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Understanding operation of shunt capacitors and oltc for transmission

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  • 1. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME344UNDERSTANDING OPERATION OF SHUNT CAPACITORS ANDOLTC FOR TRANSMISSION LOSS REDUCTIONDr. M. P. Sharma Sarfaraz NawazAEN, RVPNL, Jaipur Assoc. Prof., EE Deptt., SKIT, JaipurABSTRACTThis paper presents an understanding operation of shunt capacitor banks and OLTC invarious power system conditions for reactive power control in power transmission system toreduce transmission losses, power system elements loading and voltage control. This paperalso presents efficient use of existing shunt capacitor banks for voltage-var control in powertransmission system in order to avoid installation of new devices allowing economy ofoperation. The procedure has been simulated to the Rajasthan power transmission systemmodel having 750 buses, 6800MWsystem load and 3200MVAR capacity shunt capacitorbanks installed at various 33KV and 11KV load buses in order to verify its effectiveness.Rajasthan power system has been modeled using Mi-Power power system analysis softwaredesigned by the M/s PRDC Bangalore. Results of tests conducted on the model system invarious possible field conditions are presented and discussed. Simulation results comparedwith that obtaining using existing methods for operations of shunt capacitor banks & OLTCattach with power transformers for reactive power and voltage control are presented to showthe potential of application of the proposed methods to power system economical operation.(I) INTRODUCTIONRapid rise in load growth in the Rajasthan system led to fast expansion of theRajasthan Electrical Network. Total transmission system network at the end of financial yearfor last three years is placed at Table-1.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING& TECHNOLOGY (IJEET)ISSN 0976 – 6545(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 344-357© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijeet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.5028 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJEET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME345Table-1: Total transmission network at the end of financial yearParticulars 31-3-09 31-3-10 31-3-11400 kV S/S(Nos/MVA)4(2955) 7(3900) 9(4895)400 kVLines(ckt kms)1358 1945 2660220 kV S/S(Nos/MVA)62(11855) 66(12955) 74(15405)200 kVLines(ckt kms)9321 10067 10662132 kV S/S(Nos/MVA)280(14151) 292(15871) 310(18174)132 kVLines(ckt kms)12776 13193 13852(II) TRANSMISSION LOSSES WITHIN STATEFor Rajasthan Power System, recorded peak load (MW) & reactive power demandand transmission losses within the state in the past few years have been tabulated at Table-2.Table-2: Transmission lossess within stateFY 2007-082008-092009-102010-11Recorded peakload (MW)5564 6101 6859 7442Load ReactivePowerDemand(MVAR)4173 4575 5144 5581%Transmissionlosses4.61% 4.34% 4.43 4.40To compensate the load reactive power demand, capacitor banks have been installedat 33 kV (at 132/33 kV GSS’s), 11 kV (at 33/11 kV GSS’s) and LT voltage levels. As on31.3.2011, 3200 MVAR capacity capacitors banks have been installed in the Rajasthansystem at 33 kV voltage level. Rating of most of capacitor Banks is 5.43 MVAR at 33 kVvoltage level. At 220 kV & 132 kV substations, for voltage and power factor control twodevices are available:-• On Load Tap Changers provided on EHV Transformers• Shunt capacitor banks installed at 33 kV voltage levelWhen to operate OLTC & when the capacitor bank is big question??. Understanding andcoordinated operation of OLTC and capacitor banks results reduction in system losses,improved voltage profile and reduce MVA loading of transformers & transmission lines.
