Various types of wheel chair control


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Various types of wheel chair control

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 250-255 IJECET© IAEME: Impact Factor (2012): 3.5930 (Calculated by GISI) © VARIOUS TYPES OF WHEEL CHAIR CONTROL METHODS: A REVIEW Deepthi J1, Col Dr T S Surendra2 1 (EEE, Padmasri Dr B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narsapur, India, 2 (EEE, Padmasri Dr B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narsapur, India, ABSTRACT The purpose of this review is to highlight the wide array of interfaces developed so far to control wheel chairs. A preliminary study on wheel chair interfaces is presented. This is followed by various types of powered wheel chair control methods such as hand, voice, communication methods and hybrid. Wheel chair control methods for persons with reduced strength are also explained. Apart from all these topics various stair case climbing mechanisms developed are also studied. Some of the tests employed are also discussed in short. KEYWORDS: Assistive Technology, Control, Mobility, Quadriplegic, Wheel Chair 1 INTRODUCTION Spinal chord injuries lead to Quadriplegia in human beings. Quadriplegic persons are in dire need of wheel chairs. Quadriplegia has several levels from C1 to C8 depending on location of injury. The degree of paralysis increases with level of quadriplegia. According to a recent survey, 82% of men and 18% female are prone to spinal chord injuries. 47% of spinal cord injured individuals are considered quadriplegic. Approximately 11,000 new injuries occur each year. 56% of injuries occur between the ages of 16 and 30. The average age of spinal cord injured person is 31. The causes of spinal chord injuries are given in Fig. 1. 250
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Fig: 1 Causes of spinal chord injuries2 REVIEW OF VARIOUS TYPES OF WHEEL CHAIRS2.1 Preliminary study The requirement of appropriate seating for elderly staying at nursing homes wasstudied in [1]. In this paper, problems related to discomfort, mobility and posture wereexplored. Some of the concerns expressed by wheel chair users were addressed in [2] bygiving slight negative camber. Cambering is the method of angling the wheels such thatbottoms of wheels are farther apart than tops. Angle is varied from +15o to -15o and effects onnine selected variables were studied.2.2 Hand control Maneuvering of wheel chairs was made easy by bending the fingers using gloves withflex or bend sensors was explained by Akmeliawati, R etal. in [3]. Sports hand rim controlledwheel chair dynamics and musculoskeletal mechanisms were studied in [4] to prevent injuriesand optimizing performance. Functional effectiveness of different types of gloves was studiedby Mason BS etal in [5] specific for wheel chair rugby. A semi autonomous robotic system,robotic arm with persons with upper limb impairments and disability of legs was designed byMartens [6]. The user interface of this model consists of speech and flat screen interfaces. Inorder to control multi sensor intelligent wheel chairs, a force reflective feedback system wasdeveloped by Luo [7]. A Microsoft Force Feedback Pro joystick which can give input andalso simulate certain conditions such as effects of wall, shake, force etc., was used.2.3 For patients with reduced strength Among several models proposed for driving powered wheel chairs for quadriplegicpersons, legacy adapted mode was explained in [8] by Urbano. A part of formal operationmodel along with STAGE simulator evaluation where in parameters have to be tuned to eachpatient is also incorporated. He also explained a bionic approach of Artificial Intelligence toAssisted Powered Wheelchair for people with severe impairments in [9]. Electrocardiogramand skin conductance sensors were used to detect stress. Control unit has to takeenvironmental and stress data into consideration in order to trigger actuating commands.Intelligent control and navigation systems were included in robotic wheel chair named asMAid (Mobility Aid for Elderly and Disabled People)[10]. 251
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME2.4 Using communication methods Telerehabilitation consultation model for evaluation of remote wheel chairprescriptions was used to explain the methodology, development and implementation ofassistive technology service delivery protocol by teleconferencing in [11]. Live interaction ofoccupational therapist with expert therapists will enable the access of this service to remoteand rural locations. A wireless intra-oral module using zigbee protocol is explained in [12] to control notonly wheel chairs but also cursor of computer and other home appliances. This is found to bea reliable, low power and cost effective way to improve quality of spinal chord injuredpersons.2.5 Powered Wheel Chairs User friendliness study of wheel chair control interfaces for persons with severedisabilities was presented in [13]. A Microsoft® Sidewinder™ force feedback joystick 2 for apowered wheel chair was evaluated in [14] to determine displacement vectors of sixteensensors to nearest obstacles. It has been further inferred that all subjects reported fewercollisions and passage of corridor, crossing of