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Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia
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Measuring work attitudes of individuals among indian academia

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  • 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 12-23 IJM© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.html ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5420 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com MEASURING WORK ATTITUDES OF INDIVIDUALS AMONG INDIAN ACADEMIA Deepa Mohan1*, DR. Sudarsan N2 and DR. Madhu Menon3 1 Reasearch Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India 2 Head of School of Management Studies, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, India 3 Senior Manager- Learning and Development, Corporate and Industry Relations, Amrita Viswa Vidyapeetham, Ettimadai, Coimbatore, India * Corresponding author. E- Mail: deepa_pme10@nitc.ac.in, mukund.deepa@gmail.com ABSTRACT Upkeep of employee work attitude has remained an intriguing area of research for the practitioners over the years. While, many parameters contribute to the work attitude of an employee, Emotional Intelligence (EI), Organizational Commitment (OC) and Organizational Role Stress (ORS), has been established to have a larger bearing. This investigation attempts to establish an interrelationship between these parameters that will assist in estimation of employee work attitude and also will give insight into design of organizational development components. Academia in higher education sector in India had been chosen as the sample space. Data collected through a specially designed questionnaire and analyzed through SPSS yields interesting patterns involving work life balance experienced by the incumbents. Keywords: Work Attitude, Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Commitment, Organisational Role Stress INTRODUCTION Work attitude in general can be construed as perception of employees towards work as well as the organization itself that can be greatly influenced by Organizational Commitment (OC), Emotional Intelligence, and Interpersonal trust in the work environment (Cook and Wall, 1980). While, Organizational Commitment (OC) is the positive side of the work attitude, negative work place attitude may result in stress. Thus, stress in performance of organizational roles, Organizational Role Stress (ORS) can be directly interrelated with 12
  • 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)employee commitment and job satisfaction (Erdogan, Bauer, 2010). Stress managementcomponent and anxiety component; emerge as statistically significant with respect to therelationship with Emotional Intelligence (Rooprai, 2009). Emotional intelligence (EI)augments positive work attitudes and moderates the commitment level of employees in theorganisation. It is an intelligence that may be learned, developed and improved (Perkins,1994).Pestonjee (1992) had identified 3 important sectors of life from which stress originatesnamely as, (i) Organizational& Job sector (ii) Social sector and (iii) Intra-psychic sector.Organizational/ Job stress has been defined in terms of a misfit between skills & abilities of aperson and the demands of his/her job. The concept of Organizational/job stress falls underthe umbrella of a broader concept known as Role Stress. Therefore, it becomes imperative tounderstand the concept of organizational role, in order to understand the concept of stress inorganizational & job sector of life. According to Pareek, role denotes the set of functions oneperforms in response to the expectations of the significant others, and one’s own expectationsfrom that position or office. Role stress refers to the conflict and tension due to the rolesbeing enacted by a person at any given point of time. In the context of organizations, suchrole stresses are called organizational role stress. Among the two distinct types of rolesystems, Role Space and Role Set, either have an inherent in potential to contribute toconflict and stress. Pareek (2010) had identified ten different types of organizational rolestressors.1. Inter-Role Distance (IRD): It is experienced when there is a conflict betweenorganisational and non-organizational roles.2. Role