  • 3. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME346To understand impact of operation of OLTC & capacitor banks in different operatingconditions on voltage profile, system losses and MVA Loading of transformer andtransmission lines some simulation studies have been carried and presented. Rajasthan powersystem has been selected to carry out the simulation studies. Rajasthan power system hasbeen represented up to 33 kV voltage level using the Mi-Power software. Load and capacitorbanks have been lumped at 33 kV buses at 220 kV and 132 kV sub-stations. All transmissionlines above 132 kV voltage level and all 400/220 kV, 220/132 kV & 132/33 kVtransformers have been represented. 132 kV GSS Lalsot has been selected to show the effectof OLTC operation and shunt capacitor banks operation in different operatingconditions. 132 kV sub-station Lalsot is presently connected to 220 kV sub-station Dausa via35 kM long 132 kV S/C line. Details of power system Equipments installed at 132kV Lalsotare as follows:-Transformers capacity• 132/33kV 1x40/50 MVA Transformer: Total No. of taps :1-5-9, 10 % impedance• 132/33kV 1x20/25 MVA Transformer: Total No. of taps :1-5-9, 10 % impedanceCapacitor Banks Capacity• 1x5.43MVAR, 33kV Voltage Shunt Capacitor Bank-1• 1x5.43MVAR, 33kV Voltage Shunt Capacitor Bank-2• 1x5.43MVAR, 33kV Voltage Shunt Capacitor Bank-3132kV S/C Dausa- Lalsot line: 35kM(III) CASE STUDY-1: BENEFITS OF SHUNT CAPACITOR BANKSPower plots of load flow study with 45 MW, 0.80 PF load at 33 kV bus (505) isplaced at LFS Plots-1. Under this condition reactive power drawal of 33 kV Bus(505) fromGrid is approximately 20 MVAR. Power plots of LFS with 4th1x5.43 MVAR, 33 kVCapacitor Bank at 33 kV Bus(505) while other conditions are remain unchanged is placed atLFS Plots-2.Fig. :1 LFS Plot1: With three Capacitor Banks at 33 kV Bus ( 505)
  • 4. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME347Fig. 2: LFS Plot 2: With four Capacitor Banks at 33 kV Bus ( 505)Impact of 4thShunt Capacitor Banks on reactive power flow, transmission losses,system voltage and system element loading have been analyzed.• Impact on Reactive Power FlowReactive flowonWith threeCapacitor BanksWith fourCapacitor Banks132/33 kVTransformers20.99 MVAR 16.34 MVAR132kV line 22.76 MVAR 17.79 MVAR220/132kVTransformers91.09 MVAR 85.09 MVAR• Impact on voltage profileParticulars With threeCapacitorBanksWith fourCapacitorBanks33 kV bus voltage 29.21 kV 29.55 kV132 kV bus voltage 117.76 kV 118.93 kV220 kV bus voltage 214.52 kV 214.81 kV
  • 5. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME348• Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loadingParticulars With threeCapacitor BanksWith fourCapacitorBanks132/33 kV transformersloading50.05 MVA 48.17 MVA132 kV line loading 51.37 MVA 49.28 MVA220/132 kV transformersloading168.51 MVA 165.19 MVA• Impact on Transmission lossesParticulars With threeCapacitorBanksWith fourCapacitorBanksTotal losses in 132kVnetwork (Line+Tranf.)1.06 MW 0.96 MW• Saving in transmission losses in 132kV networkdue to fourth Capacitor bank : 0.10 MW• Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & abovenetwork due to fourth capacitor bank: 2.5x0.1• Saving in transmission losses in 132kV networkdue to fourth Capacitor bank : 0.10 MW• Saving in total transmission losses due to fourth capacitor bank: 0.10 + 0.25 = 0.35 MW• Yearly Energy Saving: 30.66 LUs• Saving in terms of rupees: 30.66x2.0 = Rs. 61.32 Lacs/annumThis study indicates that With 4thunit of shunt capacitor bank• Voltages of 220 kV, 132 kV & 33 kV buses have been improved• Loading on transformers & transmission line has been reduced.• Transmission losses have been reduced.Therefore, capacity of Capacitor Banks at load Bus should be comparable to Busreactive Power Demand in order to reduce the system losses and system elementsloading.(IV) CASE STUDY-2: CONTROL OF HIGH VOLTAGE BY CAPACITOR BANKSVS OLTC OPERATIONPower plots of LFS with 33 MW, 0.80 PF load at 33 kV bus(505) is placed at LFSplots-3. Under this condition voltage of 33 kV bus(505) is above the 5% of nominal voltage.This 33 kV bus high voltage can be reduced either by switching off one capacitor bank ordecreasing the transformer ratio with the help of OLTC. Power plots of LFS for voltagecontrol through one capacitor bank switching OFF and transformer tap ratio reduction is
