A study of impact of music on customer buying behavior in retail
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A study of impact of music on customer buying behavior in retail

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    A study of impact of music on customer buying behavior in retail A study of impact of music on customer buying behavior in retail Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –(IJM) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT 6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online)Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012), pp. 152-159 IJM© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5420 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com A STUDY OF IMPACT OF MUSIC ON CUSTOMER BUYING BEHAVIOR IN RETAIL VIJAY. R. KULKARNI Assistant Professor Sinhagad Institute of Management and Computer Applications Pune, Maharashtra, India Email: vijaykulkarni_r@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT The study is about finding out the impact of music on retail shoppers. The study was conducted at Pune. The objectives of the study are whether music results in 1) Relaxed atmosphere while shopping 2)Motivating the customers to buy more, 3) Spending more time in the stores,4)Makes waiting in the Q’s comfortable, 5)Customer recommending the stores to others and 6) Customer intentions to visit the stores again. For the purpose of the study Exploratory Research Design is used. Convenience sampling method is adopted for the study. Survey method is used for collecting the data. The data is collected through intercepts at stores. A well structured questionnaire is designed for the study and due care is taken to avoid any kind of ambiguity. The sample for the study is 128 respondents. Nominal scale is used for all the variables except age, income, family size wherein ratio scale is used. The study was conducted during the period 01.07.2012 to 15.08.2012. SPSS 17 versions is used for data analysis. The findings of the study are 1) Music creates relaxed atmosphere while shopping, 2) Music motives the customers to buy more, 3) Music leads to customers spending more time in the stores, 4) Music waiting in Q’s comfortable, 5) Excellent shopping experience due to music leads customers to recommend stores to others, and 6) Enjoyable shopping experience due to music in the stores results in customers visiting the stores again. 152
    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online),Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)Key Words: Music, Shopping Experience, recommending stores to others, SPSS171. INTRODUCTIONConsumers are not buying product/services in the traditional sense any more. Customer todayare looking at purchasing as experiential activity and would like to enjoy the entire process ofbuying from the word go to the post purchase stage. However due to changes in the marketingenvironment the technological revolution, information explosion, changing demographics of theconsumers at large, evolution in the culture, the retailers can no longer afford to stick to the oldways of doing the business. The expectations of customers are moving more to the quality of thetransaction and experience rather than mechanical chore of buying the products. Therefore theretailers have over time acknowledged these changes and are changing their marketing mix withmuch emphasis, all things being equal, on store atmospherics, which includes various elementslike colour, lighting, visual merchandizing etc. While going through the process of buying thecustomers respond to various stimuli’s in the store environment in addition to the tangibleproduct or service.In today’s highly competitive market situation, organized retailers in India have a formidabletask of meeting the competition from the small retailers on one hand and with a heavyinfrastructure and costs of operation make the business profitable. The four Ps of marketingremaining the same, unless the retailers differentiate themselves and appeal to the five senses ofthe customers they would fail in attracting and retaining the customers. Today in addition to instore design and displays, retailers need innovatively use the various elements that appeal to thesenses of the customers viz. (smell) perfumes and fragrances, flooring, coloring, lighting,graphics to create an environment evoking a WOW from the customers.It has been demonstrated by research over the years that sounds and music influence theshopping experience in retail atmospherics and can affect the consumers in tangible ways. Musicin the retail space can be honed to reflect the brand, enhance the customer experience andreinforce consumer aspirations, promoting higher sales and is come to occupy a important placein the store atmospherics 153
    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online),Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)2. LITERATURE REVIEWAll things being equal, retailers can reengineer the store atmospherics’ and mood by changingthe music to be played in the store according to the profile of the store as well as its customers.By incorporating appropriate music as an element of store atmospherics at the appropriate timecan transform the customer’s mood, motivate them, place them in the right state of mind, createand reinforce the retail brand, create a indelible impression on the customers mind and spread agood word of mouth.1In the context of retail environment music impacts the emotions of theretail customers and music, other things being equal, has phenomenal impact on sensoryexperience of shoppers2 Research suggests a relationship between characteristics ofenvironmental music and both the actual and perceived amount of time devoted to a task;however, no study has looked at both effects