Performance analysis of mobile ad hoc network

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Performance analysis of mobile ad hoc network

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDInternational Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), pp. 68-83 IJECET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5930 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK USED FOR TRAFFIC MONITORING APPLICATION Manoj Tolani Assistant Professor PSIT-College of Engineering, Kanpur manoj9721@gmail.com Arti Saxena Assistant Professor (HOD ECE) PSIT-College of Engineering, Kanpur arti.saxena@psit.inABSTRACTThe main focus of our research work is to analyze performance of MANET network for remotearea. We suggest various important applications of MANET & finally design MANET for one ofthese applications. We discuss MANET network for traffic monitoring application. In ourresearch work we compare performance of different routing protocol for FTP service. Weincrease density of traffic, change the mobility of vehicles and analyze the network.Keywords: AODV, OLSR, DSR, MANET, FTP, HTTP 1. INTRODUCTIONMANET stands for Mobile Ad-Hoc network. It is a type of self-configurable wireless network.MANET not needs any vital infrastructure or fixed infrastructure. It does not need anycentralized support services so that it is type of self-configurable devices, MANET consist ofvarious Mobile nodes router and wireless connection devices such as Wi-Fi. MANET not needsany vital infrastructure or fixed infrastructure. MANET is become very popular in last few yearsdue to its importance in research field. Due to its property of network self-configuration it is usedin the places where urgent need of network connection. So that this type of network is used indisaster areas where infrastructure is totally damaged, such as flood affected areas, places wheresatellites are not capable to cover the area, in battlefield to identify the movement of the army. Inthis paper our main focus to analyze the network for traffic monitoring application. We increasethe density of traffic and also increase load by varying inter-arrival time.When designing MANET network for analysis we use various trajectories, mobility profile &propagation model. We also use terrain profile to make analysis more real. 68
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), © IAEME October- 2. MANET NETWORK FOR TRAFFIC MONITORING APPLICATIONWe can also use MANET for traffic monitoring application as shown in figure1 & 2. On figurecrossings we need to determine traffic on the road and pass traffic through signals of the roadhave maximum traffic (figure 1) On Highway vehicles are moving with high speeds, on these ).roads sometimes accidents of vehicles take place or sometimes vehicles not follow traffic rules, timesin that case camera mounted on the central of road sometimes not capable to capture the imagesof distant vehicles. In that case MANET is very useful, we form MANET by m mounting cameraon each of the vehicles and these moving vehicles capture the images at definite interval andtransfer these images from node to node to the central sink node (figure 2). Figure 2.1. Vehicles work as mobile nodes & sink node is at the crossing . Figure 2.2. Vehicles work as mobile nodes & sink node is between the road . road. 3. WLAN & OTHER PARAMETERSFor analysis purpose we use various common parameters to analyze the network as shown intable below. 69
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME SIMULATION PARAMETERS No. Of Nodes 31,51, 71,101 Simulation time 600 sec ROUTING MAC PROTOCOL Routing Protocol AODV,OLSR,DSR MAC Protocol 802.11b Data Rate 11Mbps RADIO CHARACTERISTICS Transmitted Power 5mW Packet Reception Power Threshold -95dBm MANET FTP TRAFFIC GENERATION PARAMETERS Command Mix 0% Inter request Time 1, 2, 3 & 4 sec File Size 10 KB MOBILITY PROFILE Mobility type Default Random Waypoint Mobility Speed Uniform_int 10,40,80 m/s Pause Time 100 sec TRAJECTORY PROFILE Propagation Model Free Space Terrain data Type DTED Table 3.1: Various parameters set for MANET network 4. ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS IMPORTANT PARAMETERSWe design MANET for traffic monitoring application. When designing MANET for thisapplications its performance depend several important parameters, we analyze each parametersfor different routing protocols. The important parameters that affect the MANET performancefor these applications are discussed below. 1) Increasing number of Nodes 2) Mobility of Nodes 3) Increasing Traffic 4.1 INCREASING NUMBER OF NODESFor analysis we take several scenarios by changing number of nodes & compare theirperformance. Initially there are 31 nodes in a MANET network, we increase number of nodesand check their performance. We are also analyzing MANET performance for different routingprotocols.4.2 MOBILITY OF NODESIn a MANET, mobile nodes are small in size (Mobile Phones, Laptops etc.) and so that thereantenna size is also small as compared to surrounding objects. As we already discussed itsapplication in flood affected areas, in battlefield, in urban areas where the surrounding objects 70
