Properties of materials used in self

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Properties of materials used in self

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil EngineeringOF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), pp. 353-368 IJCIET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.1861 (Calculated by GISI) IAEMEwww.jifactor.com PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS USED IN SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE (SCC) N. Krishna Murthy1, A.V. Narasimha Rao 2, I .V . Ramana Reddy 3, M. Vijaya sekhar Reddy 4, P. Ramesh 5 1 Engineering Department , Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa, & Research Scholar of S.V.Univers,Tirupati, India, e-mail: krishpurna@yahoo.co.in 2 Professor ,Department of Civil Engineering, S.V. University, Tirupati, India 3 Professor,Department of Civil Engineering, S.V. University, Tirupati, India 4 HOD,Department of Civil Engineering, SKIT,srikalahasti , India 5 Asst. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, SVEC, A.Rangampeta,Tirupati, India ABSTRACT Self-compacting concrete (SCC) can be defined as a fresh concrete which possesses superior flowability under maintained stability (i.e. no segregation) thus allowing self-compaction that is, material consolidation without addition of energy. Self-compacting concrete is a fluid mixture suitable for placing in structures with congested reinforcement without vibration and it helps in achieving higher quality of surface finishes. However utilization of high reactive Metakaolin and Flyash as an admixtures as an effective pozzolan which causes great improvement in the pore structure. The relative proportions of key components are considered by volume rather than by mass. self compacting concrete (SCC) mix design with 29% of coarse aggregate, replacement of cement with Metakaolin and class F flyash, combinations of both and controlled SCC mix with 0.36 water/cementitious ratio(by weight) and 388 litre/m3 of cement paste volume. Crushed granite stones of size 16mm and 12.5mm are used with a blending 60:40 by percentage weight of total coarse aggregate. Self-compacting concrete compactibility is affected by the characteristics of materials and the mix proportions; it becomes necessary to evolve a procedure for mix design of SCC. The properties of different constituent materials used in this investigation and it’s standard tests procedures for acceptance characteristics of self- compacting concrete such as slump flow, V-funnel and L-Box are presented. KEYWORDS: Self Compacting Concrete, Metakaolin, Flyash , Properties. 353
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEMEI. INTRODUCTION Self-compacting concrete (SCC) was first developed in Japan in 1988 inorder to achieve durable concrete structures by improving quality in theconstruction process. It was also found to offer economic, social andenvironmental benefits over traditional vibrated concrete construction. Researchand development work into SCC in Europe began in Sweden in the 1990s and nownearly all the countries in Europe conduct some form of research and developmentinto the material. Once the fully compliant SCC is supplied to the point ofapplication then the final operation of casting requires very little skill or manpowercompared with traditional concrete to produce uniformly dense concrete. Becauseof vibration being unnecessary, the noise is reduced and the risk of developingproblems due to the use of vibrating equipment is reduced. Fewer operatives arerequired, but more time is needed to test the concrete before placing. In addition tothe benefits described above, SCC is also able to provide a more consistent andsuperior finished product for the client, with less defects. Another advantage is thatless skilled labour is required in order for it to be placed, finished and made goodafter casting. As the shortage of skilled site labour in construction continues toincrease in the UK and many other countries, this is an additional advantage of thematerial which will become increasingly important. Research and development of SCC is being conducted by private companies(mainly product development),by