simultaneously. In addition, most research on storemusic has varied actual qualities of the music (e.g., tempo), and not consumer perceptions of it(e.g., familiarity or liking). Both approaches are useful because retailers may select music basedon its listener responses and familiarity as well as its other qualities.3 Dissatisfaction on the partof customers due to delays in billing time or rendering of service in retail environment can bereduced by manipulating the elements of stores atmospherics which the retailers can control.The elements which stimulate the customer’s emotions and thoughts and feelings and are underthe control of the retailers can be manipulated which can dilute the dissatisfaction due to delaysand reduce the strain of waiting time on the customers. Amongst other things Music is an veryimportant element which can be manipulated by the retailers.4 Retailers should carefully selectambient odors and music style and tempos from their marketing toolbox. These variables areamong the least expensive techniques to enhance shoppers’ emotions and perceptions.5Thepower of in-store music has been highlighted in a few studies since the early 1980s. Morrison(2001) pinpointed the success of the US lingerie chain Victoria’s Secret where evidence revealedshoppers’ unconscious had been motivated by the playing of classical music, in fact it was moreinfluential on decision making than the product itself: it created a prestigious store atmosphere,leading to a customer perception of higher merchandise and service quality. In this case such apositive impact on a customer’s mood brought about by the music has manifested itself in thepurchase decision.6 These results suggest that different musical styles produced differences in thegeneral perceived characteristics of the restaurant. For example, no music was associated with 154
    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online),Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)the restaurant being perceived as the least upbeat, classical music with the restaurant beingperceived as the most up-market/sophisticated and popular music with the restaurant beingperceived as the most upbeat. Jazz music was associated with the restaurant being perceived asthe least peaceful/passive and the most invigorating/stimulating, and easy listening with therestaurant being perceived as the most tacky.7It’s important for retailers to consider the‘soundscape’ of the retail environment, especially as the perceived congruence between musicand the brand or retail product has proven to affect consumers’ in-store response, dwell time andperceptions of brand. As our auditory sense is keenly developed, unattractive or unappealingsounds can literally drive customers away, but by the same measure the targeted or timed use ofsound stimulation can be used to attract - or maintain - shoppers in a featured location.83. RESEARCH OBJECTIVESFor the purpose of the study the following research objectives have been formulated 1. To find out whether listening to music creates a relaxed atmosphere while shopping in the stores 2. To find out whether music motivates customers to buy more 3. To find out whether pleasant atmosphere created by music makes customers spend more time in the store 4. To find out whether music in the stores makes waiting in Q’s comfortable 5. To find out the customer intentions to recommend stores to others due to pleasurable shopping environment created by music in the stores 6. To find out the customers intentions to visit the stores again4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYFor the purpose of the study Exploratory Research Design is used. Convenience samplingmethod is adopted for the study. Survey method is used for collecting the data. The data iscollected through intercepts at stores. A well structured questionnaire is designed for the studyand due care is taken to avoid any kind of ambiguity. The sample for the study is 128respondents. Nominal scale is used for all the variables except age, income, family size whereinratio scale is used. The study was conducted in Pune city. The study was conducted during theperiod 01.07.2012 to 15.08.2012 155
    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online),Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) KMO and Bartletts TestTable No.1Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling .700Adequacy.Bartletts Test of Approx. Chi-Square 543.220Sphericity Df 105 Sig. .000 Reliability StatisticsTable No. 2 Cronbachs Alpha N of Items .702 175. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 1. Ho: Listening to music does not create relaxed atmosphere in the stores H1: Listening to music creates a relaxed atmosphere in the stores 2. Ho: Music does not motivate customers to buy more H1: Music motivates customers to buy more 3. Ho: Pleasant environment created by music does not make customers spend more time in the store H1: Pleasant environment created by music makes customers spend more time in the store 4. Ho: Music in the stores does not make waiting in Q’s comfortable H1: Music in the stores makes waiting in Q’s comfortable 5. Ho: Pleasant experience in the store due to music does not make customers’ to recommend the store to others H1: Pleasant experience in the store due to music makes customers’ to recommend the store to others 6. Ho: Pleasant shopping experience due to music does not result in customers visiting the store again H1: Pleasant shopping experience due to music results in customers revisiting the store again6. DATA ANALYSIS TOOLSFor the purpose of this study the following statistical tools were used • SPSS- Scale Reliability Cronbach’s Alpha, 156