  • 6. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME349placed at LFS plots-4 & 5 respectively. Impact of 33 kV Bus (505) voltage control throughCapacitor Bank switching (Case-1) vs OLTC operation (Case-2) on reactive power flow,transmission losses, system voltage and system element loading have been analyzed.• Impact on Reactive Power FlowReactive flowonCapacitor BankoperationOLTCOperation132/33 kVTransformers12.99 MVAR 8.12 MVAR132kV line 13.30 MVAR 8.42 MVAR220/132kVTransformers37.12 MVAR 31.62 MVAR• Impact on voltage profileParticulars CapacitorBankoperationOLTCOperation33 kV bus voltage 34.34 kV 33.34 kV132 kV bus voltage 132.70 kV 133.72 kV220 kV bus voltage 224.13 kV 224.38 kV• Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loadingParticulars CapacitorBankoperationOLTCOperation132/33 kVtransformers loading35.59 MVA 34.07 MVA132 kV line loading 35.64 MVA 34.19 MVA220/132 kVtransformers loading109.34MVA107.55MVA• Impact on Transmission lossesParticulars CapacitorBankoperationOLTCOperationTotal losses in 132kVnetwork (Line+Tranf.)0.42 MW 0.38 MW
  • 7. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME350• Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.04MW• Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & above network in Case-2 as compared toCase-1:= 2.5 x 0.04 MW = 0.10 MW• Saving in total transmission losses in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.14 MW• Yearly Energy Saving in Case-2 as compared to Case-1 for four hours: 2.04 LUs• Saving in terms of rupees: 2.04 x2.00 = Rs 4.08 lacs/annumThis study indicates that under lagging power factor of a bus, control of high bus voltagethrough switching OFF capacitor Bank instead of OLTC operation results:• Increase the reactive power flow on Transformers and Transmission lines• Increase the MVA loading on transformers & transmission lines.• Reduction in 132 kV & 220 kV voltages which may be already low in some systemconditions.• Increase the total system losses which results loss of revenue.Fig. 3: LFS Plot 3: Base Case with high 33 kV Bus (505) VoltageFig. 4: LFS Plots 4: Control of high 33 kV Bus(505) voltage through switched off oneCapacitor Bank
  • 8. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME351Fig. 5 : LFS Plot 5: Control of high 33 kV Bus(505) voltage by reduction inTransformers Tap ratio from 1.04 PU to 1.0 PUTherefore, in lagging power factor condition, high voltage of a Bus should beregulated through OLTC operation instead of switching OFF the Capacitor Banks inorder to reduce the system losses and system elements loading.(V) CASE STUDY-3: OPTIMUM UTILIZATION OF CAPACITOR BANKSPower plots of LFS with 45 MW, 0.80 PF load at 33 kV bus(505) is placed at LFSplots-6. Under this condition• Voltage of 33 kV bus(505) is 27.74 kV• Reactive power flow on 132 kV transformers is 22.24 MVAR• 132/33 kV Transformers tap position is 1.0 PU• Capacitor banks are injecting 13.65 MVAR against the 16.29 MVAR connectedcapacity.Now transformer ratio of 132/33 kV transformers connected to 33 kV Bus(505) is increasedfrom 1.0 PU (Case-1) to 1.05 PU (1/0.95) (Case-2) while other system conditions remainunchanged. Power plots of LFS with increase transformers ratio is placed at LFS plots-7.Impact of rise in transformer tap ratio on reactive power flow, transmission losses, systemvoltage and system element loading have been analyzed.• Impact on Reactive Power FlowReactive flow on TransformerRatio:1.00PUTransformerRatio:1.05PUOutput of CapacitorBanks connected toBus(505)13.65 MVAR 15.48 MVAR132/33 kVTransformers23.94 MVAR 21.57 MVAR132kV line 24.48 MVAR 21.98 MVAR220/132kVTransformers84.89 MVAR 81.92 MVAR
  • 9. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME352• Impact on voltage profileParticulars TransformerRatio:1.00PUTransformerRatio:1.05PU33 kV bus voltage 30.22 kV 32.18 kV132 kV bus voltage 125.46 kV 126.01 kV220 kV bus voltage 226.10 kV 226.23 kV• Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loadingParticulars TransformerRatio:1.00PUTransformerRatio:1.05PU132/33 kVtransformers loading51.13 MVA 50.05 MVA132 kV line loading 52.21 MVA 51.02 MVA220/132 kVtransformersloading165.01 MVA 163.42 MVA• Impact on Transmission lossesParticulars TransformerRatio:1.00PU(Case-1)TransformerRatio:1.05PU(Case-2)Total lossesin 132kVnetwork(Line+Tranf.)1.12 MW 1.05 MW• Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.07MW• Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & above network in Case-2 as compared toCase-1:= 2.5 x 0.07 MW = 0.175 MW• Saving in total transmission losses in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.245 MW• Yearly Energy Saving in Case-2 as compared to Case-1 for four hours: 3.57 LUs• Saving in terms of rupees: 3.57 x2.00 = Rs 7.14 lacs/annumThis study indicates that rise in transformer tap ratiounder low load bus voltage condition increase the output of the connected capacitor bankswhich results:• Decrease the reactive power flow on Transformers and Transmission lines• Decrease the MVA loading on transformers & transmission lines.• Increase the 33 kV, 132 kV & 220 kV voltages which may be already low in somesystem conditions..• Decrease the total system losses.