universities (mainly pure research into thematerial’s properties), by national bodies and working groups (mainly theproduction of national guidelines and specifications) and at European level (Brite-EuRam and RILEM projects on test methods and the casting of SCC,respectively). There are several organizations that collect the work in thisarea.Institute, (PCI, 2003) and European Research Project Report, (Schutter,2005) are good examples. Symposiums and workshops on this topic were givenby these organizations and several test methods on the flowability of SCC havebeen popularized since then. has revolutionized concrete placement.SCC, was first introduced in the late 1980’s by Japanese researchers ishighly workable The use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) has growntremendously since its inception in the 1980s.Different from a conventionalconcrete, SCC is characterized by its high flowability at the fresh state. Amongthe existing test methods, slump flow test, using the traditional slump cone, is themost common testing method for flowability (or filling ability). During the test,the final slump flow diameter and T50 (time needed for concrete to reach a spreaddiameter of 50 cm are recorded. The U-Box, L-Box are used for the evaluation ofpassing ability. These fresh properties are governed by the rheological propertiesof the material and some studied have been conducted in the lab to investigate theL-box test Segregation resistance is another important issue for SCC. Surfacesettlement test and the penetration test are two methods to evaluate the resistanceto segregation of SCC in the field. The objective of this paper is to study a set 354
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEMEof test method and performance based specifications for the workability ofstructural SCC that can be used for casting highly restricted or congestedsections. Proven combinations of test methods to assess filling capacity andstability are proposed and should be of interest to engineers and contractors usingSCC.The three properties that characterise a concrete as self-compacting Concrete areFlowing ability—the ability to completely fill all areas and corners of theformwork into which it is placed Passing ability—the ability to pass through congested reinforcement withoutseparation of the constituents or blockingResistance to segregation— the ability to retain the coarse components of the mixin suspension in order to maintain a homogeneous material. Table 1 :Guidelines for SCC Sl. Description of EFNARC NORVEY SWEDEN GERMANY No. country 1 Slump Flow (mm) 550-800 600-750 NA >750 2 V Funnel(Sec) 2-5 NA NA NA 3 L- Box( h2/h1) 0.8 -1 NA 0.8-0.85 NA 4 U- Box(h2-h1) 0-30(mm) NA NA NA 5 Orimet Test(Second) 0-5 NA NA NA 6 GTM-Stability (%) 0-15 NA NA NA 7 Aggregate Size (mm) 12-20 < 16 < 16 < 16These properties must all be satisfied in order to design an adequate SCC, togetherwith other requirements including those for hardened performance.II. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM 2.1 SCC Mix Target Typical acceptance criteria and target for SCC are shownin Table 8. Table 2. Typical Acceptance Criteria and Target for Self Compacting Concrete Unit SCC Mix Target Property Test Method Minimum Maximum Slump Flow by Filling ability Abrams Cone mm 650 800 T50cm Slump Flow Sec 2 5 V-Funnel Sec 6 12 Passing ability L-Box h2/h1(mm/mm) 0.8 1.0 Segregation V-Funnel atT5min. Sec 6 12 resistance 355
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July December (2012), © IAEME July- 2.2 Properties Of SCC 356
