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A review on phase change materials and their applications (1)
1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INInternational Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) IJARETISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 3, Issue 2, July-December (2012), pp. 214-225© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp ©IAEMEJournal Impact Factor (2012): 2.7078 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.com A REVIEW ON PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS & THEIR APPLICATIONS Ajeet Kumar RAI, Ashish KUMAR* Department of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS-DU Allahabad-211007, India *Email id: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com ABSTRACT The objective of present work is to gather the information from the previous works on the phase change materials and latent heat storage systems. The use of latent heat storage system incorporating phase change material is very attractive because of its high energy storage density with small temperature swing. There are varieties of phase change materials that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperature making them suitable for number of applications. The different applications in which the phase change method of heat storage can be applied are also reviewed in this paper. Keywords- phase change materials, latent heat storage system, solar energy 1. INTRODUCTION Fast depletion of conventional energy sources and high rise of demand of energy have increased the problem with high rise of environmental concern due to green house effect. Scientists all over the world are in search for new & renewable energy source to deal with. Solar thermal energy is the most available renewable source of energy and is available as direct and indirect forms . The sun consists of hot gases and has a diameter of 1.39 × 109 m; it has an effective blackbody temperature of 5762 K , the temperature in its central region ranges between 8× 106 and 40 × 106 K . The Sun emits energy at a rate of 3.8 × 1023 kW, of which, approximately 1.8 × 1014 kW is transmitted to the earth; only 60% of this amount reaches the earth’s surface. The other 40% is reflected back and absorbed by the atmosphere. If 0.1% of this energy is converted with efficiency of 10%, then it can generate amount of energy equivalent to four times of the world’s total generated electricity. Moreover, the total annual solar radiation falling on the earth is more than 7500 times of the world’s total annual primary energy consumption that is 450 EJ. There is 3,400,000 EJ, approximately, of total annual solar radiation reaches the surface of the earth which is greater than all the estimated conventional energy sources . Since these sources of energy are less intensified, unpredictable and intermittent in nature, this requires efficient thermal energy storage so that the surplus heat collected may be stored for later use. Similar 214
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEMEproblem arises in heat recovery systems where the waste heat, availability and utilization periods aredifferent, requires some thermal energy storage.The energy crisis of the late 1970s and early 1980s left a fervent question which was later answered bythe concept of PCM as given in 1940s by Dr Telkes. This concept has given an access to a new gatewayfor energy storage devices. However, the first ever known application of PCM is documented by DrTelkes  for heating and cooling of buildings. Lane  has also worked in the same direction. Telkes et.al  published the idea of using PCMs in walls known as Trombe walls.Thermal energy can be stored as a change in internal energy of a material as sensible heat , latent heat orcombination of these two. In sensible heat storage (SHS), thermal energy is stored by raising thetemperature of a solid or liquid. SHS utilizes the heat capacity and the change in temperature of thematerial during the process of charging and discharging. The amount of heat stored depends on thespecific heat of the medium, the temperature change and the amount of storage material . ்Q=ܶ݀ܥ݉ ் (1) =݉ܥሺ݂ܶ − ܶ݅ሻ (2)LHS is based on the heat absorption or release when a storage material undergoes a phase change fromsolid to liquid or liquid to gas or vice versa. The storage capacity of the LHS system with a pcm medium is given by- ் ்Q=∆݉ܽ݉ + ݐ݀ܥ݉ ℎ݉ + ݐ݀ܥ݉ ் ் (3)Q=݉[ݏܥሺܶ݉ − ܶ݅ሻ + ܽ݉∆ℎ݉ + ݈ܥሺ݂ܶ − ܶ݉ሻ] (4) 2. PHASE CHANGE MATERIALSMaterials that can store latent heat during the phase transition are known as phase change materials. Dueto the compactness of PCMs the latent heat is much higher than the sensible heat. These materials arestill a point of interest for researchers. Lorsch et. al. , Lane et. al.  and Humphries and Griggs have suggested a wide range of PCMs that can be selected as a storage media keeping following attributesunder consideration. In order to select the best qualified PCM as a storage media some criterias arealso mentioned by Furbo and Svendsen . 