wall Painting with Stripes, 1944
  30. 30. Adolph Gottlieb was an American abstract expressionist painter, sculptor and printmaker.
  31. 31. Rolling, 1961
  32. 32. Sentinel, 1951
  33. 33. Flotsam at Noon, 1950’s
  34. 34. Morris Louis was an American painter. During the 1950s he became one of the earliest exponents of Color Field painting
  35. 35. Point of Tranquility,1959
  36. 36. “DALET KAF”
  37. 37. 1958 Tet magna
  38. 38. Architecture
  39. 39. Modernist architecture emphasizes function. • The phrase ‘form follows function’ is often used when discussing the principles of modernism. It asserts that forms should be simplified – architectural designs should bear no more ornament than is necessary to function. Modernists believe that ornament should follow the structure and purpose of the building. Family life and social interaction was at the centre of the modernist dream for a planned environment.
  40. 40. Modernist architecture has these features: •Little or no ornamentation •Factory-made parts •Man-made materials such as metal and concrete •Emphasis on function •Rebellion against traditional styles
  41. 41. Louis Henry Sullivan • (September 3, 1856 – April 14, 1924) • was an American architect, and has been called the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". He is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright, and an inspiration to the Chicago group of architects who have come to be known as the Prairie School.
  42. 42. Guaranty Building
  43. 43. Frank Lloyd Wright • (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) • American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1000 structures and completed 532 works. • Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. •His work includes original and innovative examples of many different building types, including offices, churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, and museums. •Was recognized in 1991 by the American Institute of Architects as "the greatest American architect of all time."
  44. 44. Falling water (1935, Southwestern Pennsylvania)
  45. 45. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum (New York City 1959)
  46. 46. Hickox/Brown house (Illinois, United States)
  47. 47. Richard Neutra •(April 8, 1892 – April 16, 1970) was an Austrian American architect . •He came to be considered among the most important modernist architects. • Neutra had a keen appreciation for the relationship between people and nature; his trademark plate glass walls and ceilings which turn into deep overhangs have the effect of connecting the indoors with the outdoors.
  48. 48. Kaufmann Desert House (1947, Palm Springs, California)
  49. 49. Kronish House (1955, Beverly Hills, California)
  50. 50. Walter Gropius •(May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture.
  51. 51. Gropius House (1938) in Lincoln, Massachusetts
  52. 52. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe •(March 27, 1886 – August 19, 1969) was a German-American architect. •He is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture
  53. 53. 860–880 Lake Shore (1951,Drive Chicago, Illinois)
  54. 54. Fashion
  55. 55. Fashion In the early 1920s, the ready-to-wear fashion began to spread America. More women earned their own wages and didn’t want to spend time on fittings. Fashion as the status symbol was no more important as class distinctions were becoming blurred. People especially women called for inexpensive fashion. In the aspect of mass production of contemporary style clothing for women, America went ahead of other countries. Several designers of this fashion including Jane Derby made a stage pose. Jane Derby (May 10, 1895 – August 9, 1965) a top-of-the-line ready-to-wear American fashion designer from the 1930s to 1965.
  56. 56. Women By 1921 the longer skirt, which was usually long and uneven at the bottom was out of date. The short skirt became popular by 1925. No bosom, no waistline, and hair nearly hidden under a cloche hat. The manufacturing of cosmetics also began from this decade. Powder, lipstick, rouge, eyebrow pencil, eye shadow, colored nails, women had them all. Moreover, pearls came in fashion as well.
  57. 57. Men In this period, clothing for men was more conservative. Trousers widened to 24 inches at the bottoms. Knickers, increased the width and length, were called plus fours. In summer, white linen was popular, while in the winter an American coat— the raccoon coat—was in fashion. The slouch hat, made of felt, could be rolled up and packed into a suitcase. These were very popular with college men.
  58. 58. Children
  59. 59. Music
  60. 60. Armies of men … have turned to a better life by first hearing the sounds of a Salvation Army band. The next time you hear a Salvation Army band, no matter how humble, take off your hat. -John Philip Sousa
  61. 61. Is an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known primarily for American military and patriotic marches, known as “the march king”. o The Liberty Bell oThe Thunderer o The Washington Post o Semper Fidelis o The Stars and Stripes Forever John Philip Sousa
  62. 62. The Salvation Army is a Christian denominational church and international charitable organization structured in a quasi-military fashion. The organization reports worldwide membership of over 1.5 million,[1] consisting of soldiers, officers and adherents known as Salvationists. Its founders Catherine and William Booth sought to bring salvation to the poor, destitute and hungry by meeting both their "physical and spiritual needs".
