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eduction in philosophy

eduction in philosophy

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- 1. Eduction Is the formulation of a new proposition by the interchange of the subject and the predicate of an original proposition and/or by the use or removal of negatives.
- 2. Kinds of Formal Eduction: 1. Conversion -is the formulation of a new proposition by interchanging the subject and predicate of an original proposition but leaving its quality unchanged. a. Simple Conversion b. Partial Conversion
- 3. Rules for Conversion: 1. Interchange the subject and the predicate. 2. Retain the quality. 3. Do not extend any term.
- 4. a. Simple Conversion The conversion is simple if the quantity of the converse is the same as the quantity of the convertend. (E-E) (I-I) Example: E- No cat is a dog. E- No dog is a cat. I- Some students are scholars. I- Some scholars are students.
- 5. b. Partial Conversion the conversion is partial if the quantity of the proposition is reduced from universal to particular. (A to I ) Example: A- All bananas are fruits. I- Some fruits are bananas.
- 6. 2. Obversion -is the formulation of a new proposition by retaining the subject and quantity of an original proposition, changing its quality, and using as predicate the contradictory of the original predicate. (A to E) (E to A) (I to O) (O to I)
- 7. Rules for Obversion: 1. Retain the subject and the quantity of the obvertend. 2. Change the quality. If the obvertend is affirmative, the obverse must be negative; and if the obvertend is negative to obverse must be affirmative. 3. As predicate, use the contradictory predicate of the original proposition.
- 8. Example: A- All men are free. E- No men are non-free. E- No men are free. A- All men are non-free. I- Some men are dishonest. O- Some men are not honest. O- Some houses are not white. I- Some houses are non-white.
- 9. 3. Contraposition -is the formulation of a new proposition whose subject is the contradictory of the original predicate. a. Partial Contraposition b. Complete Contraposition
- 10. Rules for Partial Contraposition: 1. The subject is contradictory of the original predicate. 2. The quality is changed. 3. The predicate is the original subject. To get Partial Contraposition: 1. Obvert. 2. Converse the obverse Symbols and their Partial Contraposition.
- 11. Example: (partial contraposition) A- All roses are flowers. E- No roses are non-flowers. E- No non-flowers are roses. E- No bugs are birds. A- All bugs are non-birds. I- Some non-birds are bugs.
- 12. Rules for Complete Contraposition: 1. The subject is contradictory of the original predicate. 2. The quality is not changed. 3. The predicate is the contradictory of the original subject. To get Complete Contraposition: 1. Obvert. 2. Converse the obverse Symbols and their Complete Contraposition. 3. Obvert the converse of the obverse.
- 13. Example: (full contraposition) A- All apples are fruits. E- No apples are non-fruits. E- No non-fruits are apples. A- All non-fruits are non-apples. E- No books are pen. A- All books are non-pen. I- Some non-pen are books. O- Some non-pen are not non-books.
- 14. 4. Inversion -is the formulation of a new proposition whose subject is the contradictory of the original subject. a. Partial inversion b. Full inversion
- 15. Rules for Partial Inversion: 1.The quality is changed. 2.The predicate is the same as the original proposition. To get Partial Inversion : 1.Obvert 2.Convert Symbols and their Partial Inversion (Only A & E can be Inverted) - A to O - E to I 3.Obvert 4.Convert 5.Obvert
- 16. Example: (partial inversion) A- All cat is an animal. E- No cat is a non-animal. E- No non-animal is a cat. A- All non-animal is a non-cat. I- Some non-cat is a non-animal. O- Some non cat is a not non-animal.
- 17. Rules for Complete Inversion: 1. The quality is not changed. 2. The predicate is the contradictory of the original predicate. To get Complete Inversion: 1.Convert 2. Obvert Symbols and their Complete Inversion (Only A & E can be Inverted) - A to I - E to O 3.Convert 4.Obvert
- 18. Example: (full inversion) E- No aliens are voters. E- No voters are aliens. A- All voters are non-aliens. I- Some non-aliens are voters. O- Some non aliens are not non-voters.
- 19. End Thank you for viewing!

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