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Our Digital Planet

Our Digital Planet

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  • Professor John Atanasoff was seeking a tool to help his students solve differential equations.
  • Mark I was a 51-foot-long, 8-foot-tall monster that used noisy electromechanical relays to calculate five or six times faster than a person could, but it was far slower than a modern $5 pocket calculator.
  • ENIAC was a 30-ton behemoth with 18,000 vacuum tubes that broke down, on average, once every seven minutes. It wasn’t completed until two months after the end of the war, but it convinced its creators that large-scale computers were commercially feasible.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica (http://www.britannica.com/) has a lot of good information about the evolution of computers.
  • Go to e-Bay, (http://search.ebay.com/search/search.dll?MfcISAPICommand=GetResult&ht=1&SortProperty=MetaEndSort&query=commodore+computer&?query=commodore+computers), and show your students how much an old Commodore computer costs these days. They’ll be surprised! Question : Did Bill Gates ever work for Apple? Answer: Yes,  Bill Gates worked for Apple before starting his own company. There has always been a lot of  debate about the similarities between the Apple Operating System and  Bill Gates’ Windows, because many people believe that, despite claims to the contrary, Windows is actually based on the Apple OS concepts.  
  • In 1994, only 3 million people were connected to the Internet; by the end of 2002, over 550 million people had Internet connections. More than 54 percent of all American households are connected to the Internet; before the first decade of the 21st century is over, 90 percent of U.S. households will likely be connected, making the Internet almost as universal as the television and the telephone. The United States leads the world in Internet activity, but the rest of the world is catching up. About 34 percent of all Europeans were online in 2001, and their numbers are rising quickly. By 2006, some predict, over 79 percent of Europeans will be online.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8 th Edition © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 2. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Our Digital Planet © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 3. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Objectives
      • Describe several ways computers play a critical role in modern life.
      • Discuss the circumstances and ideas that led to the development of the modern computer.
      • Describe several trends in the evolution of modern computers.
      • Explain the relationship between hardware and software.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 4. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Objectives (continued)
      • Outline the five major types of computers in use today and describe their principal uses.
      • Describe how the explosive growth of the Internet is changing the way people use computers and information technology.
      • Explain how today’s information age differs from other times in history and prehistory.
      • Discuss the social and ethical impact of information technology on our society.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 5. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Creating Communities on the Living Web
      • MySpace creates an online community experience for young people.
      • Flickr creates a community for people to share their pictures.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 6. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Living in a Non-Digital World
      • Computers are no longer a luxury but rather a commodity.
      • Computers and their applications are involved in all aspects of our daily life.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 7. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
      • Every computer in use today follows the basic plan laid out by Charles Babbage and Lady Lovelace.
      • The computer is an incredibly versatile tool.
        • It can compute your taxes or deploy a missile.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 8. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
      • All computers take in information called input and give out information called output.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 9. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
      • The computer’s versatility is built upon its:
        • Hardware: The physical part
        • Software: The instructions that tells hardware how to transform the input data (information in a form it can read) into the necessary output
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 10.
      • The First Real Computers:
          • 1939: Konrad Zuse completed the first programmable, general-purpose digital computer.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
    • 11.
        • At about the same time, the British government was assembling a top-secret team of mathematicians and engineers to crack Nazi military codes.
          • 1943: The team led by mathematician Alan Turing and others completed Colossus, considered by many to be the first electronic digital computer.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
    • 12. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
      • 1939: Iowa State University professor John Atanasoff developed what could have been the first electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC).
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 13. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
      • 1944: Thanks to a one million dollar grant from IBM, Harvard professor Howard Aiken developed the Mark I.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 14. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
      • John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert helped the U.S. effort in World War II by constructing a machine to calculate trajectory tables for new guns.
        • ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)
      • After the war, Mauchly and Eckert started a private company called Sperry and created UNIVAC I, the first general-purpose commercial computer.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 15. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
        • Vacuum tubes were used in early computers.
        • Transistors replaced vacuum tubes starting in 1956.