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEMEalways cause the problem. Movement of mobile nodes also causes the problem of fading andmultipath propagation. Fading is used to describe the rapid fluctuation of amplitude, phase ormultiple delays of a radio signal over a short period of time. These waves called multipathwaves.4.3 INCREASING TRAFFICWe can increase traffic by decreasing inter-arrival time of packet generation, so that we take 66nodes MANET network. The inter-arrival time of packet generation in first case is 10 sec andthen we reduce it to 2, 0.4, 0.08, 0.02 sec. As we reduce interval of two packets more packets aregenerated in same duration and traffic increases. In traffic monitoring application if the vehiclesgenerate more snapshots it may be possible that buffer overflow take place of nodes and loss ofinformation. Because these vehicles (nodes) work as a router, so they store snapshots taken bythem and also store snapshots taken by other nodes when routing the traffic. So it is veryimportant to determine how much traffic they can store and transmit without loss of trafficinformation.4.4 MANET NETWORK DESIGN FOR TRAFFIC MONITORINGAPPLICATIONTo design MANET network for traffic monitoring application we take 40 nodes MANETstructure in which internodes average distance 15-20m. We assume that central node provideservice to the bounded area of 275m*150m. There are 40 moving vehicles work as mobile nodeform MANET network, each vehicle moving with speed of 50m/s and mounted camera to takesnapshots. Let us consider that each snapshot is of the size of 10KB. As we discuss earlier thatcentral node work as a FTP server all nodes upload image to FTP server. 5. DATA ANALYSIS BASED ON SIMULATION RESULTSWe analyze the data step by step from simulation results. In each case we describe simulationparameters set for simulations, various other parameters also describe that are same for allsimulations. 5.1 EFFECT OF INCREASING NUMBER OF NODESAs from the results it is clear that if the density of nodes increases in any particular area thantraffic also increases. Due to more traffic network load also increases, If the medium iscongestion less increasing the load cause increase in throughput While if the channel iscongested, increase in load cause decrease in throughput and so that data dropped increases. Wetake average value of throughput but it is not so smooth at the duration when collision countincrease throughput reduces. On increasing the no. of nodes obviously more traffic is generatedand so that throughput increases but it is become isolated because network has a limited capacityto hold the traffic and then data loss take place. Also some collision count also increases due toincreasing traffic and throughput reduces from its actual value. Closely observing the results it isclear that as the no. of nodes increases traffic also increases and so that network overhead, incase of AODV routing protocol data drop increases as no. of nodes increases and delay alsoincreases. In case of AODV have less than 50 nodes having very less delay and suitable for realtime applications. AODV is a reactive routing protocol so that delay due to route formation alsocause problem in real time operations for heavy traffic. In case of DSR, throughput is too lowwhen there is less no. of nodes this is due to it maintains large cache (route information table) to 71
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), © IAEME October-store data for transmission [4]. Also due to large cache delay is also higher. As in this networknodes are not moving (stationary nodes) so that performance of OLSR routing protocol is betteras compare to other routing protocol, because it is table driven routing protocol and so route isalready formed and so that it have no route discovery delay. OLSR produces no data dropped OLSRdue to buffer overflow and due to retry threshold. We analyze the MANET network for self-similar traffic (Table 5.1.1.1). Load increases with increasing no. of nodes. Finally we can saythat OLSR perform better than AODV and DS DSR. Figure 5.1.1: Throughput comparison of AODV Figure 5.1.2: Delay comparison of AODV Figure 5.1 ure 5.1.3: Throughput comparison of DSR 72
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME Figure 5.1.4: Delay Comparison of DSR Figure 5.1.5: Throughput comparison of OLSR Figure 5.1.6: Delay Comparison of OLSR 73