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME2.3 Mixing Procedure for self compacting Concrete For SCC, it is generallynecessary to use superplasticizers in order to obtain high mobility. Adding a largevolume of powdered material or viscosity modifying admixture can eliminatesegregation. The powdered materials that can be added are fly ash ,Metakaolin,silica fume, lime stone powder, glass filler and quartzite filler. Okamura andOzawa have proposed a mix proportioning system for SCC . In this system, the coarse aggregate and fine aggregate contents are fixedand self-compactibility is to be achieved by adjusting the water /powder ratio andsuper plasticizer dosage. In addition, the test results for acceptancecharacteristics for self-compacting concrete such as slump flow, V-funnel and L-Box are presented.III Selection of Materials and Mix Proportions SCC can be made from any of the constituent materials that are normallyconsidered for structural concrete . In designing the SCC mix, it is most useful to considerthe relative proportions of the key components by volume rather than by mass. Worldwide, there is a wide range of mix proportions that can produce successfulSCC. Typical range of proportions and quantities in order to obtain SCC are given below:These Guidelines are not intended to provide specific advice on mix design but Table 8.2gives an indication of the typical range of constituents in SCC by weight and by volume.These proportions are in no way restrictive and many SCC mixes will fall outside thisrange for one or more constituents.3.1 Characteristics Of Test Methods Table 3: Characteristic test methods for self compacting concrete Characteristi Test Measured value c method Flowability/filling Slump-flow total spread ability Kajima box visual filling T500 flow time V-funnel flow time Viscosity/ O-funnel flow time flowability Orimet flow time L-box passing ratio U-box height difference Passing ability J-ring step height, total flow Kajima box visual passing ability penetration depth Segregation sieve segregation percent laitance resistance settlement column segregation ratio 357
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME Table 4 Mix proportion of a typical ranges of SCC Typical range by Typical range by volume Constituent mass (kg/m)3 (liters/m)3 Powder 380 - 600 Paste 300 - 380 Water 150 - 210 150 - 210 Coarse aggregate 750 - 1000 270 - 360 Content balances the volume of the other Fine aggregate (sand) constituents, typically 48 – 55% of total aggregate weight. Water/Powder ratio by 0.85 – 1.10 Volume Table 5 , Mix proportion of a NVC and typical ranges of SCC Constituent NVC (C40, 75 mm SCC (Domone, 2006b; The slump) Concrete Society and BRE, Coarse aggregate/concrete(%) by vol. 42 28.0 – 38.6 Water/powder (by wt.) 0.55 0.26 – 0.48 Paste/concrete (%) by vol. 32 30.4 – 41.5 Powder content (kg/m 3) 375 385 – 635 Sand/mortar (%) by vol. 44 38.1 – 52.9III. MATERIALS USED 3.1 . Fine Aggregate Natural river sand is used as fine aggregate. Thebulk specific gravity in oven dry condition and water absorption of thesand are 2.6 and 1% respectively. The gradation of the sand wasdetermined by sieve analysis as per IS-383(1970) and presented in theTable 6. Fineness modulus of sand is 2.65. Table 6. Sieve Analysis of Fine Aggregate Cumulative Percent Passing Sieve No. Fine Aggregate IS: 383-1970 – Zone II Requirement 10mm 100 100 4.75mm 100 90-100 2.36mm 94 75-100 1.18mm 74 55-90 600µm 46 35-59 300µm 14 8-30 150µm 3 0-10 358
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME2.2.4. Coarse AggregateCrushed granite stones of size 16mm and 12.5mm are used as coarse aggregate.The bulk specific gravity in oven dry condition and water absorption of thecoarse aggregate are 2.66 and 0.3% respectively. The gradation of the coarseaggregate was determined by sieve analysis as per IS-383(1970) [4] andpresented in the Table7 and Table 8,Fineness modulus of coarse aggregate is 6.67. Table 7. Sieve Analysis of 16 mm Coarse Aggregate Cumulative Percent Passing IS Sieve Size 16 mm passing IS: 383-1970 Limits 20 mm 100 100 16 mm 99 85-100 12.5 mm 57.77 N/A 10 mm 18.89 0-30 4.75 mm 1 0-5 2.36mm -- ---- Table 8. Sieve Analysis of 12.5 mm Coarse Aggregate Cumulative Percent Passing IS Sieve Size 12.5 mm passing IS: 383-1970 Limits 16 mm 100 100 12.5mm 94 85-100 10 mm 36.5 0-45 4.75 mm 8.76 0-10 2.36 mm 2.4 NADry-rodded unit weight (DRUW) and void ratio of coarse aggregate withrelative blending by percentage weight as per IS: 2386 (Part III)-1963 [6] isshown in Table 6 and Figure 1.Table 9. Dry-rodded unit weight and Void Ratio of a given coarse aggregate blending Coarse Aggregate Blending by Percentage Weight DRUW (kg/m3) Void Ratio ( 16 mm and 12.5 mm) 100:0 1596 0.378 80:20 1642 0.374 70:30 1647 0.376 67:33 1659 0.386 60:40 1608 0.395 40:60 1568 0.399 20:80 1559 0.40 0:100 1533 0.41 359