1. High latent heat of fusion per unit volume so that a lesser amount of material stores a given amount of energy. 2. High specific heat that provides additional sensible heat storage effect and also avoid sub-cooling. 3. High thermal conductivity so that the temperature gradient required for charging the storage material is small. 4. High density so that a smaller container volume holds the material. 5. A melting point is desired operating temperature range. 6. The PCM should be non-poisonous, non-flammable and non-explosive 7. No chemical decomposition so that the system life is assured. 8. No corrosiveness to construction material. 9. PCM should exhibit little or no sub-cooling during freezing. 10. Also, it should be economically viable to make the system cost effective. 215
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME 2.1. Working of PCMsAny material can dwell into three basic forms viz solid, liquid and gas. A material changes its state on theexpenses of its latent heat.Kuznik et. al  has given a good explanation of how PCM stores and releases latent heat. The externalheat supplied to a PCM is spent in breaking the internal bonds of lattice and thereby it absorbs a hugeamount of latent heat at phase temperature. Now, when the PCM cools down, temperature goes belowphase change temperature (known as sub-cooling or under-cooling) to overcome the energy barrierrequired for nucleation of second phase. Once phase reversal starts, temperature of P.C.M. rises (due torelease of latent heat) and subsequent phase reversal takes place at phase change temperature by releasingback the latent heat to environment. Requirement of sub-cooling or under-cooling for phase reversal is animportant property of P.C.M. governing its applicability in particular application.Latent heat of P.C.M. is many orders higher than the specific heat of materials. Therefore P.C.M. canshare 2-3 times more heat or cold per volume or per mass as can be stored as sensible heat in water in atemperature interval of 20oC. As heat exchange takes place in narrow band of temperature thephenomenon can be used for temperature smoothening also. 2.2. PCM classificationAbhat et.al. has given a detailed classification of PCMs along with their properties. Lane , Dinserand Rosen  have also exercised the same. A large number of phase change materials (organic,inorganic and eutectic) are available in any required temperature range. A classification of PCMs is givenin Fig.1. Figure 1: Classification of Phase Change (Latent Heat Storage) Materials 2.2.1. Organic phase change materialsOrganic materials are categorized as paraffin and non-paraffin materials. These materials includecongruent melting, means melt and freeze repeatedly without phase segregation and consequentdegradation of their latent heat of fusion. 216
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME Latent Latent Melting Heat Melting Heat Material point (oC) (kJ/kg) Category Material point (oC) (kJ/kg) Category n-Dodecane -12 n.a. P. N-Pentacosane 53.7 164 P. n-Tridecane -6 n.a. P. Myristic acid 54 199 N.p. n-Tetradecane 5.5 226 P. Oxolate 54.3 178 N.p. Formic acid 7.8 247 N.p. Tristearin 54.5 191 N.p. O-Xylene N-Pentadecane 10 205 P. dichloride 55 121 N.p. Oleic acid 13.5-16.3 n.a. N.p. n-Hexacosane 56 257 P. Acetic acid 16.7 273 N.p. β Chloroacetic acid 56 147 N.p. N-Hexadecane 16.7 237 P. N-hexaacosane 56.3 255 P. n-Heptadecane 22 215 P. Nitro naphthalene 56.7 103 N.p. D-Lactic acid 26 184 N.p. α Chloracetic acid 61.2 130 N.p. n-Octadecance 28.2 245 P. N-Octacosane 61.4 134 P. n-Nonadecane 31.9 222 P. Palmitic acid 61.8 164 N.p. Paraffin wax 32 251 P. Bees wax 61.8 177 N.p. Capric acid 32 152.7 N.p. Glyolic acid 63 109 N.p. n-Eicosane 37 247 P. P-Bromophenol 63.5 86 N.p. Caprilone 40 260 N.p. Azobenzene 67.1 121 N.p. Docasyle bromide 40 201 N.p. Acrylic acid 68 115 N.p. N-henicosane 40.5 161 P. Stearic acid 69 202.5 N.p. Phenol 