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME No. of Throughp Load Delay Data dropped Data dropped Nodes ut (kbps) (kbps) (mili sec) Bufferoverflow Retrythreshold 31 2400 140 1 0kbps 0kbps AODV 51 9600 380 5 0 0 71 21000 750 10 0 25 101 22000 1150 25000 270 16000 31 50 50 1 0 0 DSR 51 85 85 3 0 10 71 21000 750 10 0 25 101 800 2300 52000 1800 18000 31 500 55 0.35 --No-- --No-- 51 2500 110 0.44 --No-- --No-- OLSR 71 7200 175 0.5 --No-- --No-- 101 18000 300 0.62 --No-- --No-- 121 31500 400 0.7 --No-- --No-- 131 38500 450 0.74 --No-- --No-- Table 5.1.1: Data analysis from Simulation results5.2 EFFECT OF MOBILITY OF NODESFrom the results it is clear that in AODV as the speed of the nodes increases throughput reducesand so that initially there delay is larger as initially throughput is same and due to movement ofnodes new route formation take place so that there overhead of route request message causedelay in packet transmission, so that initially delay increases but after that throughput reducesdue to movement of node and delay also reduces. Similarly performance of OLSR also degradedas the speed of nodes increases and at high speeds very sharp change in speed take place, delay isnot much affected by speed as the time passes delay reduces as throughput also reduces andmuch of the data is dropped. In both AODV and OLSR load is lower as compared to thethroughput. But in case of DSR for the same traffic throughput is much lower with respect toload, this is due to DSR feel congested channel as it maintains maintain large cache (routeinformation table) to store transmission data, frequent changes due to high mobility need toperiodically updating and so that delay increases but also more nodes become in communicationrange and multipath channel of outdated or state route information in forwarding packetincreases, so that its throughput also increase as speed increases but although it is lower withrespect to the OLSR & AODV. Below color codes are given. 74
  8. 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), © IAEME October- Figure 5.2.1: Throughput comparison of OLSR Figure 5.2.2: Delay comparison of OLSR Figure 5.2.3 Throughput comparison of AODV 5.2.3: 75
  9. 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME Figure 5.2.4: Delay comparison of AODV Figure 5.2.5: Throughput comparison of DSR Figure 5.2.6: Delay comparison of DSRAt lower speed performance of OLSR is better while at higher speed performance of AODV isbetter in terms of delay and throughput.5.3 EFFECT OF INCREASING TRAFFICFrom the results it is clear that in case of OLSR delay is much lower as compared to DSR &AODV. As the traffic increases throughput increases but large traffic cause increase in collisioncount & so that reduction in throughput. Data analysis from simulation results is shown in Table5.1.3.1. From the results it is also clear that OLSR is less sensitive to increase in traffic, it canhandle large traffic as compared to AODV. 76
  10. 10. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October December (2012), © IAEME October- Figure 5.3.1: Throughput comparison of OLSR Figure 5.3.2 Delay comparison of OLSR 5.3.2: Figure 5.3.3 Throughput comparison of AODV 5.3.3: 77
  11. 11. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME Figure 5.3.4: Delay comparison of AODV Figure 5.3.5: Throughput comparison of DSR Figure 5.3.6: Delay comparison of DSR 78
  12. 12. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME Inter Through Load Delay Data Dropped Data dropped arrival -put (kbps) (milisec) Bufferoverflow Retry threshold Time(s (kbps) (kbps) (kbps) ec) 10 6000 250 10 --No-- --No-- 2 17000 500 10 --No-- --No-- AODV 0.4 14000 1100 19 --No-- --No-- 0.08 13000 1800 21 --No-- --No-- 0.02 12000 2800 21 2100 1500 10 6600 200 0.5 0 0.005 2 6600 250 0.5 0 0.010 OLSR 0.4 6900 500 0.6 280 10 0.08 7400 1200 1.9 1000 1150 0.02 2000 3200 16 2000 1250 10 30 2 10 0 0.010 2 70 55 10 0 0.010 DSR 0.4 700 2200 35000 1800 10.2 0.08 750 3900 32000 3200 12 0.02 780 8200 30000 7800 12 Table 5.3.1: Data analysis from Simulation results5.4 MANET NETWORK DESIGN FOR TRAFFIC MONITORINGAPPLICATION FOR FTP SERVICEAs shown in figure data dropped take place when inter arrival time is 1s and in case of 2s, 3s&4s very negligible amount of data dropped take place so that throughput is lower in case of 1s.We analyze the results for two routing protocol AODV & OLSR for same traffic. From the finalresults we get that OLSR perform better & having no data dropped, but due to mobility routingoverhead cause reduction in throughput. Although OLSR perform better, but for high speeds aswe discuss later that performance much degraded in OLSR with respect to AODV. Inter-arrival time 1 sec 2 sec 3 sec 4 sec Color code Figure 5.4.1: Throughput comparison of FTP (AODV) 79
