Technology Innovation Management Framework for Industrial Research              Part-4         Dr. Iain Sanders          J...
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Ideal Design Tool   Platform 1:(Stages II, Part 5)
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    What Resources can Help?    Analytic and Knowledge-based Tools (Examples)       Ideal Design (Anal...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)                     All Useful Functions     Ideality     =                    All Harmful Functions   ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    RESOURCES     Financial     Human     Business assets     Technical                        8
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    RESOURCES     Financial          Investment     Human              Cash reserve     Business as...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    RESOURCES     Financial          People you know - your     Human               network     Busi...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    RESOURCES     Financial                       Equipment     Human                       Faciliti...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    RESOURCES     Financial                         Substances     Human     Business assets        ...
W H A T IS ID EA LIT Y? PLATFORM 1: II (5)       Ideality                            All Useful Functions                 ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5) CHAMBER DESTRUCTION PROBLEM    Container       Acid         Specimen                               14
PLATFORM 1: II (5) CHAMBER DESTRUCTION PROBLEM                          Acid                        Specimen              ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5) CHAMBER DESTRUCTION PROBLEM     Acid                          Specimen/                          Contai...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    LET’S LOOK AT WHAT WE DID     Eliminated what was not functional (the chamber was not really      n...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    EXAMPLES OF ERGONOMIC AND    HUMAN FACTOR IDEALITY     The machine recognizes the user and instruct...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    HOW DO WE GET TO IDEALITY?   TRIZ provides two general approaches for achieving    close-to-ideal s...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)      WHAT’S A RESOURCE FROM A      TRIZ PERSPECTIVE?      A resource:         is any substance (inclu...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    RESOURCES -- WIRE EXAMPLE                                    Copper Wire                     Problem...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)       IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE RESOURCES                        Copper                        Contaminates...
DERIVATIVE RESOURCES-- WIRE EXAMPLE  PLATFORM 1: II (5) Copper                      Contaminates                       Typ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    RESOURCE CHECKLIST     Substances     Fields     Space     Time     Information     Functional...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    SYSTEM RESOURCES     When a system’s resources are depleted, it will      probably be replaced    ...
PILL INSPECTION WORKSTATION PLATFORM 1: II (5)Vibratory feed move pills around an internal spiral to top of vibratory bowl...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    GOOD PILLS/BAD PILLS     What is IDEALITY?     What are the RESOURCES we have?                    ...
PILL INSPECTION WORKSTATION PLATFORM 1: II (5)Vibratory feed move pills around an internal spiral to top of vibratory bowl...
AN ELEGANT SOLUTION--THE PILL INSPECT ITSELF Change the escapement for the vibratory bowl so that the pills are ejected st...
Su-Field Analysis Tool      Platform 1:   (Stages II, Part 5)
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    What Resources can Help?    Analytic and Knowledge-based Tools (Examples)       Su-Field Analysis ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    The Substance-Field (Su-field)    Model     Substance-Field (Su-field) Analysis is a TRIZ analytica...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    The Substance-Field (Su-field)    Model     The simplest useful system is composed of three      el...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    The Substance-Field (Su-field)    Model     Model of an incomplete useful system     Model of the ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    The Substance-Field (Su-field)    Model     This analysis is used to zoom in on the zone of interes...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    The Substance-Field (Su-field)    Model       There are four basic models:        1. Effective comp...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    The Substance-Field (Su-field)    Model     There are four steps to follow in making the Su-      f...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)      76 Standard Solutions     The “76 Standard Solutions” of TRIZ were compiled by G.S. Altshuller an...
Patterns of Evolution Tool        Platform 1:     (Stages II, Part 5)
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    What Resources can Help?    Analytic and Knowledge-based Tools (Examples)       Patterns of Evolut...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    How can Products / Processes    be Improved?     Technology Evolution       Identify the most appr...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)   Stages of Evolution     Level 1: Regular     Level 2: Improvement     Level 3: Invention Within Pa...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)      L1: Regular Definition    Level 1 includes routine design problems solved, after a few dozen att...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)      L2: Improvement Definition    Development of an existing technique (approximately 45% of the sol...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)     L3: Invention Within Paradigm Definition    Essential improvement & radical change of the earlier...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)   L4: Breakthrough Outside Paradigm Definition    Radical change of the prototype. A new idea that ha...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)        L5: Discovery Definition    Pioneer invention of a radically new technique is usually based on...
PA TT ERN S O F EVO LU TIO N O FTEC H N IC A L SYST EMS   PLATFORM 1: II (5)  1. Stages of Evolution  2. Evolution Toward ...
N O N -U N IFO RM D EVELO PMEN TO F SYST EM ELEMEN TS   PLATFORM 1: II (5)  • Each system component has its own S-curve  •...
1. TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS          EVOLVE AND ARE REPLACED   PLATFORM 1: II (5)Winning System -- this system cannot beused ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    WHAT THIS MEANS..     “S” curves exist     System replacement can be a surprise     Frequently, t...
1. TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMSEVOLVE AND ARE REPLACED   PLATFORM 1: II (5)Winning System -- this system cannot beused to predict...
S-CURVE ANALYSIS 1                                    3                                                   Level of Inventi...
2. EVOLUTION     TOWARD    INCREASED PLATFORM 1: II (5)     IDEALITY• Every system performs functions which generate  usef...
SYSTEMS EVOLVETOWARD IDEALITY...  PLATFORM 1: II (5)   Through the use of readily available resources   Through the use ...
3. NON-UNIFORM  DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM         ELEMENTS  • Each system component has its own S-curve  • Different component...
