Women empowerment through self help groups (a study of lucknow district)
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Women empowerment through self help groups (a study of lucknow district)

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Women empowerment through self help groups (a study of lucknow district) Women empowerment through self help groups (a study of lucknow district) Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)169WOMEN EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SELF HELP GROUPS(A STUDY OF LUCKNOW DISTRICT)*Manish Roy Tirkey and **Dr. Enid Masih*Assistant professor, Joseph School of Business Studies SHIATS (ALLAHABAD)**Associate professor, Joseph School of Business Studies SHIATS (ALLAHABAD)ABSTRACTSelf-help groups play an important role in rural areas in reducing poverty.Microfinance and self-help groups assist the rural area people in their financial needs it is atype of banking service that ensure that unemployed a low-income level people get the betteropportunity and they start to earn their livelihoods by themselves. The main aim ofmicrofinance or self-help groups to empower women. This paper mainly focuses on thewomen’s of rural area in their psychological, social and economic needs. The study isundertaken in the rural areas of Uttar Pradesh. Self-help groups need to focus on trainingprogram for the women’s with the help of NGO’s so they develop their skills and Talents.Keywords: Microfinance, Non-Governmental Organizations, self-help Groups, WomenEmpowermentINTRODUCTIONMicrofinance is the provision of financial services to low-income clients, includingconsumers and the self-employed, who traditionally lack access to banking and relatedservices. Microcredit, or microfinance, is banking the unbankables, bringing credit, savingsand other essential financial services within the reach of millions of people who are too poorto be served by regular banks, in most cases because they are unable to offer sufficientcollateral. In general, banks are for people with money, not for people without.” Microcredit:Sound Business or Development Instrument is based on the premise that the poor have skillswhich remain unutilized or underutilized. Microcredit fits best to those with entrepreneurialcapability and possibility. Ultimately, the goal of microfinance is to give low income peoplean opportunity to become self-sufficient by providing a means of saving money, borrowingmoney and insurance.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM)ISSN 0976-6502 (Print)ISSN 0976-6510 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013), pp. 169-175© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJM© I A E M E
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)170The main aim of microfinance is to empower women. Women make up a largeproportion of microfinance beneficiaries. Traditionally, women (especially those inunderdeveloped countries) have been unable to readily participate in economic activity.Microfinance provides women with the financial backing they need to start business venturesand actively participate in the economy. It gives them confidence, improves their status andmakes them more active in decision-making, thus encouraging gender equality. According toCGAP, long-standing MFIs even report a decline in violence towards women since theinception of microfinance.Self Help Group is a group with “an average size of about 15 people from ahomogenous class. They come together for addressing their common problems. They areencouraged to make voluntary thrift on a regular basis. They use this pooled resource to makesmall interest bearing loans to their members. The process helps them imbibe the essentials offinancial intermediation including prioritization of needs, setting terms and conditions andaccounts keeping. This gradually builds financial discipline in all of them. They also learn tohandle resources of a size that is much beyond the individual capacities of any of them. TheSHG members begin to appreciate that resources are limited and have a cost. Once the groupsshow this mature financial behaviour, banks are encouraged to make loans to the SHG incertain multiples of the accumulated savings of the SHG. The bank loans are given withoutany collateral and at market interest rates. The groups continue to decide the terms of loans totheir own members. Since the groups’ own accumulated savings are part and parcel of theaggregate loans made by the groups to their members, peer pressure ensures timelyrepayments.” In this paper the role played by Microfinance in women’s empowerment areconsidered into three dimensions namely psychological, social and economic.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMIn earlier days women of rural areas are mostly dependent on their husbands and theyare not allowed to work and their social status is low. Now days we see that with the help ofmicrofinance or self-help groups the womens of rural areas are dependent on herselves. ManyNGO’s help them to motivate and starting their own livelihoods.OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY• To study the role of self-help groups in women empowerment.• To Examine the level of women empowerment through entrepreneurshipdevelopment.RESEARCH METHODOLOGYSources of Data: The study is taken in rural area of Uttar Pradesh. Both primary andsecondary data are used. Secondary data collected from NGO’s report and Primary data arecollected through structured questionnaireSample size: 125 samples have been collected from the 10 areas that are selected for thepurpose of the study.Statistical tool used: Simple percentage method is used to analyse and interpret the data.