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME3.2 Water Potable water for casting and curing of the SCC mixes Table 10. Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of Cement Test Result Requirement as per IS:12269-1989 Chemical Composition Lime Saturation Factor Not less than 0.60 & not more than 1.02 CaO-0.7SO3/2.8SiO2+1.2Al2 O3+0.65Fe2O3 0.89 Ratio of Alumina/Iron Oxide 1.00 Min. 0.66 Insoluble Residue(%) 1.31 Not more Than 3.0% % Magnesium oxide(MgO) 1.40 Not more Than 6.0% Max. 3.0% when C3 A>5.0 % Sulphuric Anhydride (SO3) 1.91 Max. 2.5% when C3 A<5.0 Loss of Ignition(%) 1.29 Not more Than 5.0% Alkalies(%) 0.60 --------- 0.01 Not more Than 0.1% Chlorides(%) % Silica(SiO2) 19.79 3 5.67 % Alumina(Al2O ) 3 4.68 % Iron Oxide(Fe2O ) % Lime(CaO) 61.81 C3 A 5.5 Temperature During Testing(0C) 27 27 +/-2 Physical Properties Specific gravity 3.15 2 275 Min.225 Fineness (m /Kg) Soundness 2 Lechatlier Expansion(mm) 1.50 Max. 10mm Auto clave Expansion (%) 0.04 Max. 0.8% Setting time(minutes) Initial 180 Min. 30 min Max. 600 min Final 230 Compressive strength 3 Days 32 > 23 N/mm2 7 Days 43 > 33 N/mm2 28 days 55 > 43 N/mm23.3 Additive or Mineral AdmixtureMetakaolin manufactured from pure raw material to strict quality standards. Metakaolin isa high quality pozzolanic material, which blended with Portland cement in order toimprove the strength and durability of concrete and mortars. Metakaolin removeschemically reactive calcium hydroxide from the hardened cement paste. It reduces theporosity of hardened concrete. Metakaolin densified and reduces the thickness of theinterfacial zone, this improving the adhesion between the hardened cement paste andparticulars of sand or aggregate. Metakaolin procured from 20 Microns companyVadodara, Gujarat, India. As per IS-456(2000) , cement is replaced by weight ofmaterial. The specific gravity of Metakaolin is 2.5 . 360
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME3.3.1 Reactivity of Different Pozzolanic Materials Table 11 : Reactivity of Different Pozzolanic Materials Material Pozzolanic Reactivity mg Ca(OH)2 per g Blast furnace slag 40 Calcined paper waste 300 Microsilica, silica fume 427 Calcined bauxite 534 Pulverised fuel ash 875 High Reactive Metakaolin 10503.3.2 METAKAOLIN Metakaolin manufactured from pure raw material to strict quality standards.Metakaolin is a high quality pozzolanic material, which blended with Portlandcement in order to improve the strength and durability of concrete and mortars.Metakaolin removes chemically reactive calcium hydroxide from the hardenedcement paste. It reduces the porosity of hardened concrete. Metakaolin densifiedand reduces the thickness of the interfacial zone, this improving the adhesionbetween the hardened cement paste and particulars of sand or aggregate.3.3.3 Properties of Metakaolin Metakaolin grades of Calcined clays are reactive allumino silicate pozzolanformed by calcining very pure hydrous China clay. Chemically Metakaolincombines with Calcium Silicate and Calcium processed to remove uncreativeimpurities producing almost 100 percent reactive material. The particle size ofMetakaolin is significantly smaller than cement particles. I S: 456-2000recommend use of Metacioline as mineral admixture. Metakaolin is a thermally structure, ultrafine pozzolan which replaceindustrial by-products such as silica fume / micro silica. Commercial use ofMetakaolin has already in several countries worldwide. Metakaolin removeschemically reactive calcium hydroxide from the hardened cement paste.Metakaolin reduces the porosity of hardened concrete. Metakaolin densifiesreduces the thickness of the interfacial zone, this improving the adhesion betweenthe hardened cement paste and particles of sand or aggregate. Blending withPortland cement Metakaolin improves the properties of concrete and cementproducts considerably by: Increasing compressive and flexural strength, providing resistance tochemical attack, reducing permeability substantially, preventing Alkali-SilicaReaction, reducing efflorescence & Shrinkage and Protecting corrosion 361
