Design and development of dual e shaped microstrippatch

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Design and development of dual e shaped microstrippatch

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication EngineeringAND COMMUNICATION0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume& TECHNOLOGY (IJECET) © IAEME ENGINEERING 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012),ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), pp. 34-42 IJECET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5930 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL E-SHAPED MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA FOR BANDWIDTH AND GAIN ENHANCEMENT Amit Kumar Gupta1, R.K. Prasad3, Dr. D.K. Srivastava3 Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering 1, 2 Madan Mohan Malaviya Engineering College, Gorakhpur, INDIA 3 Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering & Technology, Jhansi, INDIA 1 amit165k@gmail.com, 2rkp.sikarpur@gmail.com, 3dks1_biet@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT In this paper a dual E-shaped antenna is designed by cutting four notches in the rectangular shaped microstrip antenna. The designed antenna structure is further simulated using IE3D simulation software. The simulation result shows good enhancement in bandwidth and gain which also shows that the designed antenna structure can work in four different frequency bands. The simulated result is further compared to the measured result of the antenna. The comparison shows that the result of the designed hardware of the antenna is in good agreement with the simulated result. KEYWORDS: Dual E-Shaped, FR4 material, Frequency bands, Microstrip patch antenna, Notches, Probe feed 1. INTRODUCTION Wireless communication is a basic need of this era, and as the technology is improving day by day, the size of the devices used in the communication is reducing simultaneously. Antenna is the base of any wireless communication system. Various antenna structures such as parabolic reflector, yagi antenna, horn antenna etc. fulfill the requirement but as the device size of wireless communication is reducing, the size of antenna should also be reduced and if any small size antenna has 2D structure then it will be an added advantage. Microstrip antenna having small size and 2D structures are widely used for it. Besides small size and 2D structure microstrip antenna has some more advantages such as low manufacturing cost, easy to manufacture etc. Though MSA has various advantages it has some severe disadvantages also such as low bandwidth, low gain, low efficiency etc. 34
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME Several researches are in progress to remove these disadvantages. Various patch shapessuch as rectangular, circular, triangular etc. are used in antenna design to enhance the bandwidth,gain and efficiency of the antenna. Further cutting notches and slots in the patch to makedifferent patch shapes and moreover to increase the current path which in result improves thebandwidth of the antenna [1-6]. Some other researches inculcates use of different dielectricmaterial and varying the thickness of the dielectric material which provides positive resultsregarding improvement of bandwidth and gain. Further researchers used stacked antennaconfiguration, antenna array, suspended ground plane, inverted antenna structure etc. to improvethe bandwidth and gain of the antenna structure [7]. New ideas are still being discovered andused to enhance the antenna gain and bandwidth. 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIn this paper, a simple rectangular microstrip antenna is considered and cutting four notches inthe rectangular patch to make it dual E shaped. The designed antenna structure is furthersimulated over IE3D simulation software and the result is analyzed. Further hardware is designedusing FR4 material. The hardware so designed is tested using network analyzer and the testedresult is compared with the simulated one. 3. ANTENNA DESIGNThe base of dual E shaped antenna structure designed is a simple rectangular microstrip patchantenna. The antenna structure is designed by cutting four notches in the rectangular microstrippatch antenna. The designed antenna structure along with its dimensions is shown in fig. 1. Fig.1 Design of Dual E shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONSimulating the designed antenna structure over IE3D simulation software shows that thedesigned antenna structure is suitable to operate in three different frequency bands and hencemaking this antenna suitable for three different types of applications. 35