41 120 N.p. Dintro toluene(2,4) 70 111 N.p. N-Lauric acid 43 183 N.p. n-Tritricontane 71 189 P. P-Joluidine 43.3 167 N.p. Phenylacetic acid 76.7 102 N.p. Cynamide 44 209 N.p. Thiosinamine 77 140 N.p. N-Docosane 44.5 157 P. Benzylamine 78 174 N.p. N-Tricosane 47.6 130 P. Acetamide 81 241 N.p. Hydrocinnamic acid 48 118 N.p. Alpha napthol 96 163 N.p. Cetyl alcohol 49.3 141 N.p. Quinone 115 171 N.p. O-Nitroaniline 50 93 N.p. Succinic anhydride 119 204 N.p. Camphene 50 239 N.p. Benzoic acid 121.7 142.8 N.p. Diphenyle amine 52.9 107 N.p. Benzamide 127.2 169.4 N.p. P-Dicchlorobenzene 53.1 121 N.p. Alpha glucose 141 174 N.p. P. Paraffin N.P. Non paraffin n.a. Not available Table 1: List of Organic Materials      217
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEMEParaffin are chemically known as hydrocarbons which are generally found to be as wax at roomtemperature whereas non-paraffin encompasses fatty acids, glycols, esters and alcohols etc. Paraffinconsists of a mixture of mostly straight chain n-alkanes CH3–(CH2)–CH3. The crystallization of the(CH3)- chain release a large amount of latent heat. Both, the melting point and latent heat of fusion,increase with chain length. Paraffin qualifies as heat of fusion storage materials due to their availability ina large temperature range. System-using paraffin usually has very long freeze–melt cycle. Apart fromsome several favorable characteristic of paraffin, such as congruent melting and good nucleatingproperties, they show some undesirable properties such as: (i) low thermal conductivity, (ii) non- compatible with the plastic container and (iii) moderately flammable.All these undesirable effects can be partly eliminated by slightly modifying the wax and the storage unit.Non-paraffin materials are flammable and should not be exposed to excessively high temperature, flamesor oxidizing agents.Some of the features of these organic materials are as follows: (i) high heat of fusion, (ii) inflammability, (iii) low thermal conductivity, (iv) low flash points, (v) varying level of toxicity, and (vi) instability at high temperatures.Fatty acids have high heat of fusion values comparable to that of paraffin’s. Fatty acids also showreproducible melting and freezing behavior and freeze with no supercooling. The general formuladescribing all the fatty acid is given by CH3(CH2)2n COOH Their major drawback, however, is theircost, which are 2–2.5 times greater than that of technical grade paraffin’s. They are also mild corrosive.Some fatty acids are of interest to low temperature latent heat thermal energy storage applications. 2.2.2. Inorganic phase change materialsInorganic materials are further classified as salt hydrate and metallics. These PCMs do not super coolappreciably and their heats of fusion do not degrade with cycling. 218
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME Latent Latent Melting Melting Name Heat Name Heat point (0C) point (0C) (kJ/kg) (kJ/kg) POCl3 1 85 FeBr3.6H2O 27 105 D2O 3.7 318 Cs 28.3 15 SbCl5 4 33 CaCl2.6H2O 29-30 170-192 LiClO3.3H2O 8 253 Ga 30 80 H2SO4 10.4 100 AsBr3 30 38 NH4Cl.Na2SO4.10H2O 11 163 BI3 31.8 10 K2HO4.6H2O 14 108 TiBr4 38.2 23 MOF6 17 50 H4P2O6 55 213 NaCl.Na2SO4.10H2O 18 286 SbCl3 73.4 25 KF.4H2O 18 330 NaNO3 307 17-199 K2HO4.4H2O 18.5 231 KNO3 333-380 116-266 P4O3 23.7 64 KOH 380 149 Mn(NO3)2.6H2O 25 148 MgCl2 714-800 452-492 LiBO2.8H2O 25.7 289 KF 857 452 H3PO4 26 147 K2CO3 897 235 Table 2: List of Inroganic Materials     Salt hydrates may be regarded as alloys of inorganic salts and water forming a typical crystalline solid ofgeneral formula M.nH2O. The solid–liquid transformation of salt hydrates is actually a dehydration ofhydration of the salt, although this process resembles melting or freezing thermodynamically. A salthydrates usually melts to either to a salt hydrate with fewer moles of water, i.e.M.nH2O M.mH2O + (n - m) H2 O (5)or to its anhydrous formM.nH2O M+ nH2O (6)At the melting point the hydrate crystals breakup into anhydrous salt and water, or into a lower hydrateand water. One problem with most salt hydrates is that of incongruent melting caused by the fact that thereleased water of crystallization is not sufficient to dissolve all the solid phase present. Due to densitydifference, the lower hydrate (or anhydrous salt) settles down at the bottom of the container.The most attractive properties of salt hydrates are: (i) high latent heat of fusion per unit volume, (ii) relatively high thermal conductivity (almost double of the paraffin’s), and (iii) Small volume changes on melting.They are not very corrosive, compatible with plastics and only slightly toxic. Many salt hydrates aresufficiently inexpensive for the use in storage. 219
