Parallel EditingWhat do we mean by the term Parallel?
Parallel EditingWhat do we mean by the term Parallel?“Extending in the same direction, equidistant at all points, and never converging or diverging…”
Parallel editingParallel editing (also known as cross cutting) is similar to this definition.Parallel editing involves cutting between two or more separate scenes (remember, a scene is shot in a single location) that are happening at the same time in the story.This means that the different storylines unfold in parallel (at the same time but in different locations).For example:http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6568586375986045340#[The Godfather]
Parallel editing So the storylines never come together? Mostly, but they can. Why would we want storylines to converge?http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_e mbedded&v=Ts1x6uADFtM#![J Demme – silence of the lambs]
Parallel editingWhy do editors use cross cutting?- To add suspense- To add pace- To add exposition (to the narrative, the back story, to themes, to character)What did cross cutting between the two scenes in the Godfather add to the film?
The history of parallel editingEdwin S Porter first used cross cutting in 1903’s The Great Train Robbery
The Great Train Robberyhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69grwvuVEecStart @ 5 mins.
The history of parallel editingD W Griffith used cross cutting in his film“History Of A Nation” to build tension andrelationships.Note: this is a historicallyimportant film when lookingat film editing but it isextremely racist.
Modern cinemaParallel editing is now a common convention inediting. What famous film scenes can you think of?
TASK 1Research & critically assess the development &principles of parallel editing.Look at famous film-makers that pioneered it,what it’s effect is (or can be) and find goodexamples that back up your findings. YOU HAVE 30 MINUTES TO COMPLETE THIS & PUBLISH IT TO YOUR BLOG.
What do we mean by “Montage”?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JU9Uwhjlog 8
What do we mean by “Montage”?Montage is French for ‘assembly’.The term is used in cinema to describe 2 different things:1) A classic montage sequenceA sequence of shots which show a length of time (in the story) but condensedinto a small amount of screen-time.(Team America: World Police)2) Soviet MontageSoviet montage is a theory of editing that developed in Soviet Russia, thatstates that the way in which a sequence is edited will influence the audiencesunderstanding of what they are seeing. Montage uses juxtaposition betweendifferent shots to create conflict and create new meaning.
A classic montage sequencehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DP3MFBzM H2o[Rocky]
Rocky MontageThis sequence from Rocky is a good example of montage (a sequence of shots which shows an amount of time compressed). Why would we use this editing technique to show the sequence of events in the story?
Soviet MontageSoviet montage believes that editing is at theheart of film-making.It is in the process of editing that film-makerscreate meaning and “truth” for the audience.How?
The birth of MontageSergei Eisenstein (Battleship Potemkin) was the father of montage.Eisenstein thought that by placing seemingly unrelated shots side by side ( juxtaposition ) film-makers could create new meanings, create visual metaphors and manipulate their audiences emotions & understanding.
Intellectual montagehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cw2chy64m34&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PL4ED9641B63D242E1[S Eisenstein – October]Eisenstein used different images of different gods tocreate a visual metaphor: How can all these Godsbe real & true? Can any be real? Are they just thetools of the powerful to retain their power?
Methods of MontageEisenstein didn’t think that montage was just used to createvisual metaphors…..In 1929 he stated that there were 5 different types of editingtechniques that could be used to influence audience. Hedubbed these the Methods of Montage:1) Metric2) Tonal3) Rhythmic4) Over-Tonal5) Intellectual
MetricThe word ‘metric’ relates to a unit of length or measurement.In metric montage the length of a shot is used to create meaning or understanding in the audience whilst the overall pre-determined length of the piece stays the same.One example of the use of metric montage is to create tension, by cutting short clips together.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JOr_CPpx9os&feature=pla yer_embedded#![S Eisenstein – October]
RhythmicIn rhythmic montage the rhythm of movement withinthe shot comes into conflict with rhythm of the editing.Eisenstein used this in a famous scene in his film‘Battleship Potemkin” where the slow pace of the soldiersmarching comes into conflict with the faster cutting.When the pram begins to fall the pace of the cuttingcomes into sync with the movement on screen.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DLEE2UL_N7Q[S Eisenstein – Battleship Potemkin] Start @ 4.36
TonalThe emotional tone of a sequence will be theprimary factor which decides how thesequence is edited together.Exciting happy scenes could have quicker cuts, asad or mellow scene could have longer shotsand will be cut to a slower rhythm.
Over-TonalA combination of metric, tonal and rhythmicmontage, this style of editing aim’s to draw theaudience into the sequence and to create anemotional response in the audience as well asan understanding of the narrative.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XwN5ndR65QM&feature=player_embedded[V Pudovkin – Mother]
IntellectualA combination of shots which create a visualmetaphor.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cw2chy64m34&feature=results_video&playnext=1&list=PL4ED9641B63D242E1[S Eisenstein – The General Line]
Soviet MontageMany elements of Eisenstein’s methods ofmontage form the basis of modern continuityediting. Eisensteins influence on film-making is undoubted.
TASK 1Define Eisensteins Methods of Montage, andfind examples of the different methods onYouTube.Write your findings up in a blog post.YOU ONLY HAVE 30 MINUTES TO GET STARTED ON THIS, you’ll have to finish it at home.
TASK 2Split yourselves into 3 groups.You need to storyboard 2 simple scenes which unfold at the same timebut at different locations.You will need to include some elements of Soviet Montage (forexample intellectual montage, or metric montage) into your final edit,so think about this when planning your idea.You will then need to film them and cut them together.You have - 30 minutes to storyboard your idea - 30 minutes to film your idea - 30 minutes to capture and edit your film
Your film should contain:- Parallel editing- Elements of Soviet montage or a classic montage sequence- Have eye-line matching- Conform to the 180 degree rule