Stagnation (RS): This kind of stress is the result of the gap between the demand tooutgrow a previous role and to occupy a new role effectively. It is the feeling of being stuckin the same role.3. Role Expectation Conflict (REC): This type of stress is generated by differentexpectations by different significant persons about the same role; and the role occupantsambivalence as to whom to please.4. Role Erosion (RE): This kind of role stress is the function of the role occupants feelingthat some functions which should properly belong to his /her role are transferred to / orperformed by some other role.5. Role Overload (RO): When the role occupant feels that there are too many expectationsfrom the significant roles in his/her role set, he/she experiences role overload.6. Role Isolation (RI): This type of role stress refers to the psychological distance betweenthe occupants role and other roles in the same role set.7. Personal Inadequacy (PI): This type of stress arises when the role occupant feels thathe/she does not have the necessary skills and training for effectively performing the functionsexpected from his/her role.8. Self-Role Distance (SRD): When the role a person occupies goes against his/her self-concept, then he/she feels self-role distance type of stress.9. Role Ambiguity (RA): It refers to the lack of clarity about the expectations of the rolewhich may arise out of lack of information or understanding.10. Resource Inadequacy (Rin): This type of stress is evident when the role occupant feelsthat he/she is not provided with adequate resources for performing the functions expectedfrom his/her role. 13
  • 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)Recent and prominent among the studies reported on Organizational Role Stress particularlyin Indian context includes comparative study by Lehal and Singh (2005) between the ORSexperienced by teaching faculty belonging to Public and Private institutions of higherlearning India observes decreased level of stress in public sector. Bano (2012) reported thatemployees irrespective of belonging to public or private sector experience moderate level ofstress with role erosion being a major influencing factor while resource inadequacycontributes the least.Several studies have suggested that individuals with high emotional intelligence are morecapable of understanding and managing their emotions, which allows them to adjust to theirsurroundings and become more tolerant to challenging conditions, including stress (Bar-On,1997; Matthews et al., 2006). Individuals have had resorted to different methods to handlestress, including use of intelligence, especially their emotional intelligence (Sirin, 2007).Understanding and managing one’s own and others’ emotions are likely to influence workattitudes and behavioural choices in the work place (Rozell, Pettijohn, and Parker, 2004).Rooprai (2009) established a negative correlation between emotional intelligence and stressor anxiety at workplace among management students. Many other studies have alsoemphasized on a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and organizationalcommitment (Carmeli, 2003; Nikolaou & Tsaousis, 2002; Shutte et al, 1998; Rozell et al,2004).Organizational Commitment is the willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of theorganization, a strong desire to stay with the organization and an acceptance of its majorgoals and values. Allen and Meyer (1990) defined organizational commitment as apsychological state that binds the individual to the organization. They developed a three-component model of commitment and labelled them as affective, continuance, andnormative commitment, which are distinguishable from each other. (a) Affectivecommitment refers to employees’ emotional attachment, identification with, and involvementin the organization. Employees with a strong affective commitment stay with the organizationbecause they want to. (b) Continuance commitment refers to employees’ assessment ofwhether the costs of leaving the organization are greater than the costs of staying. Employeeswho perceive that the costs of leaving the organization are greater than the costs of stayingremain because they need to. (c) Normative commitment refers to employees’ feelings ofobligation to the organization. Employees with