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME3.3.4 Physical and Chemical Properties of Metakaolin Physical Properties of Chemical Properties Metakaolin of Metakaolin 1.5 Average particle size, µm SiO2 + Al2O3 + Fe2O3 96.88% 0.5 Residue 325 mesh (% max) CaO 0.39% B.E.T. Surface area m2/gm 15 MgO 0.08% Pozzolan Reactivity mg Ca(OH)2 / gm 1050 TiO2 1.35% Specific Gravity 2.5 Na2O 0.56% Bulk Density (gm/ltr.) 300+ or -30 K 2O 0.06% Brightness 80+ or –2 Li2O Nil off-white powder Physical foam L.O.I 0.68%3.3.4 Pozzolanic Reactivity of Metakaolin Metakaolin is a lime-hungry pozzolan that reacts with free calciumhydroxide to form stable, insoluble, strength-adding, cementitiouscompounds.When Metakaolin – HRM(AS2) reacts with calcium hydroxide(CH), acement hydration byproducts, a pozzolanic reaction takes place whereby newcementitious compounds,(C2ASH8) and (CSH), are formed. These newly formedcompounds will contribute cementitious strength and enhanced durabilityproperties to the system in place of the otherwise weak and soluble calciumhydroxide. Cement Hydration Process OPC + H2O -----------------------------------------------> CSH + CH Pozzolanic Reaction Process H 2O AS2 + CH -----------------------------------------------> C2ASH8 + CSH Unlike other commercially available pozzolanic materials, Metakaolin is aquality controlled, manufactured material. It is not a by-product of unrelatedindustrial process. Metakaolin has been engineered and optimized to contain aminimum of impurities and to react efficiently with cement’s hydration byproduct-calcium hydroxide. Table summarizes the relative reactivities of six differentpozzolans, including High Reactive Metakaolin-HRM.3.3.5 Fly AshFlyash ,known also as pulverized –fuel ash,is the ash precipitated electro-statically fromthe exhaust fumes of coal-fired power stations, and is the most common artificialpozzolana .Flyash is the most commonly used pozzolana with cement. . Class F fly ashfrom Rayalaseema Thermal Power Plant (RTPP), Muddanur, A.P, India is used as anadditives according to ASTM C 618 cement is replaced by weight of material. Thespecific gravity of fly ash is 2.12 362
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME Table 13. Chemical and Physical Properties of Class F Fly Ash ASTM C 618 Class F Fly Ash Particulars Chemical Composition % Silica(SiO 2) 65.6 % Alumina(Al2O3) 28.0 % Iron Oxide(Fe2O3) 3.0 SiO2+ Al2O3+ Fe2O3>70 % Lime(CaO) 1.0 % Magnesia(MgO) 1.0 % Titanium Oxide (TiO2) 0.5 % Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) 0.2 Loss on Ignition 0.29 Physical Properties Specific gravity 2.12 Fineness (m2/Kg) 360 Min.225 m2/kg3.3.6 Chemical AdmixturesSika Viscocrete 10R3 is used as high range water reducer (HRWR) SP cumretarder is used . The properties of the chemical admixtures as obtained from themanufacturer are presented in the Table 14Table 14. Properties of Chemical Admixtures Confirming to EN 934-2 Table11.1/11.2 andSIA 162(1989) Solid Quantity(%)By Chemical Specific Appearance Relative Density Content cementitious Admixture Gravity /Colour Ph Chemical Base (%) weightSika Visocrete- 1.10 Light brown ≈ Above 6 ≈1.09 kg/lit 40 0.6 - 2 Aqueous10 R3 liquid .(at+300c) solution of High Performance ModifiedSuper-Plasticiser Polycarboxylatecumretarder(HRWRA)IV EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS4.1. SCC Mix DesignSeveral methods exist for the mix design of SCC. The general purpose mix designmethod was first developed by Okamura and Ozawa (1995). In this study, the keyproportions for the mixes are done by volume. The detailed steps for mix designare described as follows:1. Assume air content as 2% (20 litres) of concrete volume.2. Determine the dry-rodded unit weight (DRUW) of coarse aggregate for agiven coarse aggregate blending.3. Using DRUW, calculate the coarse aggregate content by volume (28 – 35%) ofmix volume. 363