    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online),Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) • SPSS-Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy, • SPSS-Cross Tabulation • Chi-Square Test • Tables & • Percentages7. DATA ANALYSIS 7.1 Demographic Analysis of RespondentsTable No. 3 Gender Type of Family Frequency Percentage Frequency PercentageMale 92 71.9 Joint 40 31.2Female 36 28.1 Nuclear 88 68.8Total 128 100.0 Total 128 100 AGE Members in family Frequency Percentage Frequency Percent20-25 84 65.6 1 8 6.326-35 30 23.4 2 70 54.736-45 10 7.8 3 30 23.446-55 2 1.6 4 8 6.356-65 2 1.6 5 8 6.3Total 128 100.0 6 4 3.1 Marital Status Total 128 100 Frequency Percentage OccupationMarried 34 26.6 Frequency PercentNot Married 94 73.4 Student 55 43.0 Total 128 100.0 House Wife 7 5.5 Qualification Employee 40 31.3 Frequency Percent Professional 15 11.710+2 14 10.9 Business man 11 8.6Graduate 67 52.3 Total 128 100.0PG 26 20.3 Family Income Per MonthPG+ 19 14.8 Frequency PercentProfessional 2 1.6 20-50k 53 41.4Total 128 100.0 51-70k 34 26.6 Social Status 71-90k 9 7.0 Frequency Percent 91-110k 11 8.6Middle 81 63.3 111-130k 7 5.5High. Middle 34 26.6 131k+ 14 10.9Upper Middle 7 5.5 Total 128 100.0Upper Upper 6 4.7Total 128 100.0Source: Survey Data 157
    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online),Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) 7.2 Chi-Square ResultsTable No. 4Alternative Hypothesis (P =0.05) Pearson DF Signi Table Alternate Chi- ficance Value Hypothesis Square (2sided)Listening to Music creates a relaxed 38.522 16 .001 26.30 Acceptedatmosphere while shopping 56.541 16 Music in the store motivates me to buy more .000 26.30 AcceptedPleasant environment created by 29.739 16 .019 26.30 AcceptedMusic makes me spend more time inthe store 26.742 Music in the stores makes waiting in the Qs 16 .044 26.30 Accepted ComfortableI will recommend the store to others 69.989 16 .000 26.30 AcceptedI will visit the store again 149.425 12 .000 26.30 Accepted8. FINDINGS 1. The study reveals that music creates a relaxed atmosphere in the store. 2. Music in the store by creating a relaxed atmosphere and relaxing the customer motivates the customers to buy more. 3. By creating a pleasant atmosphere in the store music makes the customers to spend more time in the stores. 4. Due to the relaxed store environment and creating a relax state of mind for customers the time spend in the Q’s is made comfortable for the store. 5. Due to pleasant experience created by music customers recommend the store to others 6. Due to the enjoyable experience while buying in the store the customers tend to visit the store again9. CONCLUSIONThe study brings out the fact clearly that music is versatile & has the ability to relax peoplephysically, mentally and emotionally. Due to its capability to engage people it can contribute tothe stores environment. Music by creating relaxed store environment and creating a relaxed stateof mind for customers makes waiting time in the Qs comfortable and motivates the customers tobuy more. Pleasant experience in the store due to music creates and spreads good word of mouth 158
    • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online),Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)leading to more foot falls in the store. Music can be used as a catalyst by the retailers to createdifferentiation. Music therefore can be rated as a very important element in the storeenvironment and can be strategically used by understanding demographics and psychographicsof its target market, and can create a stimulating audio environment in the stores makingcustomers feel relaxed, comfortable, delighted & spend more time in the stores and translating itinto more sales.10. REFERENCES 1. Michael Morrison. The Power of In-store Music and its Influence on International Retail Brands and Shopper Behaviour: A Multi-Case Study Approach 2. Schmitt, B, 1999, Experiential Marketing: How to Get Customers tp Sense, Feel, Think Act and Relate to Your Company and Brands, The Free Press, New York. 3. The Effects of Music in a Retail Setting on Real & Perceived Shopping Times. http://faculty.bschool.washington.edu/ryalch/Research/atmosphe.html 4. Kellaris, J. and Kent, R, 1992, The Influence of Music on Consumers‟ temporal Perceptions: Does Time Fly When you are Having Fun, Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 161-173.) 5. Richard Michon* Jean-Charles Chebat. The Interaction Effect of Background Music and Ambient Scent on the Perception of Service Quality. SERVICE WITH A CITRIC NOTE: http://www.ryerson.ca/~rmichon/Publications/Odour%20Music%20Service%20Quality.p df 6. Brenda Soars. What every retailer should know about the way into the shopper’s head. http://soundenvironments.co.uk/pdfs/WayIntoShoppersHead200312.pdf 7. STEPHANIE WILSON. The effect of music on perceived atmosphere and purchase intentions in a restaurant. http://esf.ccarh.org/254/254_LiteraturePack1/Restaurant_Music_Wilson.pdf 8. Stephen Ogden-Barnes & Danielle Barclay Store Sense Reclaiming the four walls with sensory engagement The Retail Acumen Series 9. Greg W.Marshall, Mark W. Johnston. Marketing Management. New York. 2010. McGraw-Hill Irwin 10. Michael Levy, Barton A Weitz and Ajay Pandit. Retailing Management, Sixth Edition. Chapter 18, New Delhi. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. 11. C.R.Kothari, Research Methodology, Methods & Techniques by, Second revised edition, 2010, New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi, India. 12. Schiff man & Kanuk, Consumer Behaviour, 9th Edition, Pearson. 13. Anantnarayan & Jayashree Nimagadda. A Hand Book of Research Process - 2009 edition, Macmillan Publishers India Limited, New Delhi, India. 14. S.C.Gupta, Fundamentals of Statistics, sixth revised and enlarged edition, 2010, Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai, India 159