PLATFORM 1: II (5) Inventions drive new ideas - as they resolve contradictions, they allow a system to evolve to solve the...
WHEN WERE THESE TECHNOLOGIESDEVELOPED?  PLATFORM 1: II (5)   Aircraft with 12 wings   Helicopter   Combustion engine  ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    USING CONTRADICTIONS    PROACTIVELY     The contradiction table and separation principles      are ...
4. EVOLUTION TOWARD   INCREASED DYNAMICS AND           CONTROL  Transition to Multifunctional Performance           Increa...
THE LINE OF SEGMENTATION  PLATFORM 1: II (5)                                                Field                         ...
To Increase Dynamicity Consider   PLATFORM 1: II (5)    Provide more than one stable state      Bi-stable membrane     ...
5. INCREASEDCOMPLEXITY AND THEN   SIMPLIFICATION PLATFORM 1: II (5) • Technological systems tend to develop first   toward...
6. EVOLUTION WITH      MATCHING ANDMISMATCHING ELEMENTS PLATFORM 1: II (5)• System elements are matched or mismatched to i...
7. EVOLUTION TOWARD THEMICROLEVEL AND INCREASED USE OF                     FIELDS  PLATFORM 1: II (5)   • Technological sy...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    THE TRANSITION                       MeThChEM         (Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electronic, Ma...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)                      EXAMPLES       Toothbrushes                  Tools                              ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)      WHAT WOULD THE “NEXT” FIELD BE IN      YOUR SYSTEM? COULD YOU USE IT? DO             YOU UNDERSTAN...
8. EVOLUTION TOWARD    DECREASED HUMAN       INVOLVEMENTPLATFORM 1: II (5)• Systems develop to perform tedious  functions ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    HOW AND WHEN TO USE    LINES OF EVOLUTION     Next generation product development     Patent filin...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    MULTIPLE LINE ANALYSIS    PIE CHART LINES OF EVOLUTION                                    71
Evolutionary Potential    PLATFORM 1: II (5)                                                     ‘Evolutionary Limit’     ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    NINE BOX DIAGRAM            POST     SUPER-SYSTEM   PRESENT                       / PRESENT         ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    APPLICATIONS IN INNOVATION     Input to strategic planning, technology      acquisition, and     E...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    APPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS    MANAGEMENT     Strategic planning in acquisitions and product      deve...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    LINKING WITH CPS, BRAINSTORMING,    LATERAL THINKING     CPS/Brainstorming/Lateral Thinking™      ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    THE SIX HATS™ PROCESS     Problem solving process is divided into segments      where everyone must...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    THE SIX HATS     Blue---meeting process, thinking process     White---information that is needed  ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    DEFICIENCY IN THE PROCESS     Stimulus for ideation is still limited by the      expertise in the r...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    WHEN AND HOW TO COMBINE    TRIZ WITH THIS PROCESS       White/information hat:          Have we id...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    FRONT LOAD THE PROCESS     “The worst sin of all is to do an excellent job at      that which shoul...
INCREASED COMPLEXITY ANDTHEN SIMPLIFICATION   PLATFORM 1: II (5)  • Eyeglasses and sunglasses  • Tires  Mono-system   Poly...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    THE TRANSITION                            MeThChEM     (Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electronic, M...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    PROBLEM FORMULATION     Graphically defines the problem     Creates a nearly exhaustive list of wa...
CHEMICAL PRODUCTIONPLATFORM 1: II (5)          A                                B     +     =         +     =         +   ...
Chemical Production:Problem Formulator Diagram                             PLATFORM 1: II (5)                             ...
Chemical Production: REFINED ProblemStatements for a Selected Box   PLATFORM 1: II (5)    1. Change the undesired action o...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    WORKING WITH A KNOWLEDGE BASE                                    88
Working with Knowledge Base                              PLATFORM 1: II (5)                                               ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)                     90
CHEMICAL PRODUCTION WITHELECTRICAL CONTROL              +                                 -         A                     ...
HOW DO WE USE THESE PRINCIPLES   TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF   INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY?            Platform 1:         (Stages ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    COFFEE CUP HOLDER    PATENT                        93
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE                              94
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE                              95
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE                              96
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE                              97
DIRECTIONS - HARMFUL FUNCTIONS  PLATFORM 1: II (5)   Stop the            Stop the     Reduce the    source              ac...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE                              99
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE        Get the        Find a     Enhance the         result       different ...
DIRECTIONS--USEFUL FUNCTIONPLATFORM 1: II (5)        Get the        Find a     Enhance the         result       different ...
T H E SO LU T IO N SPA C E   PLATFORM 1: II (5)                              m ic s                         na            ...
DIRECTIONS--USEFUL FUNCTIONPLATFORM 1: II (5)    Get the result     Find a     Enhance the        without       different ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE                              104
PLATFORM 1: II (5)                 CONTRADICTIONS     Resolve not compromise     Separate requirements:        Space   ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE                              106
PLATFORM 1: II (5)           SECONDARY PROBLEMS     State as new primary problem to be solved     Identify what is neede...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)      SYSTEMS APPROACH Insulating Containers:           Coffee     Thermos Jug                          ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)              CUP OF COFFEE     Can you get the feeling of well being by an     alternative means?      ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION                                 110
PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION                                 111
PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION         This suggests a cup with a part that           moves. Perhaps a s...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION                                 113
TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5)    Problem Formulation     Useful Functions       Better, Different, or Without     ...
TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5)    Lines of Evolution     Forecasting Future Developments       in patent filings    ...
TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5)    Overcome Roadblocks     Address Secondary Problems        Solve as primary problem...
TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5) Apply Systems Approach     Find solutions in other industries     Broaden claims     ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS:     Engineering problem solving        Product/process development       ...
PLATFORM 1: II (5)    Conclusion:     This is a powerful problem solving methodology     Can be applied to increase the ...
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Innovation Benefits Realization for Industrial Research (Part-4)

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  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager To help us identify resources in our system available to solve the problem, we have in TRIZ a detailed list of types of resources to look for. The basic catagories are financial, human, business assests, and technical resources.
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager Group discussion about their own resources and problems
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager Our first task is to state Ideality. While the most Ideal solution would be to eliminate the defects, for our purposes that is out of scope. Ideality would be that “ the pills sort themselves.” We then need to look for resources to accomplish this.
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager Let’s take a look at an actual case which will also show how the software is used. Those of you who might not be able to stay can still get a feel for the process
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager Group interaction during the process of putting this diagram together is a powerful process.
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager The IWB software, since it created the diagram, knows where to go in its data base for potential solutions.
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager Under the general heading of counteraction, we find 9 operators relating to this area. Each of them will lead to potential solution paths. Let’s choose one particular one to see where it leads.
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Introducing Technology Innovation Dr. Iain Sanders, Program Manager
  • Innovation Benefits Realization for Industrial Research (Part-4)

    1. 1. Technology Innovation Management Framework for Industrial Research Part-4 Dr. Iain Sanders January 2005
    2. 2. 2
    3. 3. 3
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    5. 5. Ideal Design Tool Platform 1:(Stages II, Part 5)
    6. 6. PLATFORM 1: II (5) What Resources can Help?  Analytic and Knowledge-based Tools (Examples)  Ideal Design (Analytic Tool): The gap between the current design and the ideal system should be reduced to zero. The ideal system provides the desired function without existing. The model becomes a goal to attain, shattering many traditional images of the most efficient system. In other words, function is ideally performed by already existing resources. The concept of the ideal design should be consciously included during any innovation process. Ideality is defined as the sum of a system’s useful functions divided by the sum of its undesired effects. Stating the ideal final result and backing away from it as little as possible offers a different technical challenge than the one offered by the technical contradiction matrix. 6
    7. 7. PLATFORM 1: II (5) All Useful Functions Ideality = All Harmful Functions  All systems evolve toward increasing Ideality  Ideal System: Function is done without existing  Near Ideal solutions often utilize existing resources 7
    8. 8. PLATFORM 1: II (5) RESOURCES  Financial  Human  Business assets  Technical 8
    9. 9. PLATFORM 1: II (5) RESOURCES  Financial  Investment  Human  Cash reserve  Business assets  Loans  Technical  Barter  Other 9
    10. 10. PLATFORM 1: II (5) RESOURCES  Financial  People you know - your  Human network  Business assets  Allies  Technical  Experts (inside and outside your company)  Test and implementation helpers 10
    11. 11. PLATFORM 1: II (5) RESOURCES  Financial  Equipment  Human  Facilities  Business assets  Technical  Inventory  Information - Intellectual property 11
    12. 12. PLATFORM 1: II (5) RESOURCES  Financial  Substances  Human  Business assets  Fields  Technical  Space  Time  Information  Functions 12
    13. 13. W H A T IS ID EA LIT Y? PLATFORM 1: II (5) Ideality All Useful Functions = All Harmful FunctionsThe ideal system performs a required functionwithout actually existing. The function is oftenperformed using existing resources. ALLsystems evolve in this direction over time byresolving contradictions. 13
    14. 14. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CHAMBER DESTRUCTION PROBLEM Container Acid Specimen 14
    15. 15. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CHAMBER DESTRUCTION PROBLEM Acid Specimen 15
    16. 16. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CHAMBER DESTRUCTION PROBLEM Acid Specimen/ Container 16
    17. 17. PLATFORM 1: II (5) LET’S LOOK AT WHAT WE DID  Eliminated what was not functional (the chamber was not really necessary)  Used the resources of the system at hand (more later on this topic)  Used geometric effects as resources  Used physical effects  fluidity of acid  gravity 17
    18. 18. PLATFORM 1: II (5) EXAMPLES OF ERGONOMIC AND HUMAN FACTOR IDEALITY  The machine recognizes the user and instructs and/or orients automatically  The pedal adjusts automatically to the user 18
    19. 19. PLATFORM 1: II (5) HOW DO WE GET TO IDEALITY?  TRIZ provides two general approaches for achieving close-to-ideal solutions (that is, solutions which do not increase system complexity):  Use of resources  Use of physical, chemical, geometrical and other effects (remember the Waissenberg effect?) - 19
    20. 20. PLATFORM 1: II (5) WHAT’S A RESOURCE FROM A TRIZ PERSPECTIVE?  A resource:  is any substance (including waste) available in the system or its environment  has the functional and technological ability to jointly perform additional functions  is an energy reserve, free time, unoccupied space, information, etc. 20
    21. 21. PLATFORM 1: II (5) RESOURCES -- WIRE EXAMPLE Copper Wire Problem Zone Voltage & Current Air HANDOUT 21