high levels of normative commitment staywith the organization because they feel they ought to.Cha, Kim and Cichy (2009) had explored the effects of work status (part-time versus full-time) and emotional intelligence (high EI versus low EI-groups) on job satisfaction,organizational commitment, and contextual performance among private club staff members.The results indicated that differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment, andcontextual performance, between part-time and full-time staff members had not beenstatistically significant while, effects of emotional intelligence and work status in relation toother factors had been statistically significant. Both, Sarboland (2012) and Mohamadkhaniand Lalardi (2012) in different studies had established explicit relationships between thedimensions of EI and OC. 14
  • 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) The literature indicates several studies that interrelates the major factors influencing thework attitude of individuals. The correlation studies needs to be validated by extending thestudies to different regional and sectoral sections.This investigation aims at identifying any possible interrelationships between the differentcomponents of emotional intelligence (EI), organizational commitment (OC) andorganisational role stress (ORS) particularly among the individual employed in the area ofHigher education. Interrelationships between the demographical characteristics of the samplepopulation with components of EI, OC and ORS had also been evaluated. The collection ofdata, analysis and the results are presented in the following sections.DATA COLLECTION With the scenario in higher education arena changing rapidly particularly in India,with introduction of major roles by private players, it will be undoubtedly useful inmeasuring the levels of the different components of EI, OC and ORS of individuals employedin the sector. Possible interrelations of these factors with the demographic characteristics ofthe individuals will be important in improvising the standards of education in any part of theworld. In this direction employees of a premiere technical Institution funded by Governmentof India established in southern part of India was chosen as the sample space.QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN The questionnaire for the investigation was developed using instruments establishedthrough previous researches. The EI level was measured with The Emotional IntelligenceScale developed by Schutte et al. (1998) comprising 33 items classified into four dimensionsnamely (a) Perception of Emotion evaluated by 10 items; (b) Managing Others Emotionsby 8 items, (c) Managing Own Emotions by 9 items and (d) the utilisation of emotion by 6items in line with suggestions of Ciarrochi et al. (2001), each assessable with a five-pointLikert-type scale.A modified form of organizational role stress (ORS) scale, which was developed andstandardized by Pareek (2010) to measure the role stress, had been used in this study. TheORS instrument comprised of 50 items for which measuring 10 types of role stressors (5statements for each role stressor) assessable on a five point Likert scale. In addition, tenquestions with reverse evaluation were added. The three dimensional Allen and Meyer (1990) instrument for measurement of OC wasemployed in this study with 24 items classified in to three dimensions, namely: (a) affective(AC); (b) continuance (CC); and (c) normative (NC) assessable with five point Likert scale. Demographical characteristics grouped as Personal attributes, Job attributes andEnvironmental attribute were included as 20 additional items. Among the three groups, age,gender, marital status, number of children, educational qualification, native place, number offamily members and earning members and annual income had been taken as personalattributes, number of days leaves availed, total experience, job overtime, salary satisfaction,challenging nature of work, recognition and appreciation for employee contribution and 15