  • 10. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME353Fig. 6 :LFS Plot 6: 1.0 PU tap ratio of 132/33 kV Transformers connected to 33 kVBus(505)Fig. 7 : LFS Plot 7: 1.05 (1/0.95) PU tap ratio of 132/33 kV Transformers connected to33 kV Bus(505)Therefore, load bus voltage should be maintained near to nominal with the variation oftransformer ratio using OLTC unit for optimum utilization of Shunt Capacitor Banksto reduce the system losses.(VI) CASE STUDY-4: EFFECT OF OLTC OPERATION OF 220/132 KVTRANSFORMERS ON TRANSMISSION LOSSESPower plots of LFS with total 148 MW, 0.80 PF load connected to 33 kV Buses No.501, 502, 504 and 505 is placed at LFS plots-8. Under this condition• Voltages of 33 kV buses is poor, therefore, output of capacitor banks is below to theirrated capacity• Voltages of 132 kV buses is also poor• Tap position of 220/132 kV transformers is 1.0 PUNow transformer ratio of 220/132 kV transformers connected to 132 kV Bus (101) isincreased from 1.0 PU (Case-1) to 1.04 PU (1/0.96) (Case-2) while other system conditionsremain unchanged. Power plots of LFS with increase transformers ratio is placed at LFSplots-9. Impact of rise in 220/132 kV transformer tap ratio on reactive power flow,transmission losses, system voltage and system element loading have been analyzed.
  • 11. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME354• Impact on Reactive Power FlowReactive flow on TransformerRatio:1.00PUTransformerRatio:1.04PUReactive powerinjection by theConnectedCapacitor banks atvarious 33 Buses35.97MVAR40.57 MVAR220/132kVTransformers112.21 MVAR 100.94 MVAR• Impact on voltage profileParticulars TransformerRatio:1.0PUTransformerRatio:1.04PU132 kV bus voltage 126.66 kV 136.06 kV220 kV bus voltage 213.41 kV 213.96 kV• Impact on Transformers and transmission lines loadingParticulars TransformerRatio:1.00PUTransformerRatio:1.04PU220/132 kVtransformersloading188.97 MVA 182.00 MVA• Impact on Transmission lossesParticulars TransformerRatio:1.00PU(Case-1)TransformerRatio:1.04PU(Case-2)Total losses in132kV networkof 220 kV GSS5.50 MW 4.78 MW• Saving in transmission losses in 132kV network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 0.72 MW• Saving in transmission losses in 220kV & above network in Case-2 as compared to Case-1:= 2.5 x 0.72 MW = 1.80 MW• Saving in total transmission losses in Case-2 as compared to Case-1: 2.52 MW• Yearly Energy Saving in Case-2 as compared to Case-1 for four hours: 36.79 LUs• Saving in terms of rupees: 36.79 x2.00 = Rs 73.58 lacs/annumThis study indicates that rise in transformer tap ratioof 220/132 kV transformers under low voltage condition increase the output of the connectedcapacitor banks which results:• Decrease the reactive power flow on Transformers and Transmission lines• Decrease the MVA loading on transformers & transmission lines.• Increase the 33 kV, 132 kV & 220 kV voltages which may be already low in some systemconditions..• Decrease the total system losses.