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME 4. Adopt fine aggregate volume of 40 to 50% of the mortar volume. 5. Maintain paste volume of 388 litre/m3 of the concrete volume. 6. Keep water/ cementitious ratio by weight (w/cm) as 0.36. 7. Calculate the binder (cementitious material) content by weight. 8. Replace cement with Metakaolin,fly ash and combinations of both by weight of cementitious material. 9. Optimize the dosages of super plasticizer (SP) and viscosity modifying agent for the given w/cm (0.36) using mortar tests by mini slump cone test. 10. Perform SCC tests. 4.2 Percentage of Mix Proportions. Mix types with percentage relative proportions and mix proportions of constituent materials are shown in Table 9 and Table 10. Table 16. Designed Mix ProportionsSl. Designation of Total Cement Metakao Flyash F.A C.A Water S.P. S.P W/PNo. Mix Proportion Binder 3 lin 3 3 3 3 (%) 3 ratio (Kg/m ) (Kg/m ) (Kg/m ) (Kg/m ) (Kg/m ) (Kg/m ) 3 3 (Kg/m ) (Kg/m ) 1 MK5 533.00 506.35 26.65 ----- 836 771.84 191.88 0.9 4.797 0.36 2 MK10 530.00 477.00 53.00 ----- 836 771.84 190.80 0.9 4.770 0.36 3 MK15 527.00 447.95 79.05 ----- 836 771.84 189.72 0.9 4.743 0.36 4 MK20 523.50 418.80 105.00 ----- 836 771.84 188.46 0.9 4.712 0.36 5 FA10 524.50 472.00 ----- 52.45 836 771.84 188.82 0.9 4.721 0.36 6 FA20 513.50 410.80 ----- 102.70 836 771.84 184.86 0.9 4.622 0.36 7 FA30 502.00 351.75 ----- 150.75 836 771.84 180.90 0.9 4.523 0.36 8 MK5+FA30 499.50 324.68 25.00 149.85 836 771.84 179.82 0.9 4.500 0.36 9 MK10+FA20 507.50 355.25 50.75 101.50 836 771.84 182.70 0.9 4.570 0.3610 MK15+FA10 504.00 378.00 75.60 50.40 836 771.84 181.44 0.9 4.536 0.3611 SCC 536.00 536.00 ----- ----- 836 771.84 192.96 0.9 4.824 0.36 V . Testing Fresh Properties of SCC 5.1. Slump Flow Test. The slump flow test is used to assess the horizontal free flow of SCC in the absence of obstructions. The test also indicates resistance to segregation. On lifting the slump cone, filled with concrete the average diameter spread of the concrete is measured. It indicates the filling ability of the concrete. Slump flow test apparatus is shown in Figure 3(a). Slump cone has 20 cm bottom diameter, 10 cm top diameter and 30 cm in height. In this test, the slump cone mould is placed exactly on the 20 cm diameter graduated circle marked on the glass plate, filled with concrete and lifted upwards. The subsequent diameter of the concrete spread is measured in two perpendicular directions and the average of the diameters is reported as the spread of the concrete. T50cm is the time measured from lifting the cone to the concrete reaching a diameter of 50 cm. The measured T50cm indicates the deformation rate or viscosity of the concrete. The slump flow is used to assess the horizontal free flow and the filling ability of SCC in the absence of obstructions. It is recommended to maintain slump flow value as 650 to 800 mm. This test is used along with slump flow test to assess the flowability of SCC. 364
  13. 13. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME5.2 . V-Funnel Test The flowability of the fresh concrete can be tested with the V-funnel test,whereby the flow time is measured. The funnel is filled with about 12 litresof concrete and the time taken for it to flow through the apparatus ismeasured. Shorter flow time indicate greater flowability. V-Funnel testapparatus dimensions are shown in Figure 3(b). In this test, trap door isclosed at the bottom of V-Funnel and V-Funnel is completely filled withfresh concrete. V-Funnel time is the time measured from opening the trapdoor and complete emptying the funnel. Again, the V-Funnel is filled withconcrete, kept for 5 minutes and trap door is opened. V-Funnel time ismeasured again and this indicates V-Funnel time at T5min. This test is usedto determine the filling ability, flowability and segregation resistance ofSCC.5.3 L-Box TestThis is a widely used test, suitable for laboratory and site use. It assessesfilling and passing ability of SCC and serious lack of stability (segregation)can be detected visually. The vertical section of the L- Box is filled withconcrete, and then the gate is lifted to let the concrete flow into thehorizontal section. Blocking ratio (i.e. is ratio of the height of the concrete atthe end of the horizontal section (h2) to height of concrete at beginning ofhorizontal section (h1)) is determined.L-Box test apparatus dimensions are shown in Figure In this test, freshconcrete is filled in the vertical section of L-Box and the gate is lifted to letthe