    22. 22. PLATFORM 1: II (5) IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE RESOURCES Copper Contaminates Type Amount Diameter Length Shape of wire Wire Amount Form of excitation signal Current (A/C) Voltage Frequency Amount Air Form of excitation signal (A/C) Frequency Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Carbon Temperature, Pressure, Velocity, Speed 22
    23. 23. DERIVATIVE RESOURCES-- WIRE EXAMPLE PLATFORM 1: II (5) Copper Contaminates Type Amount Resistance Diameter Length Magnetic Field Shape of wire Wire Amount Form of excitation signal Current (A/C) Voltage Frequency Oxidation Amount Air Form of excitation signal Moisture (A/C) Frequency CO/CO2 Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Cooling/Heat Carbon Dissipation Temperature Pressure, Velocity, Speed 23
    24. 24. PLATFORM 1: II (5) RESOURCE CHECKLIST  Substances  Fields  Space  Time  Information  Functional 24
    25. 25. PLATFORM 1: II (5) SYSTEM RESOURCES  When a system’s resources are depleted, it will probably be replaced  Tracking system resources is a good way to predict when a system may be replaced, challenged, or significantly modified  Sometimes it’s a matter of just seeing the resource, other times it’s a matter of figuring out how to use it (ex: field and information generation, Navy example) 25
    26. 26. PILL INSPECTION WORKSTATION PLATFORM 1: II (5)Vibratory feed move pills around an internal spiral to top of vibratory bowl wherethe pills are discharged and slide down an incline plane onto a conveyor. As thepills go by, the inspectors identify and remove the damaged pills. Damaged Pills Conveyor Trash Can 26
    27. 27. PLATFORM 1: II (5) GOOD PILLS/BAD PILLS  What is IDEALITY?  What are the RESOURCES we have? 27
    28. 28. PILL INSPECTION WORKSTATION PLATFORM 1: II (5)Vibratory feed move pills around an internal spiral to top of vibratory bowl wherethe pills are discharged and slide down an incline plane onto a conveyor. As thepills go by, the inspectors identify and remove the damaged pills. Damaged Pills Conveyor Trash Can 28
    29. 29. AN ELEGANT SOLUTION--THE PILL INSPECT ITSELF Change the escapement for the vibratory bowl so that the pills are ejected standing on their edge. Move the conveyor 3 inches. Pills that are round will roll at a velocity that allows them to jump to the conveyor. The pills that are chipped will slide or will roll at a lower velocity and fall into the trash. Resource: Velocity of the sliding or rolling pills Function (inspection of pills) is performed without the system (human inspectors or video inspection system). Trash Can PLATFORM 1: II (5) 29
    30. 30. Su-Field Analysis Tool Platform 1: (Stages II, Part 5)
    31. 31. PLATFORM 1: II (5) What Resources can Help?  Analytic and Knowledge-based Tools (Examples)  Su-Field Analysis (Analytic Tool): Substance-field analysis is an analytic tool for modeling problems related to existing technological systems. Every system is created to perform some functions. The desired function is the output from an object or substance (S1), caused by another object (S2) with the help of some means (type of energy, F). Substances are objects of any level of complexity. They can be single items or complex systems. The action or mans of accomplishing the action is called a field. Su-field analysis provides a fast, simple model to use for considering different ideas drawn from the knowledge base. 31
    32. 32. PLATFORM 1: II (5) The Substance-Field (Su-field) Model  Substance-Field (Su-field) Analysis is a TRIZ analytical tool for modeling problems related to existing technological systems.  Every system is created to perform some functions. The desired function is the output from an object or substance (S1), caused by another object (S2) with the help of some means (types of energy, F).  The general term, substance has been used in the classical TRIZ literature to refer to some object.  Substances are objects of any level of complexity. They can be single items or complex systems. The action or means of accomplishing the action is called a field.  Su-field Analysis provides a fast, simple model to use for considering different ideas drawn from the knowledge base. 32
    33. 33. PLATFORM 1: II (5) The Substance-Field (Su-field) Model  The simplest useful system is composed of three elements - the two substances and the field: 33
    34. 34. PLATFORM 1: II (5) The Substance-Field (Su-field) Model  Model of an incomplete useful system  Model of the simplest system having a harmful action 34
    35. 35. PLATFORM 1: II (5) The Substance-Field (Su-field) Model  This analysis is used to zoom in on the zone of interest.  However, the analysis can be applied to system as well as component levels of abstraction. This is often at the interface between the two substances.  For complex systems there is a Su-field Model for all the zones of interest.  Two substances and a field are necessary and sufficient to define a working technical system.  The formation of this trilogy can be found in the early work of the mathematician Ouspensky  The triangle is the smallest building block for trigonometry, as well as for technology. 35
    36. 36. PLATFORM 1: II (5) The Substance-Field (Su-field) Model  There are four basic models: 1. Effective complete system. 2. Incomplete system (requires completion or a new system). 3. Ineffective complete system (requires improvement to create the desired effect). 4. Harmful complete system (requires elimination of the negative effect).  If there is a problem with an existing system and any of the three elements are missing, Su-field Analysis indicates where the model requires completion and offers directions for innovative thinking.  If there is an innovative problem and the system has the three required elements, Su-field Analysis can suggest ways to modify the system for better performance. This is particularly true if radical changes in the design are possible. 36