  63. 63. Charles Edward Ives He is one of the first American composers of international renown, though Ives' music was largely ignored during his life, and many of his works went unperformed for many years. Over time, Ives came to be regarded as an "American original"
  64. 64. Ives drew on the music of his New England childhood—hymns, patriotic songs, brass band marches, and dance tunes—which he set in a very modern style, using polytonality and polyrhythms. •Poly tonality musical use of more than one key simultaneously. •Polyrhythms simultaneous use of two or more conflicting rhythms
  65. 65. The Country Band March •Written in 1903 after Ives graduated in Yale. • He setcompositional path for the future by using many well-known musical quotations— fromchildren’s songs, patriotic tunes, hymns, and even two marches by John Philip Sousa. •The work is not actually in a march form (which resembles a rag) but rather a five-part sectional one that brings back the opening march theme in various guises .
  66. 66. jazz
  67. 67. Early in the 20th century, jazz evolved from the blues tradition, but also incorporated many other musical and cultural elements. In New Orleans, often considered the birthplace of jazz, musicians benefited from the influx of Spanish and French colonial influences. In this city, a unique ethnic cultural mix and looser racial prohibitions allowed African Americans more influence than in other regions of the South.
  68. 68. Jazz music of integration as a central element of American culture, has its roots in Black slave culture. The music combined elements from African call and response patterns into its instrumentation and riffs. In its beginnings jazz was looked critically upon by parts of the white population During the 1920s and 1930s jazz gained considerably in popularity and aroused increasing interest in young whites who were attracted by the artistic, personal as well as cultural freedom of expression this new musical form had to offer.
  69. 69. White Musicians Benny Goodman Gene Krupa Milton Mezzrow Louis Armstrong
  70. 70. Today, jazz music is regarded as an integral and vibrant part of American culture, the unique native music of America, a worldwide representative of Afro-American culture.
  71. 71. Literature
  72. 72. • John Steinbeck (1902–1968) was born in Salinas, California , where he set many of his stories. His style was simple and evocative, winning him the favor of the readers but not of the critics. Steinbeck often wrote about poor, working-class people and their struggle to lead a decent and honest life. • The Grapes of Wrath, considered his masterpiece, is a strong, socially-oriented novel that tells the story of the Joads, a poor family from Oklahoma and their journey to California in search of a better life.
  73. 73. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1962.
  74. 74. Nathanael West • born Nathan Weinstein (October 17, 1903 – December 22, 1940), was an American author, screenwriter and satirist
  75. 75. • A contemporary of Steinbeck, Nathanael West is most famous for two short novels. • The first, Miss Lonelyhearts , plumbs the life of its eponymous antihero , a reluctant (and, to comic effect, male) advice columnist , and the effects the tragic letters exert on it.
  76. 76. • The second, The Day of the Locust , introduces a cast of Hollywood stereotypes and explores the ironies of the movies. Both are now considered classics of American literature. • Hollywood The center of the American motion picture industry.
  77. 77. Henry Miller • Henry Valentine Miller (December 26, 1891 – June 7, 1980) was an American writer. • He was known for breaking with existing literary forms, developing a new sort of semiautobiographical novel that blended character study, social criticism, philosophical reflection, explicit language, sex, surrealist free association and mysticism, always distinctly about and expressive of the reallife Henry Miller and yet also fictional.
  78. 78. • Henry Miller assumed a unique place in American literature in the 1930s when his semiautobiographical novels, written and published in Paris, were banned from the U.S. Although his major works, including Tropic of Cancer and Black Spring , would not be free of the label of obscenity until 1962, their themes and stylistic innovations had already exerted a major influence on succeeding generations of American writers, and paved the way for sexually frank 1960s novels
  79. 79. Gertrude Stein • (February 3, 1874 – July 27, 1946) was an American writer of novels, poetry and plays that eschewed the narrative, linear, and temporal conventions of 19thcentury literature, and a fervent collector of Modernist art. The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas is a 1933 book by Gertrude Stein, written in the guise of an autobiography authored by Alice B. Toklas, who was her lover.