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME The most important term to calculate the bandwidth of the antenna is the return losscurve. The return loss curve is shown in fig. 2. Fig.2 Return Loss CurveAnalyzing the curve and considering the -10 dB as the reference, it is observed that the antennais operating in three different frequency bands with bandwidths of 6.55%, 7.012% and 34.60%.Calculation of the bandwidthFor frequency band 1݂௟ଵ = 0.282‫݂ ,ݖܪܩ‬௛ଵ = 0.302‫,ݖܪܩ‬݂௖ଵ = 0.292GHz 0.302 − 0.282 % ‫ݐ݀݅ݓ݀݊ܽܤ ݈ܽ݊݋݅ݐܿܽݎܨ‬ℎଵ = × 100 = ૟. ૡ૞% 0.292Where: ݂௟ଵ = Lower Frequency for Frequency Band 1 ݂௛ଵ = Higher Frequency for Frequency Band 1 ݂௖ଵ = Centre Frequency for Frequency Band 1For frequency band 2݂௟ଶ = 1.409‫݂, ݖܪܩ‬௛ଶ = 1.511‫,ݖܪܩ‬݂௖ଶ = 1.46GHz 1.306 − 1.272 % ‫ݐ݀݅ݓ݀݊ܽܤ ݈ܽ݊݋݅ݐܿܽݎܨ‬ℎଶ = × 100 = ૟. ૢૡ% 1.46Where: ݂௟ଶ = Lower Frequency for Frequency Band 2 ݂௛ଶ = Higher Frequency for Frequency Band 2 ݂௖ଶ = Centre Frequency for Frequency Band 2For frequency band 3݂௟ଷ = 1.8751‫݂ ,ݖܪܩ‬௛ଷ = 2.7816‫,ݖܪܩ‬ ݂௖ଷ = 2.328‫ݖܪܩ‬ 36
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME 2.7816 − 1.8751 % ‫ݐ݀݅ݓ݀݊ܽܤ ݈ܽ݊݋݅ݐܿܽݎܨ‬ℎଷ = × 100 = ૜ૡ. ૢ૝% 2.328Where: ݂௟ଷ = Lower Frequency for Frequency Band 3 ݂௛ଷ = Higher Frequency for Frequency Band 3 ݂௖ଷ = Centre Frequency for Frequency Band 3These results show that the designed antenna structure is suitable to operate in three differentfrequency bands.Another very important term which effects the performance of the antenna and is related to theantenna bandwidth is VSWR. Ideally, the VSWR should be below 2. The antenna will onlyoperate at the frequencies where the value of VSWR is less than 2. The VSWR curve of theantenna structure is shown in fig. 3. Fig. 3 VSWR CurveAnalyzing the VSWR curve shown in fig. 3 we can clearly observe that the VSWR is less thantwo in the entire range where ever the return loss curve is less than -10 dB line.Gain is an important parameter when the performance of any antenna is to analyze. The Gain VsFrequency curve is shown in fig. 4. 37
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME Fig. 4 Total Field Gain Vs Frequency CurveAs depicted from the curve shown in fig.4, a very good amount of gain i.e. almost a gain of 6dBiis obtained.Another very important parameter related to gain, when antenna performance is to be consideredis the directivity. The Directivity Vs Frequency curve is shown in fig. 5. Fig. 5 Total Field Directivity Vs Frequency CurveAs observed from the curve shown in fig. 5, the directivity of 6.67 dBi is obtained. 38
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEMEEfficiency is a parameter to analyze how well any device can work. In antenna two types ofefficiencies are basically calculated i.e. antenna efficiency and radiation efficiency. The antennaefficiency curve and radiation efficiency curve are shown in fig. 6 and fig. 7 respectively. Fig. 6 Antenna Efficiency Fig. 7 Radiation Efficiency 39
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEMEAnalyzing the curves shown in fig. 6 and fig. 7, it can be seen that the designed antenna structure has anantenna efficiency of around 85% and radiation efficiency of around 95%. 5. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATIONThe hardware of the designed antenna structure is developed. The hardware of the antenna is shown infig. 8 and the parameters used in the designing are shown in table 1. Fig. 8 Designed Hardware of Dual E Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna Characteristic Values Material Used FR4 Material [Glass Epoxy] Dielectric Constant 4.20 Loss Tangent 0.0013 Thickness of The Material 1.60 mm Table 1The hardware is further tested over network analyzer and the obtained result is compared to that of thetested one. The comparison of the tested and simulated result is shown in fig. 9. (a) (b) Fig. 9 Comparison between Simulated and Tested Result 40
  8. 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEMEThe comparison of the tested and simulated results shows that the antenna designed antenna iscomparable to that of the hardware implementation. 6. CONCLUSIONA dual E shaped antenna is designed and simulated over IE3D simulation software. Thesimulated result shows that the designed antenna structure is suitable to operate in threefrequency bands with bandwidth of 6.85%, 6.98% and 38.94%. The antenna structure alsoprovides a gain of 5.82dBi and the antenna efficiency of 85%. Further hardware of the antenna isimplemented and tested using network analyzer. The comparison of the tested and simulatedresult shows the result of the hardware implementation is comparable to that of the simulatedone. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe authors would like to express their sincere thanks to Electronics and CommunicationEngineering Department of M.M.M. Engineering College, Gorakhpur for providing the help tocarry out this study and work.REFERENCES[1] B.K. Ang and B.-K. Chung, “A Wideband E-Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna for 5–6 GHz Wireless Communications”, Progress in Electromagnetic Research, PIER 75, p.p. 397–407, 2007.[2] M. Jamshidifar, J. Nourinia, Ch. Ghobadi, and F. Arazm, “Wideband Fractal Butterfly Patch Antenna”, Iranian Journal Of Electrical And Computer Engineering, Vol. 7, No. 2, p.p. 134- 136, Summer-fall 2008.[3] Vinod K. Singh, Zakir Ali, “Dual Band U-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Communication”, International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 2(6), p.p. 1623-1628, 2010.[4] Ravi Kant, D.C.Dhubkarya, “Design and Analysis of H-Shape Microstrip Patch Antenna”, Global Journal of Researches in Engineering, Vol. 10 Issue 6 (Ver. 1.0), p.p. 26-29, November 2010.[5] Mamdouh Gouda, Mohammed Y. M. Yousef, “A Novel Ultra Wide Band Yagi Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Applications”, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, p.p. 28-34, 2005 - 2010 JATIT and LLS.[6] L. Lolit Kumar Singh, Bhaskar Gupta, Partha P Sarkar, “Compact Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with Slits on both Patch and Ground Plane”, IJECT Vol. 2, Issue 4, p.p. 77-80, ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online), ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print) Oct. - Dec. 2011.[7] Tiwari, H. Kartikeyan, M.V., “Design Studies Of Stacked U-Slot Microstrip Patch Antenna for Dual Band Operation”, Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 35th International Conference, p.p. 1 – 2, 5-10 Sept. 2010.[8] Karim A. Hamad, “Design and Enhancement Bandwidth Rectangular Patch Antenna using Single Trapezoidal Slot Technique”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, ISSN 1819-6608, Vol. 7, No. 3, p.p. 292-297, MARCH 2012. 41
  9. 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 –6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, October- December (2012), © IAEME[9] Elangovan, G. and J. Rajapaul Perinbam, “Wideband E-Shaped Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Sensor Networks”, American Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (1) p.p. 89-92, ISSN 1546-9239 © 2012 Science Publications, 2012.[10] David M. Pozar, “Microstrip Antennas”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 80, No 1, p.p. 79- 91, January 1992.[11] Dalia Nashaat, Hala A. Elsadek, Esamt Abdallah, Hadia Elhenawy, and Magdy Iskander, “Ultra-wideband Co-planar Boat Microstrip Patch Antenna with Modified Ground Plane by Using Electromagnetic Band Gap Structure (EBG) for Wireless Communication”, PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, p.p. 1052-1056, August 18-21, 2009.[12] Moghe, P., Singhal, P.K., “Design of A Single Layer L-Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna”, Emerging Trends in Electronic and Photonic Devices and Systems, 2009. ELECTRO 09. p.p. 307-309, 22-24 Dec. 2009.AUTHORS Amit Kumar Gupta has completed his B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur in 2008. Currently he is pursuing his M.Tech in Digital Systems from Madan Mohan Malviya Engineering College, Gorakhpur. He has presented one paper in national conference and published five papers in referred international journal. His main areas of interest are Microstrip Patch Antenna, Wireless Sensor Network andMobile Ad-hoc Network. Ram Krishna Prasad has completed his B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from B.I.T Sindri, Dhanbad in 1980 and M.Tech in Electronic Instrumentation from IT-BHU in 1982. Currently he is pursuing his PhD. from IFTM University Moradabad. He is an Associate Professor in M. M. M. Engineering College, Gorakhpur since 1983. He has published seven papers in national and four papers in international journal. His main areas of interest areMicrostrip Patch Antenna and Communication Engineering. Dr. D. K. Srivastava is a Reader in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Bundelkhand Institute of Engineering and Technology Jhansi, India. He has more than 14 years of experience in teaching, research and administrative work. He is Ex Member IEEE. His current area of research includes Microwaves and Optical communication. He has published around twenty papers in referred international journals. He has also presentedmore than thirty research articles in national and international conferences. 42

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