    37. 37. PLATFORM 1: II (5) The Substance-Field (Su-field) Model  There are four steps to follow in making the Su- field Model: 1. Identify the elements. The field is either acting upon both substances or is within substance 2 as a system. 2. Construct the model. After completing these two steps, stop to evaluate the completeness and effectiveness of the system. If some element is missing, try to identify what it is. 3. Consider solutions from the 76 Standard Solutions. 4. Develop a concept to support the solution.  In following Steps 3 and 4, activity shifts to other knowledge-based tools. 37
    38. 38. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 76 Standard Solutions  The “76 Standard Solutions” of TRIZ were compiled by G.S. Altshuller and his associates between 1975 and 1985. They are grouped into 5 large categories as follows: 3. Improving the system with no or little change: 13 standard solutions 5. Improving the system by changing the system: 23 standard solutions 7. System transitions: 6 standard solutions 9. Detection and measurement: 17 standard solutions 11. Strategies for simplification and improvement: 17 standard solutions Total: 76 standard solutions 38
    39. 39. Patterns of Evolution Tool Platform 1: (Stages II, Part 5)
    40. 40. PLATFORM 1: II (5) What Resources can Help?  Analytic and Knowledge-based Tools (Examples)  Patterns of Evolution (Knowledge-based Tool): If the goal is to gain a competitive advantage with a new design that is a quantum leap improvement over the current product offering, then the knowledge contained in the patterns of technological evolution is the most effective tool. The patterns are generic enough that they are also valuable in non-technical applications. Common themes of product / technology evolution provide a window into the future of other products. By identifying the current position of today’s product design within an evolutionary pattern, it is possible to predict future designs along this pattern. By understanding the eight fundamental patterns of evolution it is possible to design tomorrow’s products today. 40
    41. 41. PLATFORM 1: II (5) How can Products / Processes be Improved?  Technology Evolution  Identify the most appropriate level of invention / innovation to focus research effort, and direct the research effort to achieve this. 41
    42. 42. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Stages of Evolution  Level 1: Regular  Level 2: Improvement  Level 3: Invention Within Paradigm  Level 4: Breakthrough Outside Paradigm  Level 5: Discovery 42
    43. 43. PLATFORM 1: II (5) L1: Regular Definition  Level 1 includes routine design problems solved, after a few dozen attempts, by methods well known within the specialty or within a company. Approximately 32% of the solutions occurred at this Level (based on patents reviewed between 1956 and 1969). Such solutions represent most recurrence & small changes of the earlier known prototype without its essential variations. Usually patents at the first Level are solved by trading off one subsystem (element, operation, etc.) for something else (as most engineers traditionally do) Example  The ability to change the size of lead shoes for divers by adjusting their length was developed. (It is interesting that this development did not occur until the 1960s, some 70 years after the invention of divers shoes; for 70 years all divers used uncomfortable shoes of the same size) 43
    44. 44. PLATFORM 1: II (5) L2: Improvement Definition  Development of an existing technique (approximately 45% of the solutions; a few hundred attempts). The earlier known prototype is changed qualitatively but not substantially, usually due to application of uncommon methods from the same engineering field as the technique with some additional knowledge from the inventors specialization and/or some creative effort. Level 2 solutions offer small improvements to an existing technique by reducing a contradiction inherent in the technique but requiring an obvious compromise; such solutions require knowledge of only a single engineering field. The existing technique is slightly changed, including new features that lead to definite improvements Example  Welding two different metals together (such as copper & aluminium) can present a challenge. One useful technique is to use a spacer made of a metal that can be welded to each of the incompatible metals 44
    45. 45. PLATFORM 1: II (5) L3: Invention Within Paradigm Definition  Essential improvement & radical change of the earlier prototype utilizing the methods or knowledge from other disciplines, sometimes far from the major engineering field or industry of the technique (approximately 18% of the solutions; dozens of thousands of attempts). The changes are considerable & result in a new quality. Level 3 inventions significantly improve existing techniques, often through the introduction of an entirely new subsystem that usually is not widely known within the industry of the inventive problem. Novelty exists here from: (a) removal of false restrictions or resolution of contradictions; (b) Expansion of the sphere of application of the prototype; and (c) Inclusion of the prototype as part of a whole - association of the prototype with similar or alternative systems. The solution causes a paradigm shift within the engineering field. Level 3 innovation lies outside an industrys range of accepted ideas & principles Example  Cattle feed consists of various cut grasses which must be mixed by special equipment. Producing the grass mixture by sowing the various grasses together yields a crop that is difficult to till. Furthermore, one grass species may inhibit the others. The grasses can be sown in parallel strips & then harvested across the strips. Thus, the grasses are mixed in the receiving bin of the mower 45
    46. 46. PLATFORM 1: II (5) L4: Breakthrough Outside Paradigm Definition  Radical change of the prototype. A new idea that has practically nothing in common with the prototype. Creating a new technique generation, the solution usually cannot be obtained in engineering but rather can be found in science (approximately 4% of the solutions; several hundred thousand attempts). Novelty exists here from replacement of a technique that carried out the primary function of the prototype. Level 4 solutions are breakthroughs, lie outside a normal paradigm of the engineering field, and involve use of a completely different principle for the primary function. In Level 4 solutions, the contradiction is eliminated because its existence is impossible within the new system. That is, Level 4 breakthroughs use physical or other effects that have previously been little known engineering Example  An electromechanical relay element has a finite number of switching cycles. Substituting a cheap semiconductor relay element increases the number of switching cycles & decreases the switching time & weight of the device 46