  80. 80. • In 1933, Gertrude Stein published the memoirs of her Paris years, entitled The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas , which became a literary bestseller. The advent of this book elevated Stein from the relative obscurity of a cult literary figure into the light of mainstream attention.
  81. 81. Ernest Hemingway • Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American author and journalist. His economical and understated style had a strong influence on 20thcentury fiction, while his life of adventure and his public image influenced later generations.
  82. 82. • The popularity of Hemingway's work to a great extent is based on the themes, which according to scholar Frederic Svoboda are love, war, wilderness and loss, all of which are strongly evident in the body of work.[174] These are recurring themes of American literature, which are clearly evident in Hemingway's work
  83. 83. • T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), American-British poet and literary critic, author of Prufrock and Other Observations (1917) won numerous awards and honours in his lifetime, including the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1948. His early and experimental poetical works depict a bleak and barren soullessness, often in spare yet finely crafted modern verse
  84. 84. The Hollow Men • The Hollow Men (1925) is a poem by T. S. Eliot. Its themes are, like many of Eliot's poems, overlapping and fragmentary, but it is recognised to be concerned most with postWorld War I Europe under the Treaty of Versailles (which Eliot despised: compare "Gerontion"), the difficulty of hope and religious conversion
  85. 85. William Faulkner • William Cuthbert Faulkner (born Falkner, September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962), also known as Will Faulkner, was an American writer and Nobel Prize laureate from Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner worked in a variety of written media, including novels, short stories, a play, poetry, essays and screenplays. He is primarily known and acclaimed for his novels and short stories
  86. 86. A Rose for Emily • Faulkner's most famous, most popular, and most anthologized short story, "A Rose for Emily" evokes the terms Southern gothic and grotesque, two types of literature in which the general tone is one of gloom, terror, and understated violence. The story is Faulkner's best example of these forms because it contains unimaginably dark images: a decaying mansion, a corpse, a murder, a mysterious servant who disappears, and, most horrible of all, necrophilia — an erotic or sexual attraction to corpses.
  87. 87. F.Scott Fitzgerald • Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (September 24, 1896 – December 21, 1940) was an American author of novels and short stories, whose works are the paradigmatic writings of the Jazz Age, a term he coined. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century.
  88. 88. • Tender is the Night was published in 1933 by Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald, better known as F. Scott Fitzgerald, the American author famous for his novel, The Great Gatsby. Set between 1913 and 1930, mostly in Southern France and Switzerland, the novel tells the story of what happens when the extremes of love, madness, and ambition play out against a highglamour backdrop, in a physical and psychological landscape torn apart by World War I.
  89. 89. • The Great Gatsby explores themes of decadence, idealism, resistance to change, social upheaval, and excess, creating a portrait of the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties that has been described as a cautionary tale regarding the American Dream.
  90. 90. Margaret Mitchell • Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell (November 8, 1900 – August 16, 1949) was an American author and journalist. One novel by Mitchell was published during her lifetime, the American Civil War-era novel, Gone with the Wind. For it she won the National Book Award for Most Distinguished Novel of 1936 and the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1937.
  91. 91. Dashiell Hammett • Samuel Dashiell Hammett May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories, a screenplay writer, and political activist. Among the enduring characters he created are Sam Spade (The Maltese Falcon), Nick and Nora Charles (The Thin Man), and the Continental Op (Red Harvest and The Dain Curse).
  92. 92. The Maltese Falcon • The Maltese Falcon is a 1930 detective novel by Dashiell Hammett. The main character, Sam Spade, appears only in this novel and in three lesser known short stories, yet is widely cited as the crystallizing figure in the development of the hard-boiled private detective genre.
  93. 93. Jerome David Salinger • Bornrn on January 1, 1919, in New York, J.D. Salinger was a literary giant despite his slim body of work and reclusive lifestyle. His landmark novel, The Catcher in the Rye, set a new course for literature in post-WWII America and vaulted Salinger to the heights of literary fame. In 1953, Salinger moved from New York City and led a secluded life, only publishing one new story before his death.
  94. 94. • The Catcher in the Rye is a 1951 novel by J. D. Salinger. Originally published for adults, it has since become popular with adolescent readers for its themes of teenage angst and alienation
  95. 95. THE END ☺