  • 12. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME355Fig. 8: LFS Plot8: 1.0 PU Transformer ratio of 220/132 kV Transformers connectedto 132 kV Bus(101)Fig. 9 : LFS Plot 9: 1.04 PU (1/0.96) Transformer ratio of 220/132 kV Transformersconnected to 132 kV Bus(101)Therefore, voltage of 132 kV Bus at 220 kV sub-stations should be maintained near tonominal with the operation of OLTC to increase the output of connected capacitorbanks to reduce the system losses and system elements loading.(VII) CONCLUSIONUnderstanding operation of Shunt Capacitor Banks and OLTC in different operatingconditions results:-• Reduction of reactive power flow on transmission lines and transformers• Reduction of loading of transmission lines and transformers• Improve the transmission system voltage• Reduction of transmission system lossesTherefore, understanding operations should be performed on Capacitor Banks and OLTCattached with transformers in different operating conditions. Capacitor banks are the means tocompensate load reactive power demand to the bus (the load bus) to which these areconnected so as to restrict flow of reactive power from the sending bus to the load bus.Therefore, in order to reduce the system losses and system elements loading
  • 13. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME356• Capacity of Capacitor Banks at load Buses should be comparable to Bus reactive PowerDemand• The shunt capacitors are required to be kept ‘ON’ till the reactive component of the load(which is generally inductive) is more than the reactive power injected by the shuntcapacitors i.e. power factor of the load bus is lagging.• Output of the capacitor banks is squarely proportional to system voltage where capacitorbank is connected therefore load bus voltage should be maintained near to nominal formaximum utilization of connected capacitor banks.REFERENCE1. R.F. Cook, “Optimizing the application of Shunt Capacitor for Reactive Volt-AmpereControl and Loss Reduction” IEEE Trans. On Power Delivery, Vol. 80, Aug. 1999,pp:430-4442. B. V. Vidhute, Dr. H. P. Inamdar, and S.A. Deokar, “Maximum Loss Reduction byOptimal Placement of Capacitors on a Distribution System” Power India Conference,2008, IEEE, pp: 1-3.3. Bei Gou “Optimal Capacitor Placement for improving Power quality, PowerEngineering Society Summer Meeting, IEEE, 1999, PP-488-492.4. H. Kim, S-K. You, “Voltage Profile Improvement by capacitor Placement and control inunbalanced distribution Systems using GA”, IEEE power Engineering Society SummerMeeting, 1999, Vol. 2, pp. 18-22.5. J. B. V. SUBRAHMANYAM, “Optimal Capacitor Placement in Unbalanced RadialDistribution Networks” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology,Vol6. No1. (pp 106 - 115)6. M. H. Shwehdi, A. Mantawi , S. Selim, A “Capacitor Placement In DistributionSystems, A New Formulation”7. IEEE Bolgona Power Tech. Conference, June 23-26, 2003 Chun Wang and Hao ZhongCheng, “Reactive power optimization by plant growth simulation algorithm,” IEEETrans. on Power Systems, Vol.23, No.1, pp. 119-126, Feb. 20088. Suresh Kamble, and Dr. Chandrashekhar Thorat, “Characterization of Voltage Sag Dueto Balanced and Unbalanced Faults in Distribution Systems”, International Journal ofElectrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 197 - 209,ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553.9. Om Prakash Mahela and Sheesh Ram Ola, “Optimal Placement and Sizing of HT ShuntCapacitors for Transmission Loss Minimization and Voltage Profile Improvement: TheCase of Rrvpnl Power Grid”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering &Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 261 - 273, ISSN Print : 0976-6545,ISSN Online: 0976-6553.10. S.Neelima and Dr. P.S.Subramanyam, “Effect of Load Levels on Sizing and Location ofCapacitors in Distribution Systems”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering &Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 31 - 42, ISSN Print : 0976-6545,ISSN Online: 0976-6553.
  • 14. International Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology (IJEET), ISSN 0976 –6545(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6553(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME357BIOGRAPHIESDr. M. P. Sharma received the B.E. degree in Electrical Engineeringin 1996 Govt. Engineering College, Kota, Rajasthan and M.Techdegree in Power Systems in 2001 and Ph.D. degree in 2009 fromMalaviya Regional Engineering College, Jaipur (Now name as MNIT).He is presently working as Assistant Engineer, Rajasthan Rajya VidhyutPrasaran Nigam Ltd., Jaipur. He is involved in the system studies ofRajasthan power system for development of power transmission system in Rajasthan andplanning of the power evacuation system for new power plants. His research interestincludes Reactive Power Optimization, Power System Stability, reduction of T&D losses andprotection of power system.Sarfaraz Nawaz has received his B.E. degree from University ofRajasthan and M.Tech. degree from MNIT, Jaipur. His research interestsinclude power systems and power electronics. He is currently an AssociateProfessor of the Electrical Engg. Dept., Swami Keshvanand Institute ofTechnology, Management and Gramothan (SKIT), Jaipur, Rajasthan.