    47. 47. PLATFORM 1: II (5) L5: Discovery Definition  Pioneer invention of a radically new technique is usually based on a major discovery in some basic or new science (less than 1% of the solutions; millions of attempts) or recognition of a new need. Principally a new idea arises because of a change of the primary of the prototype & an occurrence of new subsystems for realization of the new function that include and/or substitute the old primary function. Level 5 solutions exist outside the confines of a contemporary scientific knowledge & usually stand between science & engineering. These discoveries require a lifetime of dedication. They occur when a new effect or phenomenon is discovered & afterward applied to an inventive problem Examples - OUTSTANDING HUMAN ACHIEVEMENTS  Alphabet & ability to record information (magnetic, optical, writing)  Artificial intelligence, Artificial limbs  Cinema, DNA, Electronic computer  Gyroscope, Laser, Lens (microscope, telescope)  SCUBA, Superconductors, Wheel 47
    48. 48. PA TT ERN S O F EVO LU TIO N O FTEC H N IC A L SYST EMS PLATFORM 1: II (5) 1. Stages of Evolution 2. Evolution Toward Increased Ideality 3. Non-Uniform Development of Systems Elements 4. Evolution Toward Increased Dynamism and Controllability 5. Increased Complexity then Simplification (Reduction) 6. Evolution with Matching and Mismatching Components 7. Evolution Toward Micro-level and Increased Use of Fields 8. Evolution Toward Decreased Human Involvement 48
    49. 49. N O N -U N IFO RM D EVELO PMEN TO F SYST EM ELEMEN TS PLATFORM 1: II (5) • Each system component has its own S-curve • Different components usually evolve according to their own schedule (airplane) • Different system components reach their inherent limits at different times, resulting in contradictions (think about the auto!) • The component that reaches its limit first is “holding back” the overall system • Elimination of contradictions allows the system to continue to improve 49
    50. 50. 1. TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS EVOLVE AND ARE REPLACED PLATFORM 1: II (5)Winning System -- this system cannot beused to predict the next generation υ βCompeting αSystems A α‘ Possible Β Competing or Time Towing System Influences New Generation -- the prediction of this is made as a result of the study of all technology 50
    51. 51. PLATFORM 1: II (5) WHAT THIS MEANS..  “S” curves exist  System replacement can be a surprise  Frequently, the curve ends when a system runs out of resources OR when an unresolvable contradiction is faced Note: Altshuller recognized this DECADES before others saw this 51
    52. 52. 1. TECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMSEVOLVE AND ARE REPLACED PLATFORM 1: II (5)Winning System -- this system cannot beused to predict the next generation υ β Competing α Systems A α‘ Possible Β Competing or Time Towing System Influences New Generation -- the prediction of this is made as a result of the study of all technology 52
    53. 53. S-CURVE ANALYSIS 1 3 Level of Inventions Time Time Number of Inventions 4 Profitability of Inventions 2 Time TimePLATFORM 1: II (5) 53
    54. 54. 2. EVOLUTION TOWARD INCREASED PLATFORM 1: II (5) IDEALITY• Every system performs functions which generate useful effects and harmful effects• The general direction for system improvement maximizes the ratio of ideality• We strive to improve the level of ideality as we create and choose inventive solutions All Useful Functions = IDEALITY All Harmful Functions 54
    55. 55. SYSTEMS EVOLVETOWARD IDEALITY... PLATFORM 1: II (5)  Through the use of readily available resources  Through the use of derived resources  Resources able to perform additional functions 55
    56. 56. 3. NON-UNIFORM DEVELOPMENT OF SYSTEM ELEMENTS • Each system component has its own S-curve • Different components usually evolve according to their own schedule (airplane) • Different system components reach their inherent limits at different times, resulting in contradictions (think about the auto!) • The component that reaches its limit first is “holding back” the overall system • Elimination of contradictions allows the system to continue to improvePLATFORM 1: II (5) 56
    57. 57. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Inventions drive new ideas - as they resolve contradictions, they allow a system to evolve to solve the “next” contradiction 57
    58. 58. WHEN WERE THESE TECHNOLOGIESDEVELOPED? PLATFORM 1: II (5)  Aircraft with 12 wings  Helicopter  Combustion engine  Jet engine  Propellers  Gyroscopic auto-pilot 58
    59. 59. PLATFORM 1: II (5) USING CONTRADICTIONS PROACTIVELY  The contradiction table and separation principles are used to resolve contradictions  To identify the next breakthrough area, identify the current contradiction  But be careful to look at both your system and competitive systems! 59
    60. 60. 4. EVOLUTION TOWARD INCREASED DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Transition to Multifunctional Performance Increasing system System with dynamism allows System with Non-Dynamic Changeable functions to be Variable System Elements performed with Components greater flexibility or variety Increasing Degrees of Freedom System Changeable System Changeable at the Mechanical at the Micro-Level: Non-Dynamic Level: with a Hinge, Phase Transformations, System Hinge Mechanism, Chemical Flexible Materials, etc. Transformations, etc.PLATFORM 1: II (5) 60
    61. 61. THE LINE OF SEGMENTATION PLATFORM 1: II (5) Field Vacuum Plasma Gas, aerosol Liquid, foam Paste, gel Loose Body Set of Plates Monolith 61
