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# Eduction (ph1)

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### Eduction (ph1)

1. 1. Eduction Is the formulation of a new proposition by the interchange of the subject and the predicate of an original proposition and/or by the use or removal of negatives.
2. 2. Kinds of Formal Eduction: 1. Conversion -is the formulation of a new proposition by interchanging the subject and predicate of an original proposition but leaving its quality unchanged. a. Simple Conversion b. Partial Conversion
3. 3. Rules for Conversion: 1. Interchange the subject and the predicate. 2. Retain the quality. 3. Do not extend any term.
4. 4. a. Simple Conversion  The conversion is simple if the quantity of the converse is the same as the quantity of the convertend. (E-E) (I-I) Example: E- No cat is a dog. E- No dog is a cat. I- Some students are scholars. I- Some scholars are students.
5. 5. b. Partial Conversion  the conversion is partial if the quantity of the proposition is reduced from universal to particular. (A to I ) Example: A- All bananas are fruits. I- Some fruits are bananas.
6. 6. 2. Obversion -is the formulation of a new proposition by retaining the subject and quantity of an original proposition, changing its quality, and using as predicate the contradictory of the original predicate.  (A to E) (E to A)  (I to O) (O to I)
7. 7. Rules for Obversion: 1. Retain the subject and the quantity of the obvertend. 2. Change the quality. If the obvertend is affirmative, the obverse must be negative; and if the obvertend is negative to obverse must be affirmative. 3. As predicate, use the contradictory predicate of the original proposition.
8. 8. Example: A- All men are free. E- No men are non-free. E- No men are free. A- All men are non-free. I- Some men are dishonest. O- Some men are not honest. O- Some houses are not white. I- Some houses are non-white.
9. 9. 3. Contraposition -is the formulation of a new proposition whose subject is the contradictory of the original predicate. a. Partial Contraposition b. Complete Contraposition
10. 10. Rules for Partial Contraposition: 1. The subject is contradictory of the original predicate. 2. The quality is changed. 3. The predicate is the original subject. To get Partial Contraposition: 1. Obvert. 2. Converse the obverse Symbols and their Partial Contraposition.
11. 11. Example: (partial contraposition) A- All roses are flowers. E- No roses are non-flowers. E- No non-flowers are roses. E- No bugs are birds. A- All bugs are non-birds. I- Some non-birds are bugs.
12. 12. Rules for Complete Contraposition: 1. The subject is contradictory of the original predicate. 2. The quality is not changed. 3. The predicate is the contradictory of the original subject. To get Complete Contraposition: 1. Obvert. 2. Converse the obverse Symbols and their Complete Contraposition. 3. Obvert the converse of the obverse.
13. 13. Example: (full contraposition) A- All apples are fruits. E- No apples are non-fruits. E- No non-fruits are apples. A- All non-fruits are non-apples. E- No books are pen. A- All books are non-pen. I- Some non-pen are books. O- Some non-pen are not non-books.
14. 14. 4. Inversion -is the formulation of a new proposition whose subject is the contradictory of the original subject. a. Partial inversion b. Full inversion
15. 15. Rules for Partial Inversion: 1.The quality is changed. 2.The predicate is the same as the original proposition. To get Partial Inversion : 1.Obvert 2.Convert Symbols and their Partial Inversion (Only A & E can be Inverted) - A to O - E to I 3.Obvert 4.Convert 5.Obvert
16. 16. Example: (partial inversion) A- All cat is an animal. E- No cat is a non-animal. E- No non-animal is a cat. A- All non-animal is a non-cat. I- Some non-cat is a non-animal. O- Some non cat is a not non-animal.
17. 17. Rules for Complete Inversion: 1. The quality is not changed. 2. The predicate is the contradictory of the original predicate. To get Complete Inversion: 1.Convert 2. Obvert Symbols and their Complete Inversion (Only A & E can be Inverted) - A to I - E to O 3.Convert 4.Obvert
18. 18. Example: (full inversion) E- No aliens are voters. E- No voters are aliens. A- All voters are non-aliens. I- Some non-aliens are voters. O- Some non aliens are not non-voters.
19. 19. End Thank you for viewing!