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)171DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION1. No. of income earner in family of women entrepreneur.No. ofIncomeEarnersNumber of Women EntrepreneurBeforeEntrepreneurialactivitiesPercentage AfterEntrepreneurialactivitiesPercentageOne 86 68.80 5 04.00Two 39 31.20 75 60.00Three ------- 45 36.00Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is cleared that after taking entrepreneurial activities no. ofincome earner in the family rises. It shows a good sign that women after taking part inentrepreneurial activities are more confident to do jobs or self-work.2. Monthly Income of Women EntrepreneursIncome Level(Rs)Number of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageUp to 1000 72 57.60 3 02.401001-2000 48 38.40 40 32.002001-3000 5 4.00 37 29.603001-4000 ----- ----- 29 23.20Above 4000 ----- ----- 16 12.80Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is clear that women entrepreneur who didn’t earn 3001-4000 or above4000 their percentage rise to 23.20 and 12.80 respectively.3. Monthly Expenditure of Women EntrepreneursExpenditureLevel (Rs)Number of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageUp to 1000 94 75.20 47 37.601001-2000 30 24.00 56 44.802001-3000 1 00.80 22 17.603001-4000 ----- ----- ----- -----Above 4000 ----- ----- ----- -----Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is clear that after taking entrepreneurial activities the expenditure ofwomen entrepreneur has gone up in as compared to their expenditure before takingentrepreneurial activities.
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)1724. Monthly Savings Pattern of Women EntrepreneursSavings Level(Rs)Number of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageUp to 100 77 61.60 47 37.60101-150 45 36.00 56 44.80151-200 3 02.40 17 13.60Above 200 ------- ------- 5 4.00Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is clear that before taking entrepreneurial activities more womenentrepreneur save up to 100 Rs but after taking entrepreneurial activities more women savemore than 100 Rs even more than 200 Rs.5. Purchase Decision in Women EntrepreneursMembersNumber of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageMale 112 89.60 72 57.60Female 13 10.40 34 27.20Both ------- ------- 19 15.20Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is clear that before taking entrepreneurial activity male member tookmost of decision in purchasing durable products while after taking entrepreneurial activityfemale member dominance has increased from 10.40% to 27.20%.6. Education Decision in Women EntrepreneursMembersNumber of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageMale 111 88.80 86 68.80Female 14 11.20 19 15.20Both ------ 20 16Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is shown that education decisions in the family are taken by malemembers of the family before taking entrepreneurial activity by women’s but after takingentrepreneurial activity they take decisions in education matters of the family.
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)1737. Marriage Decision in Women EntrepreneursMembersNumber of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageMale 118 94.40 109 87.20Female 7 5.60 13 10.40Both ------ ------- 3 2.40Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is clear that most of the marriage decisions are taken in the family bythe male members and after taking entrepreneurial activity it is slightly decreased womenmembers of the family also take part in the marriage decisions but not that much increased.8. Improvement in Personality of Women EntrepreneursPersonality Elements Number of Women EntrepreneursYes No TotalImprovement in economic condition 123(98.40)2(1.60)125(100.00)Improvement in industrial skills 88(70.40)37(29.60)125(100.00)Improvement in importance in family 123(98.40)2(1.60)125(100.00)Improvement in social status 112(89.60)13(10.40)125(100.00)Improvement in ability to take decisions 81(64.80)44(35.20)125(100.00)Increase in awareness of social problems 61(48.80)64(51.20)125(100.00)Increase in importance in womeneducation120(96.00)5(4.00)125(100.00)Overall response 708(81.00167(19.00)875(100.00)From the above table it is clear that personality of women entrepreneurs improved as it isshown in the table that improvement in economic condition, improvement in industrial skills,improvement in importance in family, improvement in social status and also increase inimportance of women education.