    62. 62. To Increase Dynamicity Consider PLATFORM 1: II (5)  Provide more than one stable state  Bi-stable membrane  Over center clamp  Make a fixed component movable  Make parts movable relative to each other  Hinge  Flexible materials as links  Introduce a mobile object 62
    63. 63. 5. INCREASEDCOMPLEXITY AND THEN SIMPLIFICATION PLATFORM 1: II (5) • Technological systems tend to develop first toward increased complexity (i.e., increased quantity and quality of systems functions), and then toward simplification (where the same or better performance is provided by a less complex system). This may be accomplished by transforming the system into a bi- or poly-system, as shown here in two of the lines of evolution related to this pattern. Mono-system Bi-system Improved (Simplified) Mono-system Mono-system Poly-system Improved (Simplified) Mono-system 63
    64. 64. 6. EVOLUTION WITH MATCHING ANDMISMATCHING ELEMENTS PLATFORM 1: II (5)• System elements are matched or mismatched to improve performance or to compensate for undesired effects. A typical evolution might be:• Unmatched elements • Matched elements • Mismatched elements • Dynamic matching and mismatching• Example: Automobile suspension system development • Springs attached between wheels and body • Shock absorber and spring tuned to damp out impact forces • Semi-rigid rubber isolation mounting between body and shock • Active suspension system automatically adjusts to road conditions 64
    65. 65. 7. EVOLUTION TOWARD THEMICROLEVEL AND INCREASED USE OF FIELDS PLATFORM 1: II (5) • Technological systems tend to transition from macro systems to micro systems. During this transition, different types of energy fields are used to achieve better performance or control • Example: Cooking oven development • Large cast iron wood stove • Smaller stove fired by natural gas • Electrically-heated oven • Microwave ovenMacro- Poly-system from Poly-system from Use of Use of Use of Use ofLevel parts with simple small particles Material Chemical Atomic Energy shapes (balls, rods, (powder, etc.) Structure Processes Level Fields sheets, etc.) 65
    66. 66. PLATFORM 1: II (5) THE TRANSITION MeThChEM (Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electronic, Magnetic, Electromagnetic) Ex: Polymer Processing, Photography 66
    67. 67. PLATFORM 1: II (5) EXAMPLES  Toothbrushes  Tools  Flow of electricity  Pointing devices  Control systems (on/off, regulates,  Adhesives regulates vs. needs)  Pointers  Hydraulic pressure, synchronicity, matched frequency, away from  House construction resonant frequencies  Telephone  Sunglasses, compensating bi-  Automobile steering, other systems systems  A/C systems  Computer interfaces  Functional connections  Writing instruments  Software development  Polymer processing 67
    68. 68. PLATFORM 1: II (5) WHAT WOULD THE “NEXT” FIELD BE IN YOUR SYSTEM? COULD YOU USE IT? DO YOU UNDERSTAND IT? 68
    69. 69. 8. EVOLUTION TOWARD DECREASED HUMAN INVOLVEMENTPLATFORM 1: II (5)• Systems develop to perform tedious functions that free people to do more intellectual work• Example: Clothes washing • Tub and washboard • Ringer washing machine • Automatic washing machine • Automatic washing machine with automatic dispensing of bleach and fabric softener• REMEMBER THE NEW MACHINE AND PILL??? 69
    70. 70. PLATFORM 1: II (5) HOW AND WHEN TO USE LINES OF EVOLUTION  Next generation product development  Patent filings (expand and get around)  Consumer research  Forecasting  “Back-filling” opportunities 70
    71. 71. PLATFORM 1: II (5) MULTIPLE LINE ANALYSIS  PIE CHART LINES OF EVOLUTION 71
    72. 72. Evolutionary Potential PLATFORM 1: II (5) ‘Evolutionary Limit’ of component relative to predicted evolution trendsCurrent evolutionaryposition of componentfor a given trend (Each spoke in the evolutionary potential radar plot represents one of the known technology trends identified by TRIZ researchers) 72
    73. 73. PLATFORM 1: II (5) NINE BOX DIAGRAM POST SUPER-SYSTEM PRESENT / PRESENT SYSTEM SUB-SYSTEM 73
    74. 74. PLATFORM 1: II (5) APPLICATIONS IN INNOVATION  Input to strategic planning, technology acquisition, and  Extension of patented concepts to generate additional royalty income  Broaden patent claims to hinder competitors  Get around competitive patents 74
    75. 75. PLATFORM 1: II (5) APPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT  Strategic planning in acquisitions and product development  Personnel planning  New business development and licensing 75
    76. 76. PLATFORM 1: II (5) LINKING WITH CPS, BRAINSTORMING, LATERAL THINKING  CPS/Brainstorming/Lateral Thinking™  Use of “uninhibited” thinking, or selected random words  Use resource and ideality thinking  Use 40 principles in random order  Use separation principles in reverse to stimulate new concepts  Use reverse TRIZ and Lines of Evolution concepts as stimulus 76
    77. 77. PLATFORM 1: II (5) THE SIX HATS™ PROCESS  Problem solving process is divided into segments where everyone must do the same “type” of thinking at the same time  Each person wears the same “hat” at the same time to minimize negative aspects of arguments, etc.  One of the most widely used innovation processes in the world--easy to learn and effective for simple to moderately complicated problems 77
    78. 78. PLATFORM 1: II (5) THE SIX HATS  Blue---meeting process, thinking process  White---information that is needed  Green---propose ideas, free thinking  Black---what is wrong with this idea  Yellow---what is good about this idea  Red---emotional, “gut” feel about idea 78
    79. 79. PLATFORM 1: II (5) DEFICIENCY IN THE PROCESS  Stimulus for ideation is still limited by the expertise in the room  Weak, informal problem definition step  “Selected” random words used for stimulation (Lateral Thinking™) 79
    80. 80. PLATFORM 1: II (5) WHEN AND HOW TO COMBINE TRIZ WITH THIS PROCESS  White/information hat:  Have we identified all the contradictions?  A problem definition diagram, such as the Problem Formulator™  Green/ideation hat:  Use of contradiction table, software examples  Black/problem hat:  Use reverse TRIZ technique  Yellow/Good hat:  Use ideality thinking and lines of evolution to improve ideas  Blue hat:  Use Problem Formulator™ to diagram the meeting and ideation process 80