  • 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)effective skill application as job attributes and experiencing organisational change isconsidered as environmental attribute. In the entire questionnaire consisted of 137 items forwhich data pertaining to each individual was intended to be collected.DATA ANALYSIS Random Sampling technique was used in the selection of sample for the presentstudy. Data pertaining to 34 Teaching faculties with varying age and work experience fromthe Institute was collected through personal interviews. While in all 45 questionnaires weredistributed, completed responses were received only from 34 respondents that had beenutilised for the analysis. Initially, internal validity of the data collected was measured using Cronbach’s Alpha anditems that yielded low values were rejected from the analysis. Reliability analysis andidentification of levels of EI, OC and ORS were carried out as descriptive analysis. Pearsoncorrelation matrix was employed as inferential statistical tool to comprehend the direction,strength and significance of the bi-variate relationship between the variables. StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0) was used for compiling and processing thedata. The major results obtained from the analysis and inferences drawn from the results arepresented below.RESULTS FROM ANALYSISDemographic Characteristics of the participants Demographic characteristics of the 34 respondents comprised an average age to be35years with sixteen male and rest being female and among which twenty six were married.Nine participants had agreed that they have undergone organizational changes during the past6 months. Twenty participants had perceived that their job to be challenging. The nineteenparticipants had positively responded to the receipt of appreciation and recognition of theircontribution to the organization. A different set of nineteen respondents had been able toapply their skills and knowledge in their present role.Reliability test The reliability analysis of the data was performed using Cronbachs alpha coefficient.Table.1 presents the results obtained from the reliability analysis of the data in measurementof EI, OC and ORS. In table.1, parameter ability to manage others emotion initially yielded aCronbach’s alpha value of only .51 that was improvised to .73 with the rejection of twoquestions from the analysis. In general the Cronbach’s alpha value obtained was well above.7 and can be considered to be reasonable. In the table, parameter normative commitmentinitially yielded an alpha value of only .45 that was improvised to .68 with the rejection ofthree questions. In the table, role erosion initially yielded an alpha value of only .43 that wasimprovised to .72 with the rejection of three questions. In all the three tables the final overallalpha value obtained are well above 0.6 had hence the internal validity of the questionnairedeveloped is established. 16
  • 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) Table.1 Reliability analysis of dimensions of EI, OC and ORSVariables Components Number of Initial No. of items Final questions Cronbach eliminated Cronbach alpha alpha Perception of emotion 10 .84 1 .87 Managing others emotion 8 .51 2 .73 EI Managing own emotion 9 .75 None .75 Utilisation of emotion 6 .72 2 .74 Affective commitment 8 .83 None .83 OC Continuance commitment 8 .66 1 .71 Normative commitment 8 .45 3 .68 Inter role distance 6 .72 1 .77 Role stagnation 6 .77 None .77 Role expectation conflict 6 .67 2 .74 Role erosion 6 .43 3 .72 Role overload 6 .67 1 .76 ORS Role isolation 6 .59 2 .64 Personal inadequacy 6 .61 1 .66 Self role distance 6 .64 2 .83 Role ambiguity 6 .76 None .76 Resource inadequacy 6 .73 none .73From the Data collected the values of the variables namely EI, OC and ORS were computedfor each response and sample averages were classified into three groups as low moderate andhigh as suggested by the previous studies. The range of values for the classification ispresented in table 2. Table.2 Measuring EI, OC, ORS <5 Low level of EI, EI >8 High level of EI 5 to 8 Medium level of EI which is below average OC >8 Highly committed 5-8 Moderately committed <5 Less committed ORS >7.5 Highly stressed 5 to 7.5 Moderately stressed <5 Less stressed 17