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)1749. Participation in Legal Matters by Women EntrepreneursMembersNumber of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageMale 105 84.00 85 68.00Female 20 16.00 25 20.00Both ------- ------- 15 12.00Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is clear that women participation in legal matter increased a little bitafter taking entrepreneurial activities but it is dominated by the male members of the family.10. Participation in Social Matters by Women EntrepreneursMembersNumber of Women EntrepreneursBefore takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageAfter takingEntrepreneurialActivitiesPercentageMale 73 58.40 18 14.40Female 7 5.60 10 8.00Both 45 36.00 97 77.60Total 125 100 125 100From the above table it is clear that participation in social matters by women increased by2.40 per cent but participation of both will increase by 31.60 per cent after takingentrepreneurial activities.CONCLUSIONAt the end it is clear from all the aspects that for developing both male and female has towork and when both are working the family condition as well as economic condition of thecountry would also be better from this paper it is clear that after taking entrepreneurialactivities women entrepreneurs are earn for their family and taking part in the society activityas well as taking decisions also on behalf of their family. On the other hand Self help groupsplay an important role in women empowerment.REFERENCES1. Aktan O (1996). "The Turkish Businessman and Management". Gundogan PublisherAnkara, Turkey, p. 12.2. Cakici A (2003). "The Story of Mersin Women Entrepreneurs’ Business Creation andRecommendations for the Women Who will Launch a Business", 11 NationalManagement and Organization Congress. University of Afyon, pp. 87-88.3. Cakici A (2006). Mersin Factors Affecting Women Entrepreneurs and Business Life ",Dokuz Eylul University Social Sciences Institute Review, 8(4): 54-78.
  • International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 2, March- April (2013)1754. Dolgun U (2003). "Entrepreneurship", Alpha Printing-Publishing Distribution LimitedCompany Istanbul, p. 46.5. Duncan I (1991). An introduction to entrepreneurship. CMA, 65(9): 32.6. Ecevit Y (1993). "The Panel, Proceedings and Debates of Encouraging and SupportingWomen Entrepreneurship", Ankara: Under Secretariat of the State Ministry ofWomens Status and Problems of Women and the General Directorate of SocialServices. Education Series, 74: 20.7. Edwards CC (2008). “Assessing Entrepreneurship and African American Women:Factors of Success” North central University8. Graduate Faculty of the School of Business and Technol. Management. Ph. D. Thesis,Prescott Valley Arizona.9. Gorsuch RL (1983). Factor analysis, Lawrence erlbaum associates. Inc. ISBN 0-89859-202-X New Jersey.10. Hopkins J (2006). Ready to start your business? USA Today, (July 31) p.El.Anonymous 1 (2010). (http://report.tuik.gov.tr/reports. (accessed Sept 12, 2010).11. Joreskog KG, Reymont R (1993). Applied factor analysis in the natural sciences. NY.Cambridge University Press.12. Kalayci S, Albayrak AS, Eroğlu A, Küçüksille E, Ak B, Karaalti M, Keskin HÜ, ÇiçekE, Kayis A, Öztürk E, Antalyali ÖL, Uçar N, Demirgil H, sler DB, Sungur O (2005):SPSS Applied Multivariate Statistical Techniques, Asil Publication 1. Edition Ankara.13. Dr.Y.Lokeswara Choudary and S.Chitra, “Women Empowerment Thorough Self HelpGroups a Case Study of Kancheepuram District in Tamilnadu”, International Journalof Management (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 309 - 318, ISSN Print: 0976-6502,ISSN Online: 0976-6510.14. D.Shanthi Revathi and Dr. Jayasree Krishnan, “Problems and Opportunities of WomenEntrepreneurs Faced in the Globalized Economy”, International Journal ofManagement (IJM), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 77 - 81, ISSN Print: 0976-6502,ISSN Online: 0976-6510.15. Dr. J. Venkatesh and K.Kala, “Empowering Rural Women All the Way through Self-Help Groups”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 1, Issue 2, 2010,pp. 156 - 163, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.