    81. 81. PLATFORM 1: II (5) FRONT LOAD THE PROCESS  “The worst sin of all is to do an excellent job at that which should not have been done at all”  NY Times, anonymous  “We never have time to do it right, but we always have time (and money!) to do it over”  Anonymous 81
    82. 82. INCREASED COMPLEXITY ANDTHEN SIMPLIFICATION PLATFORM 1: II (5) • Eyeglasses and sunglasses • Tires Mono-system Poly-system Improved (Simplified) Mono-system 82
    83. 83. PLATFORM 1: II (5) THE TRANSITION MeThChEM (Mechanical, Thermal, Chemical, Electronic, Magnetic, Electromagnetic) Ex: Polymer Processing Toothbrushes 83
    84. 84. PLATFORM 1: II (5) PROBLEM FORMULATION  Graphically defines the problem  Creates a nearly exhaustive list of ways to solve or at least improve the situation  Links to database of previously solved problems and patents 84
    85. 85. CHEMICAL PRODUCTIONPLATFORM 1: II (5) A B + = + = + = Undesired mix Desired mix Undesired mix 85
    86. 86. Chemical Production:Problem Formulator Diagram PLATFORM 1: II (5) 86
    87. 87. Chemical Production: REFINED ProblemStatements for a Selected Box PLATFORM 1: II (5) 1. Change the undesired action of [the] (Drops of liquid A meet). 2. Consider easy and timely detection of the action of [the] (Drops of liquid A meet) or its undesired results. 3. Provide a counteraction to the undesired action of [the] (Drops of liquid A meet). 4. Introduce isolation of the undesired action of [the] (Drops of liquid A meet). 5. Exclude the source of the undesired action of [the] (Drops of liquid A meet). 87
    88. 88. PLATFORM 1: II (5) WORKING WITH A KNOWLEDGE BASE 88
    89. 89. Working with Knowledge Base PLATFORM 1: II (5) 89
    90. 90. PLATFORM 1: II (5) 90
    91. 91. CHEMICAL PRODUCTION WITHELECTRICAL CONTROL + - A B + + + -= + + No undesired mix Desired mix No undesired mix PLATFORM 1: II (5) 91
    92. 92. HOW DO WE USE THESE PRINCIPLES TO INCREASE THE VALUE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY? Platform 1: (Stages II, Part 5)
    93. 93. PLATFORM 1: II (5) COFFEE CUP HOLDER PATENT 93
    94. 94. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE 94
    95. 95. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE 95
    96. 96. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE 96
    97. 97. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE 97
    98. 98. DIRECTIONS - HARMFUL FUNCTIONS PLATFORM 1: II (5) Stop the Stop the Reduce the source action consequences Develop a Make the Start a degradable cups less recycling foam visible program 98
    99. 99. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE 99
    100. 100. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE Get the Find a Enhance the result different results without way of intermediate achieving step result 100
    101. 101. DIRECTIONS--USEFUL FUNCTIONPLATFORM 1: II (5) Get the Find a Enhance the result different results without way of intermediate achieving step result Heat or cool MeThChEM blade 101
    102. 102. T H E SO LU T IO N SPA C E PLATFORM 1: II (5) m ic s na Mechanical y o -D Effects & herm Technology T P roblem Chemical Effects Electrical & & Technology Magnetic Effects S olution & Technology 102
    103. 103. DIRECTIONS--USEFUL FUNCTIONPLATFORM 1: II (5) Get the result Find a Enhance the without different results intermediate way of step achieving Prescore result Heat or cool base material MeThChEM blade 103
    104. 104. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE 104
    105. 105. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CONTRADICTIONS  Resolve not compromise  Separate requirements:  Space  Time 105
    106. 106. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE 106
    107. 107. PLATFORM 1: II (5) SECONDARY PROBLEMS  State as new primary problem to be solved  Identify what is needed to solve this and monitor patents and literature 107
    108. 108. PLATFORM 1: II (5) SYSTEMS APPROACH Insulating Containers: Coffee Thermos Jug Cup Sleeping Bag Molten Steel Ladle Catalytic Converter Paper Containers: Plates, Bowls Plastic Enclosures: Boxes Rocket Nose Cone Parts Bins Dishpans Pipes 108
    109. 109. PLATFORM 1: II (5) CUP OF COFFEE Can you get the feeling of well being by an alternative means? 109
    110. 110. PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION 110
    111. 111. PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION 111
    112. 112. PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION This suggests a cup with a part that moves. Perhaps a sleeve that is attached to the cup but is flat against it in shipping and storage but is moved to give it separation from the cup wall either manually or by stimulus from the heat of the coffee. 112
    113. 113. PLATFORM 1: II (5)OPERATORS / LINES OF EVOLUTION 113
    114. 114. TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5) Problem Formulation  Useful Functions  Better, Different, or Without  Harmful Functions  Stop the source, action, or consequences  Resolve Contradictions 114
    115. 115. TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5) Lines of Evolution  Forecasting Future Developments  in patent filings  in next generation R&D  Discovering Past Steps  Niche markets  Lower tech solutions 115
    116. 116. TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5) Overcome Roadblocks  Address Secondary Problems  Solve as primary problem  Identify and watch for needed developments 116
    117. 117. TECHNIQUES USED:PLATFORM 1: II (5) Apply Systems Approach  Find solutions in other industries  Broaden claims 117
    118. 118. PLATFORM 1: II (5) ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS:  Engineering problem solving  Product/process development  Cost reductions  Failure analysis and prevention  Hidden source of failures  Predict failures before they occur  Non-technical problem solving 118
    119. 119. PLATFORM 1: II (5) Conclusion:  This is a powerful problem solving methodology  Can be applied to increase the value of intellectual property  Strengthen patent applications  Circumvent competitive patents 119

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