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEMEDisadvantages: (i) Incongruent melting (ii) Irreversible melting-freezing cycle (iii) Poor nucleating properties (iv) Supercooling. (v) Phase segregationMetallic includes the low melting metals and metal eutectics. Because of its larger weight, metallic’s arenot of prime importance However, when volume is a consideration, they are likely candidates because ofthe high heat of fusion per unit volume. They have high thermal conductivities. A major differencebetween the metallics and other PCMs is their high thermal conductivity. A list of some selected materialsis listed in table 2. Some of the features of these materials are as follows: (i) low heat of fusion per unit weight (ii) high heat of fusion per unit volume, (iii) high thermal conductivity, (iv) low specific heat and (v) relatively low vapor pressure 2.2.3. EutecticsA eutectic is a minimum-melting composition of two or more components, each of which melts andfreeze congruently forming a mixture of the component crystals during crystallization. Eutectic alwaysmelts and freezes without segregation since they freeze to an intimate mixture of crystals, leaving littleopportunity for the components to separate. On melting both components liquefy simultaneously, againwith separation unlikely. Latent Latent Heat Heat Melting Melting Name Composition of Name Composition of Point Point Fusion Fusion (kj/kg) (kj/kg) Mg(NO3)2.6H2O + Na2SO4+NaCl+KCl+H2O 31+13+16+40 4 234 NH4 NO3 61.5+38.4 52 125.5 Mg(NO3)2.6H2O + Na2SO4+NaCl+NH4Cl+H2O 32+14+12+42 11 n.a. MgCl2.6H2O 58.7+41.3 59 132.2 Mg(NO3)2.6H2O + C5H5C6H5+ (C6H5)2O 26.5+73.5 12 97.9 Al(NO3)2.9H2O 53+47 61 148 Mg(NO3)2.6H2O + Na2SO4+NaCl+H2O 37+17+46 18 n.a. MgBr2.6H2O 59+41 66 168 Ca(NO)3.4H2O + Napthalene + Mg(NO)3.6H2O 47+53 30 136 Benzoic Acid 67.1+ 32.9 67 123.4 NH2CONH2 + NH4 NO3 n.a. 46 95 AlCl3+NaCl+ZrCl2 79+17+4 68 234 n.a. Not available Table 3: Melting point and latent heat of some Eutectics material.     Some segregation PCM compositions have sometimes been incorrectly called eutectics, since they areminimum melting. Because of the components undergoes a peritectic reaction during phase transition, 220
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEMEhowever, they should more properly be termed peritectics. Th eutectic point of laboratory gradehexadecane– tetradecane mixture occurs at approximately 91.67% of tetradecane. 3. SOLUTION TO GENERAL PROBLEM RELATED WITH PCMSVarious drawbacks associated with different classes of PCM necessitate some preventive measures.Various scholars Bauer and Wirtz , Mehling et. al. , py et. al  Stark  and Morcos  etc.have remarkable contribution in this field. Few of such techniques are discussed as under:The problem of incongruent melting can be tackled by one of the following means: (i) by mechanical stirring, (ii) by encapsulating the PCM to reduce separation, (iii) by adding of the thickening agents which prevent setting of the solid salts by holding it in suspension, (iv) by use of excess of water so that melted crystals do not produce supersaturated solution, (v) by modifying the chemical composition of the system and making incongruent material congruent .To overcome the problem of phase segregation and supercooling of salt hydrates, scientists of GeneralElectric Co., NY suggested a rolling cylinder heat storage system. The system consists of a cylindricalvessel mounted horizontally with two sets of rollers. A rotation rate of 3 rpm produced sufficient motionof the solid content (i) to create effective chemical equilibrium, (ii) to prevent nucleation of solid crystals on the walls, and (iii) to assume rapid attainment of axial equilibrium in long cylinders.Some of the advantages of the rolling cylinder method are: (i) complete phase change, (ii) Melting point and latent heat of fusion: salt hydrates latent heat released was in the range of 90–100% of the theoretical latent heat, (iii) Repeatable performance over 200 cycles, (iv) high internal heat transfer rates, (v) Freezing occurred uniformly.As a single PCM cannot have all the desired properties viz thermophysical, chemical, kinetics, and at thesame time economical, one has to go for designing a suitable system to compensate for theaforementioned