concrete to flow into the horizontal section. The height of the concreteat the end of horizontal section represents h2 (mm) at the vertical sectionrepresents h1 (mm). The ratio h2/h1 represents blocking ratio .This testassesses the flow of the concrete in presence of reinforcement obstructions.5.4. Determination of Consistence RetentionConsistence retention is also an important fresh property of SCC in view ofworkability. It refers to the period of duration during which SCC retains itsproperties, which is important for transportation and placing. Consistenceretention was evaluated by measuring the slump flow spread and T50cm ofsuccessful SCC mixes at 60 minutes after adding water. The SCC mix wasremixed for one minute before each test. 365
  14. 14. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEMEVI. CONCLUSIONS Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions may be drawn:1. Establishment of standard mix design procedure and appropriate testingmethods is essential for wide spread use of SCC . Most of Indian researchers havefollowed European guidelines for testing SCC. Other countries are adopting theseguiedelines with slight modifications as per local conditions.2. Both coarse aggregate maximum size and coarse aggregate volume areinfluenced in obtaining the successful SCC mixes.3.As the replacements of Metakaolin, Flyash and combinations of both MK andFA compared with controlled concrete SCC, totally there are eleven type of mixdesigns such asMK5,MK10,MK15,MK20;FA10,FA20,FA30;(MK5+FA30),(MK10+FA20),(MK15+FA10) and Controlled mix SCC4 As per the mix designs and trial mixes addition of MK increases the demand ofHRWRA in SCC Mixes. Replacement of cement by 20%MKin SCC the superplasticizer cum retarder demands may be increased.5. As per the mix designs and trial mixes addition of FA decreases the demand ofHRWRA in SCC Mixes. Replacement of cement by 30% FA in SCC the superplasticizer cum retarder demands may be decreased.6. The utilization of by-product mineral admixtures is the best alternative for nowa days since it not only makes the concrete accomplish the proper performancebut also reduce the concrete cost and environmental problems. Incorporating suchmaterials further enhances the fresh properties of SCC concrete.REFERENCES[1].Krishna Murthy.N., NarasimhaRao.A.V., Ramana Reddy,I.V. and Vijayasekhar Reddy M.., Mix Design procedure for Self-Compacting Concrete, IOSRJournal of Engineering(IOSRJEN, Volume 2,Issue 9,(September2012)P.P 33-41.[2].IS: 3812-2003, Specifications for Pulverized fuel ash, Bureau of IndianStandards, New Delhi, India.[3] IS: 8112-1989, Specifications for 43 grade Portland cement, Bureau of IndianStandards, New Delhi, India.[4]IS: 383-1970, Specifications for Coarse and Fine aggregates from Naturalsources for Concrete, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.[5].American Concrete Institute. “Self-Consolidating Concrete”, ACI 237R-07.[6].American Concrete Institute. “Specifications for Structural Concrete”, ACI301.[7].American Society for Testing and Materials. “Standard specification for coalfly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use in concrete”, ASTM C 618(2003).[8].American Society for Testing and Materials. “Standard specification for coalfly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use concrete”, ASTM C 618(2003). 366
  15. 15. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME [9].Bureau of Indian Standards. “Methods of test for aggregates forconcrete. Specific gravity,Density, Voids, Absorption and Bulking”, IS-2386 (Part III, 1963).[10].Bureau of Indian Standards. “Plain and reinforced concrete code for practice”,IS-456 (2000), New Delhi. [4]. Bureau of Indian Standards. “Methods oftest for aggregates for concrete. Specific gravity, Density, Voids, Absorption andBulking”, IS-2386 (Part III, 1963).[11].Domone PLJ. 2006b. “Self-compacting concrete: An analysis of 11 years ofcase studies”. Cement and Concrete Composites 28(2):197-208.[12].EFNARC (European Federation of national trade associations representingproducers and applicators of specialist building products), Specification andGuidelines for self- compacting concrete, February 2002, Hampshire, U.K.