A review of pfc boost converters for hybrid electric vehicle battery chargers

  • 516 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
516
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDCOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 85-91 IJECET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5930 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com A REVIEW OF PFC BOOST CONVERTERS FOR HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY CHARGERS 1 M. Daniel Pradeep, 2S.Jebarani Evangeline 1,2 School of Electrical Sciences, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. ABSTRACT Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an emerging trend in the field of automotive engineering. At the same time, consumer’s interest is growing rapidly. With the fluctuations in the universal supply, it is mandatory to maintain unity power factor. Power factor correction is essential to meet the efficiency and regulatory standards for the AC supply mains. Four types of PFC converters have been investigated and the results have been discussed. Out of which bridgeless interleaved PFC converter is suited for power levels up to 5kW. Keywords: AC-DC Converter, Boost Converter, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Charger (PHEV), Power Factor. I. INTRODUCTION A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle which uses rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source such as electric wall socket. A PHEV has the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle which is having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE) and of an electric vehicle.Today most of the PHEVs on the road are passenger cars. With the advancements in the technologies, PHEV vehicles also exist in the form of commercial vehicles such as vans, trucks, buses, motorcycles, scooters, and military vehicles. The block diagram of charger which is used to charge PHEV contains the following blocks in common. It includes an AC-DC converter with power factor correction (PFC), an isolated DC-DC converter, input and output EMI filters, as shown in Fig. 1 [1]. The whole arrangement is integrated together, called as battery charger and attached inside the PHEV. 85
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Fig.1 Simplified System Block Diagram of a Universal Battery Charger. In the following sections, four common types of PHEV battery chargers are investigated and their output power, efficiencies are compared.II. CONVENTIONAL PFC BOOST CONVERTER In common, the conventional boost topology is popularly used for PFC applications. It uses a dedicated diode bridge which is used to convert the AC voltage to DC voltage, which is then followed by the boost Converter, as shown in Fig 2. Fig. 2 Conventional PFC Boost Converterand Its Input Voltage &Current. 86
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Fig. 3 Bridgeless PFC Boost Converterand Its Input Voltage &Current. In this topology, the output capacitor ripple current isvery high [4] and is the difference between diode current andthe dc output current. Furthermore, as the power levelincreases, the diode bridge losses significantly reduce theefficiency, so the heat dissipation in a limitedarea becomes challenging. Anotherchallenge is the power rating limitation for current senseresistors at high power. Due to these constraints, thistopology is good for the low to medium power range, up to approximately 1 kW. For power levels greater than 1 kW, the inductor volume becomes a problematic design issue at high power because of the limited core size available for the power level and the heavy wire gauge required for winding [3].III. BRIDGELESS PFC BOOST CONVERTER With little improvement to the conventional boost converter, a bridgeless boost converter is developed. The bridgeless configuration topology avoids the need for the rectifier input bridge yet maintains the classic boost topology, as shown in Fig. 3. It is an attractive solution for applications greater than 1kW. The bridgeless boost converter solves the problem of heat management in the input bridge rectifier, but it introduces increased EMI. Another disadvantage of this topology is the floating input line with respect to the PFC stage ground, which makes it impossible to sense the input voltage without a low frequency transformer or an optical coupler. Complex circuitry is needed in order to sense the input current in the MOSFET and diode paths separately, since the current path does not share the same ground during each half-line cycle [4]. 87