inadequacy . For example metallic fins can be used to compensate the poor thermalconductivity of PCMs, supercooling may be suppressed by introducing a nucleating agent or a ‘coldfinger’ in the storage material and thickness of the PCM can be optimized to compensate the poor melt-freeze cycle of the material.In general inorganic compounds have almost double volumetric latent heat storage capacity (250–400kg/dm3) than the organic compounds (128–200 kg/dm3). For their very different thermal and chemicalbehavior, the properties of each subgroup which affects the design of latent heat thermal energy storagesystems using PCMs of that subgroup are discussed in detail below. 221
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEME 4. APPLICATIONSRavankar  presented a new testing method for satellite power using latent heat storage. PCM becomesliquid under high temperature, which then freezes during hours of cold darkness and released its latentheat. The released heat can used to generate electricity by driving thermoelectric units. John et al. designed a novel ventilation nighttime cooling system (a novel combination of PCM and heat pipes) as analternative to air conditioning. The system offers substantial benefits in terms of reducing or eliminatingthe need for air conditioning. Microencapsulated PCMs can be included within textile fibers; compositesand clothing to provide greatly enhanced thermal protection in both hot and cold environments .Cabeza et al.  reported that the PCM can be used for transporting temperature sensitive medicationsand food because the PCMs capability to store heat and cold in a range of several degrees. Severalcompanies are engaged in the research of transporting temperature sensitive PCMs for variousapplications [28-32].Vasiliev et al.  developed the latent heat storage module for motor vehicle because the heat is storedwhen the engine stopped, and can be used to preheat the engine on a new start. It is possible to reach anoptimized working temperature within the engine in a much shorter time using the heat storage thanwithout heat storage. Pal and Joshi   recommended the PCM to restrict the maximum temperatureof electronic components. Tan et al.  conducted an experimental study on the cooling of mobileelectronic devices, and computers, using a heat storage unit (HSU) filled with the phase change material(PCM) of n-eicosane inside the device. The high latent heat of n-eicosane in the HSU absorbs the heatdissipation from the chips and can maintain the chip temperature below the allowable service temperatureof 50 OC for 2 h of transient operations of the PDA.Climator  has developed a cooling vest for the athletes for reducing the body temperature. PCMs alsoproposed for cooling the newborn baby . Koschenz et al.  developed a thermally activated ceilingpanel for incorporation in lightweight and retrofitted buildings. It was demonstrated, by means ofsimulation calculations and laboratory tests, that a 5 cm layer of microencapsulated PCM (25% byweight) and gypsum surface to maintain a comfortable room temperature in standard office buildings.Heptadecance were tried as PCM in this prototype set-up. Naim et al.  constructed a novel continuoussingle-stage solar still with PCM. They reported that the productivity of a solar still can be greatlyenhanced by the use of a PCM integrated to the still. Huang et al.  used PCMs for thermal regulationof building-integrated photovoltaic. Depending on ambient conditions, a PV/PCM system may enable thePV to operate near its characterizing temperature (25 OC). They developed PV/PCM simulation modeland validated with experimental results. The improvement in the thermal performance achieved by usingmetal fins in the PCM container is significant. The fins enable a more uniform temperature distributionwithin the PV/PCM system to be maintained. An extensive experimental test has been undertaken on thethermal behavior of a phase change material, when used to moderate the temperature rise of PV in aPV/PCM system   [44[ Use of PCM with photovoltaic (PV) panels and thermoelectric modules(TEMs) in the design of a portable vaccine refrigerator for remote villages with no grid electricity wasproposed by Tavaranan et al. . TEMs, which transfer heat from electrical energy via the Peltier effect,represent good alternatives for environmentally friendly cooling applications, especially forrelatively low cooling loads and when size is a key factor. Thermoelectric refrigeration systemsemploying latent heat storage have been investigated experimentally by Omer et al. . Duffy andTrelles  proposed a numerical simulation of a porous latent heat thermal energy storage device forthermoelectric cooling under different porosities of the aluminum matrix. They used a porous aluminummatrix as a way of improving the performance of the system, enhancing heat conduction without reducingsignificantly the stored energy.Weinlader et al.  used PCM in double-glazing façade panel for day lighting and room heating. Afacade panel with PCM shows about 30% less heat losses in south oriented facades. Solar heat gains are 222