  • 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) The average values obtained for the sample on all three different variables are presented intable 3. Table.3 Average magnitude of EI, OC and ORS Variables Dimensions Average Magnitude Perception of emotion 7.32 Managing others emotion 7.54 EI Managing own emotion 8.06 Utilisation of emotion 7.92 Emotional Intelligence 7.7 Affective Commitment 7.56 OC Continuance Commitment 6.38 Normative Commitment 6.7 Organisational Commitment 6.88 Inter role distance 4.76 Role stagnation 5.00 Role expectation conflict 5.00 Role erosion 6.52 Role overload 5.18 ORS Role isolation 5.36 Personal inadequacy 5.56 Self role distance 4.56 Role ambiguity 4.52 Resource inadequacy 5.50 Organisational Role Stress 5.20From the table it can be observed that the population represented individuals havingrelatively medium level of EI, and are moderately committed to the organization and areamong the lower side of moderately stressed. The results indicate that with the average agebeing on the lower side the EI values are reasonable as the qualifications of the incumbentsare relatively high. The Institute being a public sector organization, the relative commitmentto the organization is only moderate while the incumbents work with relatively lower workstress owing to the relative academic freedom available. 18
  • 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)PEARSON’S CORRELATION COEFFICIENT AMONG VARIABLES OF THESTUDY Correlation among the components of EI, OC, ORS, and demographical variableswere examined. The results obtained are presented in table.4. It can be observed from thetable that there exists a significant positive correlation between EI and affective & normativecommitment and in general, OC. While, EI has a positive relationship with inter role distance,role erosion; role isolation and personal inadequacy exhibits negative relationship indicatingemployees performing independently rather than as a team. EI has no correlation withpersonal attributes, job attributes & environmental attribute. However, managing ownemotion is negatively related with absenteeism and positively related with number of childrenindicating a slight imbalance in Work life Balance. In general, OC appears to have no directrelationship with ORS. However, individually OC is observed to be positively related withRole erosion, AC is negatively related with role isolation and role ambiguity and NC ispositively related with role erosion. OC also exhibits a negative relationship with maritalstatus and a positive relation with number of children. AC is related negatively with maritalstatus and absenteeism, positively with number of children. NC is negatively related withovertime job. ORS is positively related with absenteeism and negatively with organizationalchange.CONCLUSION The study results presents the overall work environment prevailing in the samplespace and throws insights in to the possible interrelationships between the various parametersexamined. The high Cronbach’s alpha values indicate a high internal validity of thequestionnaire developed and used for the study. In general as the sample space concernsabout population engaged in a institute of higher education the qualification levels as well asthe maturity levels of the incumbents are relatively high resulting in a high EI values. Theresults also indicate a moderate OC combined with relatively lesser work stress indicating theacademic freedom prevailing in the work environment. However, there is lesser team workand lesser influences of informal organizations within the institution.The experience gathered in design of questionnaire, data collection and analysis during theinvestigation has not only led to understand the work environment prevailing in the samplespace but also assisted in validating the effectiveness of the questionnaire in capturing theparameters that influence the work attitude. Similar studies are envisaged to be carried out indifferent employment sectors to understand the relationships between the influencingparameters that can lead to pin point the needs of the organization in sustaining theeffectiveness. 19