[13].EFNARC. “Specification and guidelines for self-compacting concrete.European Federation of Producers and Applicators of Specialist Products forStructures”, 2002.[14].RILEM TC 174 SCC. “Self compacting concrete State-of-the-art report ofRILEM technical committee 174-SCC”. Skarendahl A, Petersson O, editors,RILEM Publications S.A.R.L., France, 2000.[15].Ghazi F Kheder, Rand S Al Jaidiri. 2010. “New Method for ProportioningSelf-Consolidating Concrete Based on Compressive Strength Requirements”.ACI Materials 107(5):490-497.[16].Goodier C. 2001. “Self-Compacting Concrete”. European Network ofBuilding Research Institutes (ENBRI). 17:6[17].Khayat KH. 1998. Viscosity-enhancing admixtures for cement-basedmaterials - An overview. Cement and Concrete Composites, No.20, 2-3: 171-188 [18].Newman J, Choo BS. Advanced concrete technology concreteproperties. Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann, 2003. [19].Okamura H, Ozawa K. 1995. “Mix design for self-compacting concrete”.Concrete Library of Japanese Society of Civil Engineers 25(6):107-120.[20].Okamura H, Ouchi M. 1999. “Self-compacting concrete development, presentuse and future”.In:The 1st International RILEM Symposium on Self-CompactingConcrete. Skarendahl A, Petersson O, editors, RILEM Publications. S.A.R.L,France. 3-14.[21].Ozawa K, Maekawa K, Kunishima M, Okamura H. 1989. “Development ofhigh performance concrete based on the durability design of concrete structures”.445-450.[22].Nagamoto N., Ozawa K., Mixture properties of Self-Compacting, High-Performance Concrete, Proceedings, Third CANMET/ACI InternationalConferences on Design and Materials and Recent Advances in ConcreteTechnology, SP- 172, V. M. Malhotra, American Concrete Institute,Farmington Hills, Mich. 1997, p. 623-637.[23].Khayat K.H., Ghezal A., Utility of Statistical models in Proportioning Self-Compacting Concrete, Proceedings, RILEM[24].International symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete, Stockholm, 1999, p.345-359. 367
  16. 16. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 3, Issue 2, July- December (2012), © IAEME[25].Okamura H., Ozawa K., Mix Design for Self-Compacting Concrete, ConcreteLibrary of Japanese Society of Civil Engineers, June 25, 1995, p. 107-120.[26].Nagataki S., Fujiwara H., Self-Compacting property of Highly-Flowableconcrete, Second Conference on advances in Concrete Technology, ACI SP-154,V.M. Malhotra, American Concrete Institute, June 1995, p. 301-304.[27] Khayat K.H., Manai K., Lesbetons autonivlants : proprietes,charcterisation et applications , colloque sur les betons autonivlants, Universite deSherbroke, Canada, November 1996, p. 8. [28]. Ghazi F Kheder, Rand S Al Jaidiri. 2010. “New Method for ProportioningSelf-Consolidating Concrete Based on Compressive Strength Requirements”. ACIMaterials 107(5):490-497. [29].Petersson O., Billberg P., Van B.K., A model for Self-Compacting Concrete,Proceedings of Production Methods and Workability of Concrete,1996, E & FNSpan, London, p. 483- 492. [30]Okamura H, Ozawa K. 1995. “Mix design for self-compacting concrete”.Concrete Library of Japanese Society of Civil Engineers 25(6):107-120.[31].Okamura H. 1997. “Self-compacting high-performance concrete”. ConcreteInternational 19(7):50-54.[32].Okamura H, Ouchi M. 1999. “Self-compacting concrete development,present use and future”. In: The 1st International RILEM Symposium on Self-Compacting Concrete. Skarendahl A, Petersson O, editors, RILEM Publications.S.A.R.L, France. 3-14.[33]. Okamura H, Ouchi M. 2003b. “Self-compacting concrete”. Journal ofAdvanced Concrete Technology 1(1):5-15.[34]. Ozawa K, Maekawa K, Kunishima M, Okamura H. 1989. “Development ofhigh performance concrete based on the durability design of concrete structures”.445-450.[35]. Skarendahl, A. and Petersson, O. (eds.), “Self-compacting concrete”, State-of-the-art report of RILEM Technical Committee 174-SCC, RILEM Publications,2000.[36]. The Concrete Society, BRE. 2005. “Technical report No.62 self-compacting concrete: a review”. Day RTU, Holton IX, editors, Camberley, UK,Concrete Society, Surrey GU17 9AB, UK. 368

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