International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 3, Number 2, July-December (2012), © IAEMEalso reduced by about 50%. Facade panels with PCM improve thermal comfort considerably inwinter, especially during evenings. In summer, such systems show low heat gains, which reduces peakcooling loads during the day. Additional heat gains in the evening can be drawn off by nighttimeventilation. If a PCM with a low melting temperature of up to 300C is used, thermal comfort in summerwill also improve during the day, compared to double glazing without or with inner sun protection. Yinget al.  developed the test standards for PCM fabrics. Three indices have been proposed to characterizethe thermal functional performance of PCM fabrics. The index of thermal regulating capability candescribed the thermal regulating performance of PCM fabrics, and is strongly dependent on amount ofPCM. Khateeb et al.  designed a lithium-ion battery employing a novel phase change material (PCM)for thermal management system in electric scooter. Developed Li-ion battery was suggested in order toreplace the existing lead–acid battery in the electric scooter with the Li-ion battery without introducingany mechanical changes in the battery compartment. 5. SUMMARYThis entire discussion leads to a promising solution for the problem of depleting fuel resources in theform of latent heat storage materials. As discussed in preceding chapters, an outcome can be drawn tofocus more onto the storing the immensely available energy sources, i.e. solar radiation. This can bestored into the various phase change materials as stated and suggested into the previous discussion.Latent heat storage materials can store 5 to 14 times more energy as compared to other conventionalmethods. This leads to a higher efficiency and considerable cost reduction in overall setup. Such materialscan store energy isothermally with minimum volume and mass which turns out into the biggestachievement in the field of energy storageREFERENCES 1. Thirugnanasambandam Mirunalini, Iniyan S., and Goic Ranko, “A Review of Solar Thermal Technologies’’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, pp 312–322 (2010). 2. Kreith F.; Kreider J.F; Principles of solar engineering, McGraw-Hill, Newyork (1978). 3. Kalogirou Soteris A., “Solar Thermal Collectors and Applications’’, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, vol. 30, pp 231-295, (2004). 4. Telkes, M. Thermal storage for solar heating and cooling. Proceedings of the workshop on solar energy storage subsystems for the heating and cooling of buildings. Charlottesville, Virginia, USA (1975). 5. Lane G.A. Solar heat storage-Latent Heat Materials, vol. I. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc; (1983) 6. Telkes, M, Trombe wall with phase change storage material. Proceedings of the 2nd national passive solar conference. Philadelphia, PA, USA (1978) 7. Zalba Belen, Jose M Marin, Lusia F. Cabeza, Harald Mehling, Review on thermal energy storage with phase change: materials, heat transfer analysis and applications, Applied Thermal Engineering 23, 251-283, (2003). 8. Lorsch HG, Kauffman KW, Denton JC, “Thermal Energy Storage for Heating and Air Conditioning, Future energy production system”. Heat Mass Transfer Processes; 1: pp 69-85 (1976). 9. Lane GA, Glew DN, Clark EC, Rossow HE, Quigley SW, Drake SS, et al. “Heat of fusion system for solar energy storage subsystems for the heating and cooling of building”. Chalottesville, Virginia, USA, 1975. 10. Humphries WR, Griggs EI. “ A designing handbook for phase change thermal control and energy storage devices.” NASA Technical Paper, p. 1074, (1977). 11. Sharma S.D.; Sagara Kazunobu; “Latent Heat Storage Materials And Systems: A Review”, International Journal of Green Energy, 2, pp 1-36, (2005) 223
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