  • 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) Table.4 Correlation among EI, OC, ORS, their components and Demographical Variables Earning member Family member Annual income Work challenge Appreciattion Org. changes Skill applicn Continuance Salary satis Mng others Experience Total ORS Normative Perception Tot al OC Education Over time Mng own Tot al EI Affective Distance Children Marital Utilizn Native Leave REC SRD IRD RIN Age RO RA RE RS RI PI Perception - 1.0 .76 .79 .7 .95 .39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - of emotion .32 .09 .5 .34 .32 .27 .06 .17 .22 .3 .16 .01 .34 .28 .03 .16 .00 ** ** ** ** * .07 .28 .12 .32 .38 .09 .14 .08 .01 .11 .18 .22 .09 .02 * .59 - Mng others .71 .85 - - .39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 ** .33 .10 .18 .29 .27 .38 .35 .13 .16 .16 .11 .00 .13 .12 .26 .04 emotion ** ** .08 .30 * .25 .24 .07 .01 .07 .05 .11 .21 .14 .06 .07 .11 .23 * Mng own - - - .62 .91 .54 - .50 .45 - - - - - - - - .38 - - - - emotion 1 .29 .27 .37 .41 .07 .20 .18 .20 .03 .36 .02 .27 -.04 .09 .16 ** ** ** .02 ** ** .18 .32 .17 .22 .03 .19 .01 .14 * .26 .14 .31 .00 * * * - .77 .35 .38 .49 - - - .36 - - .37 - - - .37 - Utilization 1 .14 .11 .25 .21 .02 .09 .03 .16 .11 .19 .15 .09 .00 .36 .22 .13 .11 ** * * ** .08 .07 .25 * .05 .19 * .12 .08 .11 * .11 * - - .41 .47 .41 .35 - - .38 - - - - - - - - - - - - Total EI 1 .07 .35 .39 .26 .26 .22 .28 .17 .01 .29 .06 .17 .07 * ** * * .08 .28 * .17 .11 .07 .09 .03 .03 .15 .17 .24 .06 .33 .06 * * Affective - - - - .36 .39 .83 - - - - - .52 - - - - - commitment 1 .22 .1 .14 .46 .48 .02 .26 .45 .15 .11 .15 .42 .20 .06 -.15 .08 .02 * * ** .29 .29 .27 .25 .31 ** .18 .16 .28 .30 .03 ** ** ** * Continuance .72 - - - - - - - - - - - .44 - - commitment 1 .16 .24 .25 .11 .35 .27 .07 .20 .30 .21 .33 .35 .22 .09 -.03 ** .13 .25 .02 .04 .14 .03 .14 .08 .21 .05 .13 ** .07 .26 Normative - .64 - - .37 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - commitment 1 .29 .29 .05 .23 .22 .06 .11 .47 -.24 ** .08 .24 * .16 .13 .03 .19 .05 .02 .15 .01 .10 .26 .15 .01 .06 .13 .13 .11 ** - - - .35 - - - .34 - - - - - - - - Total OC 1 .33 .31 .00 .15 00 .09 .41 .14 .01 .02 .08 -.18 .21 .06 .18 * .26 .09 .22 * .16 .13 .27 .17 .29 .05 .07 .18 * - - - .44 .37 .36 .48 .57 - .52 - - - .42 IRD 1 .19 0 .04 .19 .33 .19 .38 .16 .04 .42 .13 .30 .13 .12 .09 .43 ** * * ** ** .27 ** .03 .07 .02 * * * * .50 .38 .38 .55 .68 .47 .84 - - - - - - - RS 1 .20 .23 .20 .02 .00 .16 .32 .21 .16 .15 .13 .16 ** * * ** ** ** ** .19 .04 .26 .23 .08 .11 .26 - .41 .39 .59 - - - - - .41 - - - REC 1 .26 .25 .26 .22 .15 .07 .10 .25 .07 .23 .13 .22 .08 * * ** .08 .28 .10 .05 .04 * .19 .05 .34 20
  • 10. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013) - - .45 .42 .38 .37 - - - - - - - .35 - RE 1 .10 .01 .32 .13 .25 .09 .12 .16 .03 .02 .06 ** * * * .02 .09 .07 .22 .16 .25 .22 * .28 - - .38 - - - - - - - - - RO 1 .02 .20 .09 .00 .32 .12 .18 .36 .24 .19 .20 -.32 .12 * .15 .04 .16 .34 .18 .08 .06 .13 .29 * Earning members Family members Annual income Work challenge Appreciattion Org. changes Skill applicn Continuance Salary satis Mng others Experience Total ORS Normative Perception Tot al OC Education Over time Mng own Tot al EI Affective Distance Children Marital Utilizn Native Leave REC SRD IRD RIN Age RO RA RE RS RI PI - .54 .42 .49 - - - - - RI 1 .19 .20 .04 .14 .14 .23 .01 .33 .01 .21 .08 .31 .31 .13 ** * ** .20 .21 .18 .19 .03 - - .31 .48 - - - - .39 - .38 - PI 1 .22 .29 .11 .08 .36 .02 .09 .10 .46 .17 .14 ** .29 .16 .16 .33 * .23 * .24 * * - .65 .38 .73 - - - - - - - - .45 - SRD 1 .22 .25 .24 .27 .33 .21 .37 ** * ** .28 .03 .08 .01 .23 .19 .31 .31 ** .30 * - .60 .83 - - - - - .44 - - RA 1 .34 .17 .01 .09 .24 .24 .30 .28 .14 ** ** .29 .06 .23 .13 .20 ** .16 .09 * .58 - .35 - - - - .36 - RIN 1 .14 .05 .06 .08 .18 .27 .21 .21 .16 ** .21 * .02 .20 .14 .05 * .23 - - - - - - - - .58 - Total ORS 1 .01 .12 .22 .12 .23 .24 .24 .40 .18 .01 .02 .15 .30 .30 .09 ** .05 * **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). 21
  • 11. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)REFERENCES[1] Allen, N. J and Meyer, J. P. (1990), ‘The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective,Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization’, Journal of OccupationalPsychology, volume 63, 1-18.[2] Bano, Bushara and Jha, Rajiv (2012), ‘Organizational Role Stress Among Public andPrivate Sector Employees: A Comparative Study’, The Lahore Journal of Business (Summer2012), pp. 23–36.[3] Bar-On, R. (1997), ‘Emotional Quotient Inventory Technical Manual’, MHS Publications,Toronto. Carmeli, A. (2003), ‘The relationship between emotional intelligence and workattitudes, behaviour and outcomes: An examination among senior managers’, Journal ofManagement Psychology, volume18, issue 8, pp.788-813.