door became much easier with feedback. In order to improve the functional mobility of people using electric powered wheelchairs a review of work done in the areas of velocity control, traction control, suspensioncontrol, stability control, stair-climbing wheelchairs, and wheelchair navigation waspresented in [15]. On similar lines, a review of assistive devices for powered wheel chairnavigation was presented by Arhsak in [16]. A new joystick interface technology wasproposed in [17] to aid persons with special needs and disabilities. A smart wheel chairdesign was explained in [18]. This employs several components such as Infrared Sensor,SONAR sensor, drop off detectors etc., to make a normal powered wheel chair as a smartwheel chair.2.6 Voice control Voice controlled powered wheel chair was proposed in [19]. Comparison ofperformance of able bodied subjects using voice to control the wheel chair with and withoutnavigation assistance was demonstrated. Another voice based wheel chair based on speechrecognition and microcontroller was explained in [20]. This was found to be simple, portableapplication with low power requirement.2.7 Hybrid control A low cost hybrid wheel chair was investigated [21] in which the electric assistportion of the design would act similarly to a wireless self-powered torque sensor, allowingfor an array of applications besides the electric assist portion of this project. Features ofvoice, eye tracking, motorized and environmentally controlled wheel chair was developed byRoberts [22]. A hybrid wheel chair for real world environment was proposed in [23]. In thispaper four robotic legs with three degree of freedom and independent steering and drivingmotors interface wheels. Wheel chair based on hybrid powering (combination of arm andelectric power) was simulated in [24]. This will result in a reduction of arm force required todrive wheel chair. The operation of push rim activated power assisted wheel chair wasstudied in [25]. In this wheel chair, human power is delivered by the arms through the pushrims while the electric power is delivered by a battery through two electric motors. 252
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME2.8 Stair climbing wheel chair Stair climbing and descent is facilitated by making front and rear wheel clustersconnected to base via powered linkages in [26]. Kinematic model of stair climbing wheelchair during ascent and descent is presented in [27]. Two decoupled mechanisms were usedin each axle. One mechanism takes care of climbing the steps and other takes care of theslope.2.9 Tests A “bedside” test of rear wheel chair stability using goniometer and plumb line wasconducted in [28] to assess static stability. In this paper the inter and intra observer reliabilityand validity in comparison with platform testing were assessed. It has been observed that“bedside” test is reliable, valid, simple and more suitable screening test to assess rearstability. Functional performance of consumers using wheel chairs as primary mobility devicewas studied in three phases [29]. Test-retest reliability and content validation of outcomestool designed to measure effective intervention on functional performance of wheel chairusers was studied in [30]. A customized mechanical and electronic braking system to eliminate safety hazardsdue to user’s limited hand functionality is studied in [31]. The system was also evaluated byminimum force test to ensure effective braking for quadriplegic users.3. CONCLUSION Inspite of the development of innumerous ways to control wheelchairs still severalnovel methods are being experimented. Some of the interfaces to control wheel chairs havebeen discussed in this paper. The information gathered in this study is meant to promoteawareness of status of existing types of powered wheel chair control technology and improvethe mobility of wheel chair users.4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I express my profound sense of gratitude for Department of Science and Technologyfor funding this project. I would also wish to thank the Management of Padmasri Dr B VRaju Institute of Technology for their cooperation.REFERENCES[1] Greg Shaw M.S. and Rehab.Eng.a & Susan Johnson Taylor O.T.R. A Survey of Wheelchair Seating Problems of the Institutionalized Elderly, Assistive Technology: The Official Journal of RESNA, 3(1), 1991, 5-10.[2] Guy Trudel M.D., R. Lee Kirby M.D & Adam C. Bell Sc.D., Mechanical Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Wheelchairs, Assistive Technology: The Official Journal of RESNA, 7(2), 1995 , 79-86.[3] Akmeliawati R, Tis F.S.B., Wani U.J., Design and development of a hand-glove controlled wheel chair, 4th International Conference on Mechatronics (ICOM) 2011, 17-19 May 2011, 1-5. 253