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEIV. INTERLEAVED PFC BOOST CONVERTER Fig. 4 shows the interleaved boost converter, it operates depending upon the Interleaving property. The circuit contains two boost converters in parallel operating 180° out of phase. The inductor’s ripple currents are out of phase, so they tend to cancel each other and reduce the input ripple current caused by the boost switching action. The input current is the sum of the two inductor currents ILB1 and ILB2. Moreover, the effective switching frequency is increased by switching 180° out of phase and introduces smaller input current ripples. So the EMI filters in the input side will be smaller. At the same time, the problem of heat management in the input bridge rectifier is still present. This configuration is well suited for power levels up to 3 kW [6]. Fig. 4 Interleaved PFC Boost Converterand Its Input Voltage & CurrentV. BRIDGELESS INTERLEAVED PFC BOOST CONVERTER The bridgeless interleaved topology, shown in Fig.5,was proposed as a solution to operate at power levels at andabove 5kW. In comparison to the interleaved boost PFC, itintroduces two MOSFETs and also replaces four slow diodeswith two fast diodes. The gating signals are 180 ° out ofphase, similar to the interleaved boost. This converter topology shows a high input powerfactor, high efficiency over the entire load range and lowinput current harmonics.Since the proposed topology shows high input powerfactor, high efficiency over the entire load range, and lowinput current harmonics, it is a potential option for singlephase PFC in high power level II battery chargingapplications. 88
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME 4VI. RESULT ANALYSIS The various topologies are simulated and their test results are compared in this section. The power factor is corrected nearly to unity, i.e. 0.998 for all the types of unity, topologies. The conventional boost converter is applied an input voltage of 230V AC and it is converted to DC voltage and boosted to 400V. It has an input power of 1.7kW and its output power is 1. 1.6kW. On the other hand, the bridgeless PFC boost converter is able to supply an output power of 3kW. 3kW Whereas the interleaved PFC boost converter is used to convert AC to DC with an output power of 4kW. And the Bridgeless interleaved PFC boost converter is used to convert the AC voltage to DC voltage with the output power of 5.2kW. Fig. 5 Bridgeless Interleaved PFC Boost Converter and Its Input Voltage & Current 89
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Fig. 6a Fig. 6b Fig. 6 Output Voltage &CurrentVII. CONCLUSION The various types of PHEV battery chargers were reviewed in this paper. The conventional boost converter is well suited for low power applications and it has a poor efficiency. The bridgeless PFC boost converter is suited for power levels greater than 1kW and its efficiency is fair. Whereas the interleaved PFC boost converter has high efficiency but the problem of heat dissipation in the rectifier bridge is still present. The Bridgeless Interleaved PFC boost converter is suited for power levels of 5kW and above. It eliminates the diode rectifier bridge and therefore the heat losses are reduced. Further research in the field of PFC boost converters may result in higher efficiency and unity power factor. REFERENCES [1] K. Morrow, D. Karner, and J. Francfort, Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging infrastructure review, U.S. Dept. Energy Vehicle Technologies Program, Washington, DC, INL-EXT-08-15058, 2008. [2] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey, and D. P. Kothari, A review of single-phase improved power quality AC–DC converters, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962–981, Oct. 2003. 90
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME[3] Chan, CH; Pong, MH., Fast response Full Bridge Power Factor Corrector, Pesc Record - IEEE Annual Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1998, v. 2, p. 1436- 1442.[4] Bing Lu, Ron Brown, Marco Soldano, Bridgeless PFC Implementation Using One Cycle Control Technique, International Rectifier, 2005.[5] Yungtaek Jang, Milan M. Jovanovic, Interleaved Boost Converter with Intrinsic Voltage-Doubler Characteristic for Universal-Line PFC Front End, IEEE transactions on power electronics, vol. 22, no. 4, July 2007.[6] R. Brown, M. Soldano, PFC Converter Design with IR1150 One Cycle Control IC, International Rectifier, June 2005.[7] Anuradha Tomar and Dr. Yog Raj Sood, “A New Approach For Power Factor Improvement In Cable Industry” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 242 - 249, Published by IAEME.[8] P.Vishnu, R.Ajaykrishna and Dr.S.Thirumalini, “Recent Advancements and Challenges in Plug-In Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 316 - 325, Published by IAEME.[9] M.Gopinath, “Hardware Implementation Of Bridgeless Pfc Boost Converter Fed Dc Drive” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 131 - 137, Published by IAEME.[10] M.Gopinath, “Hardware Implementation Of Bridgeless Pfc Boost Converter Fed Dc Drive” International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 131 - 137, Published by IAEME.M. Daniel Pradeepwas pursuing his M.Tech degree in Power Electronics and Drives fromKarunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. He has completed his B.E in Electricaland Electronics Engineering in Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology,Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. His research area includes Power Electronics, EnergyGeneration and Renewable Energy.S. Jebarani Evangeline was pursuing her Ph.D., from Anna University. She has completedher M.Tech degree from Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. She has aworking experience of 9 years.Her research area includes Power Electronics & Drives andAutomotive Electronics 91