  13. 13. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME Figure 5.4.2: Delay comparison of FTP (AODV) Figure 5.4.3: Throughput comparison of FTP (OLSR) Figure 5.4.4: Delay comparison of FTP (OLSR) 80
  14. 14. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME FTP AODV OLSR THROUGHPUT 5800kbps 4200kbps 8000kbps 2900kbps 7000kbps 2400kbps 6200kbps 2100kbps DATA DROPPED 50kbps 0kbps (BUFFER OVERFLOW) 0.5kbps 0kbps 0.1kbps 0kbps 0.005kbps 0kbps DELAY 1000ms 6ms 11ms 1.8ms 7ms 1.2ms 5ms 1ms Table 5.4.1: Data analysis of different servicesFrom the results it is clear that for self-similar traffic Ftp Service performs better than HttpService both in terms of delay and data dropped. Ftp with OLSR is best for application butthroughput is better for AODV so that we prefer OLSR with FTP service for real timeapplications and for non-real time application we prefer AODV. 6. CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPEFrom the complete analysis of results it is clear that for real time operations OLSR performanceis best while in terms of throughput AODV perform best but non-real time applications. So fortraffic monitoring application we can use AODV while in battlefield application OLSR performbetter. Results also show that FTP has larger delay but higher throughput so we use it for trafficmonitoring application.In our research work we end the work with the idea of MANET design for rural area for internetconnectivity. In future we can design a real model of MANET based internet for rural areas; wealso analyze the network performance of this network & compare performance for differentservices. In future we can also design MANET network by using WI-Max technology IEEE802.16, which has another important qualities which improve the performance of MANETnetwork. 81
  15. 15. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEMEREFERENCES[1]. Patrick Sondi, DhavyGantsou and Sylvain Lecomte, “Mobile Ad Hoc Network-Based Monitoring Of Battlefields Or Rescue Operations In Urban Scenarios”, UKSim Fourth European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation, pages pp 408-413, IEEE 2010.[2]. Zahian Ismail, Rosilah Hassan, “Effects of Packet Size on AODV Routing Protocol Implementation in Homogeneous and Heterogeneous MANET”, 2011 Third International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Modelling& Simulation, pages pp 351-356, IEEE 2011.[3]. MostafaFazeli, HasanVaziri, “Assessment Of Throughput Performance Under OPNET Modeler Simulation Tools In Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET’s)”, 2011 Third International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Communication Systems and Networks,pages pp 328-331, IEEE 2011.[4]. Ashish Shrestha, FiratTekiner, “On MANET Routing Protocols for Mobility and Scalability” 2009 International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies, pages pp 451-456, IEEE 2009.[5]. R.K.Nadesh , D.Sumathy, M. B. BenjulaAnbu Malar, “Performance Analysis Of MANET (WLAN) Using Different Routing Protocols In Multi Service Environments-An Quantitative Study”, Int. J. Advanced Networking and Applications Volume: 03, Issue: 02, Pages:1076- 1079 (2011)[6]. Al-Maashri, A. and Ould-Khaoua, M. (2006) “Performance Analysis Of MANET Routing Protocols in the presence of Self-Similar Traffic” , Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks,2006, 14-16 November 2006, pages pp. 801-807, Tampa, Florida, USA.[7]. Yi Wang, Hairong Chen, Xinyu Yang and Deyun Zhang, “Cluster Based Location-Aware Routing Protocol For Large Scale Heterogeneous Manet”, Second International Multisymposium on Computer and Computational Science, Computer Society pages pp 366- 373, IEEE (2007).[8]. EmadAboelela, “Computer Networks A System Approach, Edition-3 ,Networks Simulation Experiment Mannual”, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth ,2003.[9]. Theodore S.Rappaport “Wireless Communications Principles and Practice” pearson publication, second edition, 2010.[10]. Jochen Schiller “Mobile Communications” Pearson publication, second edition, 2009.[11]. Dharma Prakash Agarwal, Qing-An zeng “Introduction to wireless and mobile systems” THOMSON Vikas publishing House, 2003.[12]. Ashish Shrestha, Firat Tekiner, “On MANET Routing Protocols for Mobility and Scalability”, International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Applications and Technologies, 2009, pages pp. 451-456, IEEE, 2009.[13]. Beauchamp, K. G.; “Computer Communications - 2nd ed.” - Chapman and Hall, 1990. – 0412370700[14]. Comer, Douglas; “Computer Networks and Internets: with Internet Applications - 3rd ed.”, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., 2001. – 013091449.[15]. Loay Abusalah, Ashfaq Khokhar, and Mohsen Guizani – A Survey of Secure Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 10, NO. 4, FOURTH QUARTER 2008. 82
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