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME[4] Vanlandewijck Y, Theisen D, Daly D, Wheelchair Propulsion Biomechanics: Implications for Wheelchair Sports, Sports Medicine, 31(5), 1 May 2001, 339-367.[5] Mason, Barry S. van der Woude, L H.V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L, Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players, American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, July 2009, 88(7), 559-570.[6] Martens C, Ruchel N, Lang O, Ivlev O,Graser, A, A FRIEND for assisting handicapped people, IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 8(1), 57 – 65.[7] Luo R.C., Chi-Yang Hu, Tse Min Chen, Meng-Hsien Lin, Force reflective feedback control for intelligent wheelchairs, Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 1999 Volume: 2, 918 – 923.[8] Urbano M, Fonseca J, Nunes U, Figueiredo L, Lopes, A., Adaptation of powered wheelchairs for quadriplegic patients with reduced strength, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 15-18 Sept.2008, 1104 – 1107.[9] Urbano M, Fonseca J, Nunes U, Zeilinger H, Extending a smart wheelchair navigation by stress sensors, In Proceedings of IEEE 16th Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA), 5-9 Sept. 2011,1 – 4.[10] Prassler E, Scholz J, Fiorini, P , A robotics wheelchair for crowded public environment, IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, Mar 2001, 8(1), 38 – 45.[11] Richard M. Schein, Mark R. Schmeler, David Brienza, Andi Saptono, and Bambang Parmanto., Development of a Service Delivery Protocol Used for Remote Wheelchair Consultation via Telerehabilitation, Telemedicine and e-Health. November 2008, 14(9) 932-938.[12] Qiyu Peng, Budinger. T.F., “Zigbee based Wireless Intra-oral Control System for Quadriplegic patients”, In Proceedings of Annual International Conference of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 22-26 Aug. 2007, 1647 – 1650.[13] Linda Fehr, W. Edwin Langbein, Steven B . Skaar, Adequacy of power wheelchair control interfaces for persons with severe disabilities : A clinical survey, Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 37(3), May/June 2000, 353—360.[14] Fattouh A, Sahnoun M, Bourhis G, Force feedback joystick control of a powered wheelchair: preliminary study, In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 2004, 10-13 Oct. 2004, 2640 - 2645 vol.3.[15] Ding, D, Cooper, R.A. , Electric powered wheelchairs, IEEE, Control Systems, April 2005, 25(2), 22 – 34.[16] K.Arshak, D.Buckley, K. Kaneswaran, Review of Assistive Devices for Electric Powered Wheelchairs Navigation, ITB Journal, Issue 13, may 2006, 13-23.[17] Brad E. Dicianno, Rory A. Cooper, John Coltellaro, Joystick Control for Powered Mobility: Current State of Technology and Future Directions, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 21(1), 79-86.[18] Richard Simpson, Edmund LoPresti, Steve Hayashi, Illah Nourbakhsh, David Miller, The Smart Wheelchair Component System, Journal of Rehabilitation Research & development, May/June 2004, 41(3B), 429-442.[19] Simpson R.C., Levine, S.P., Voice control of a powered wheelchair, Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, June 2002, 10(2 ), 122 – 125.[20] Mohamed Fezari, Badji Mokhtar, Mounir Bousbia-salah, Mouldi Bedda, Design of a voice control system for a disabled person wheelchair, Asian Journal of Information Technology, 4(10), 940-944, 2005. 254
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME[21] Matthews, Alistair Marc, Controller & modification of a light hub-motor propelled electric wheelchair, Masters diss., Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.[22] Roberts A, Pruehsner W, Enderle, J.D., Vocal, motorized, and environmentally controlled chair, Proceedings of the IEEE 25th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, 1999. Date of Conference: 8-9 Apr 1999, 33 – 34.[23] Lawn M, Takeda T, Design of a robotic-hybrid wheelchair for operation in barrier present environments, Proceedings of the 20th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 28 Oct-1 Nov 1998, 2678 - 2681 vol.5.[24] G. B. Cremers, Hybrid-powered wheelchair: a combination of arm force and electrical power for propelling a wheelchair, Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology, 1989, 13(1-2) , 142-148.[25] Cooper R.A. , Corfman T.A, Fitzgerald S.G., Boninger M.L., Spaeth D.M., Ammer W, Arva J, Performance assessment of a pushrim-activated power-assisted wheelchair control system, Control Systems Technology, Jan 2002, 10(1), 121 – 126.[26] Lawn M.J., Ishimatsu, T.Modeling of a stair-climbing wheelchair mechanism with high single-step capability, IEEE Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, Sept. 2003, 11(3), 323 – 332.[27] R. Morales, V. Feliu, A. González, P. Pintado, Kinematic Model of a New Staircase Climbing Wheelchair and its Experimental Validation, International Journal of Robotics Research, September 2006, 25(9), 825-841.[28] Kirby RL,Kumbhare DA, MacLeod DA, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1989, 70(3), 241-244.[29] T. Mills, M. B. Holm, E. Trefler, M. Schmeler, S. Fitzgerald and M. Boninger, Development and consumer validation of the Functional Evaluation in a Wheelchair (FEW) instrument, Informa Health Care, 2002, 24(1-3), 38-46.[30] Tamara L. Mills, Margo B. Holm, Mark Schmeler, Test-Retest Reliability and Cross Validation of the Functioning Everyday With a Wheelchair Instrument, Assistive Technology: The Official Journal of RESNA, Volume 19, Issue 2, 2007, pages 61-77[31] Armstrong. P, Cox. K, Hassler. C, Sack D, A customized hand cycle brake system to improve safety and performance for quadriplegic users, Proceedings of 2011 IEEE 37 th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC), 1-3 April 2011, 1 – 2 255