        • By the mid-1960s transistors were replaced by integrated circuits.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 16. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
      • Integrated circuits brought:
        • Increased reliability
        • Smaller size
        • Higher speed
        • Higher efficiency
        • Lower cost
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 17. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers in Perspective
        • 1971: The first microprocessor was invented by Intel engineers.
        • The personal computer revolution began in 1970:
          • Apple
          • Commodore
          • Tandy
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 18. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy
      • Desktop computers haven’t completely replaced big computers, which have also evolved.
      • Embedded Computers
        • Special-purpose computer: Dedicated computers that perform specific tasks.
          • Controlling the temperature and humidity
          • Monitoring your heart rate
          • Monitoring your house security system
        • The program is etched on silicon so it cannot be altered. This is called firmware.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 19. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy
      • Personal Computers
        • PCs serve a single user at a time.
          • Common applications include:
            • word processing
            • accounting
            • gaming
            • enjoying digital music and video
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 20. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy
        • Workstations
          • High-end desktop computers with massive computing power used for high-end interactive applications
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 21. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy
        • Portable Computers: machines that are not tied to the desktop
          • Notebooks (laptops)
          • Handheld computers (PDAs)
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 22. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy
        • Servers
          • Computers designed to provide software and other resources to other computers over a network
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 23. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy
      • Mainframes and Supercomputers
        • Mainframes
          • Used by large organizations, such as banks and airlines, for big computing jobs
          • Communicate with mainframe through terminals
          • Multiple communications at one time through process of timesharing
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 24. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy
        • Supercomputers
          • For power users who need access to the fastest, most powerful computers made
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 25. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computer Connections: The Internet Revolution
      • The Emergence of Networks
        • Connect devices together
        • 1960s: Internet developed with backing of the U.S. government
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 26. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computer Connections: The Internet Revolution
      • The Internet Explosion- Over a billion people with Internet access by the end of 2005
        • Electronic mail
          • E-mail software
        • World Wide Web
          • Led the Internet’s transformation from a text-only environment into a multimedia landscape incorporating pictures, animation, sounds, and video
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 27. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Computer Connections: The Internet Revolution
      • Web browsers
        • Programs that, in effect, serve as navigable windows into the Web
      • Hypertext links
        • Tie together millions of Web pages created by diverse authors
      • Internet supports varied activities
        • eBay used to make international transactions
        • Real-time multiplayer games
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 28. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Into the Information Age
      • In the history of our society we have had:
        • An agricultural age
        • An industrial age
      • Now we are in a new age, the information age:
        • More and more people earn their livings working with words, numbers, and ideas.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 29. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Living with Digital Technology
      • Explanations: Clarifying Technology
        • Computer literacy is already improving our day-to-day lives and careers.
      • Applications: Computers in Action
        • Applications enable you to use a computer for specific purposes.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 30. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Living with Digital Technology
      • Application: Digital Technology in Action
        • Network applications
        • Word processing and desktop publishing
        • Spreadsheets and other number-crunching applications
        • Databases
        • Computer graphics and digital image processing
        • Digital audio, digital video, and multimedia
        • Entertainment
        • Customized problem-solving
        • Artificial intelligence
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 31. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Living with Digital Technology
      • Implications: Social and Ethical Issues
        • The threat to personal privacy posed by large databases and computer networks
        • The hazards of high-tech crime and the difficulty of keeping data secure
        • The difficulty of defining and protecting intellectual property in an all-digital age
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 32. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Living with Digital Technology
      • The threat of automation and the dehumanization of work
      • The abuse of information as a tool of political and economic power
      • The emergence of bio-digital technology
      • The dangers of dependence on complex technology
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 33. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Lesson Summary
      • Computers have evolved at an incredible pace since Charles Babbage’s plan for an Analytical Engine.
      • Computers today come in all shapes and sizes, with specific types being well-suited for particular jobs.
      • Connecting to a network enhances the value and power of a computer:
        • Internet
        • WWW
        • Email
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
    • 34. Tomorrow’s Technology and You 8/e Chapter 1 Lesson Summary (continued)
      • Computers and information technology have changed the world rapidly and irreversibly.
      • Emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, offer promise for future applications.
      • Computers also threaten our privacy, our security, and perhaps our way of life.
      © 2008 Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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