[4] Cha, JaeMin; Kim, SeungHyun and Cichy, Ronald, F. (2009); ‘Job Satisfaction,Organizational Commitment, and Contextual Performance: Examining Effects of WorkStatus and Emotional Intelligence among Private Club Staff Members,http://scholarworks.umass.edu.[5] Cook, J. and Wall, T. (1980), ‘New work attitude measures of trust, organizationalcommitment and personal need non-fulfilment’, Journal of Occupational Psychology,volume 53, pp. 39 - 52.[6] Erdogen, B. and Bauer, T. (2010), ‘Organisational Behavior’,http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/3?e=bauer-ch04_s01#bauer-ch04 Lehal,Ritu; and Singh, Sukhdeep (2005), ‘Organizational Role Stress among College Teachers ofPatiala District: A Comparative Study of Government and Private Colleges’, RIMT Journalof Strategic Management & Information Technology, Volume 2, No.1 & 2, Jan.-June.[7] Matthews .G, Emo A.K, Funke G, Zeidner M, Roberts RT, Costa PT, Schulze R (2006),‘Emotional Intelligence, personality and task-induced stress’, Journal of Exp Psychol Appl.12(2), pp.96–107.[8] Mohamadkhani, K. and Lalardi, Nasiri, M. (2012), ‘Emotional Intelligence andOrganizational Commitment between the Hotel Staff in Tehran, Iran’ American Journal ofBusiness and Management Vol. 1, No. 2, 2012, pp. 54-59.[9] Nikolaou. I, and Tsaousis. I. (2002), ‘Emotional intelligence in the workplace: Exploringits effects on occupational stress and organizational commitment’, International Journal ofOrganizational Analysis, volume10, issue 4, pp. 327-342.[10] Pareek,Udai and Purohit,Surabhi (2010), ‘ Training instrument in HRD and OD’, Thirdedition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi.[11] Perkins, D. (1994). ‘Outsmarting IQ: The Emerging Science of Learnable Intelligence’,The Free Press, New York, NY.[12] Pestonjee, D.M. (1992) Stress and Coping-The Indian Experience, Second edition, SagePublications India Private Ltd., New Delhi.[13] Rooprai, K.Y. (2009), ‘Role of Emotional Intelligence in Managing Stress and Anxietyat workplace’ Proceedings of ASBBS, Volume 16, Number 1.[14] Rozell, E. J.; Pettijohn, C.E.; and Parker, R.S. (2004), ‘Customer oriented selling:Exploring the roles of Emotional Intelligence and Organisational commitment Psychologyand Marketing’, volume 21, issue 6, pp. 405-424.[15] Sarboland, Kheyrollah (2012), ‘Assessment of the Relationship between EmotionalIntelligence and Organizational Commitment of Employees: A Case Study of Tax AffairsOffices, Iran’, Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 22
  • 12. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013)[16] Schutte, N. S ; Malouff, J. M; Hall, L. E; Haggerty, D. J; Cooper, J; Golden , C. J; andDorhheim, L. (1998) ‘Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence -Personality and Individual Differences’, pp.167-177.[17] Sirin, G. (2007), ‘ The relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence levels andtheir ways of coping up with stress’,Master’s thesis, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.[18] Dr.N.Shani and Narayanasamy.P.S, “The Role of Employee Engagement and StrategicTool in HRM” International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 2, Issue 2, 2011,pp. 25 - 32, Published by IAEME[19] Dr.C.Swarnalatha and T.S.Prasanna, “Employee Engagement: The Key toOrganizational Success” International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 3,2012, pp. 216 - 227, Published by IAEME[20] U. Gowri Shankar and K. Keerthi, “Emotional Intelligence among Middle SchoolTeachers With Reference To Nagapatinam District, Tamil Nadu” International Journal ofManagement (IJM), Volume 1, Issue 2, 2010, pp. 1 - 8, Published by IAEME[21] Minakshi Nagar, “Incorporation of Emotional Intelligence (EI) Into the BusinessCurriculum: Redefining the Success Mantra at Workplace” International Journal ofManagement (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 213 - 221, Published by IAEME[22] Saket Jeswani and Dr. Sumita Dave, “Emotional Intelligence as an Antecedent ofTurnover Intention: An Empirical Analysis on Faculty Members” International Journal ofManagement (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 387 - 400, Published by IAEME 23

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