International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) ...
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Theoretical analysis of compression ignition engine performance fuelled with

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Theoretical analysis of compression ignition engine performance fuelled with

  1. 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 366 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE PERFORMANCE FUELLED WITH HONGE OIL AND ITS BLENDS WITH ETHANOL Sanjay Patil Associate Professor, Department of Automobile Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Bidar- Karnataka ABSTRACT In this work, a simulation model based on first law of thermodynamics is used for analyzing the performance of compression ignition engine fuelled with diesel, straight honge oil and its blends with ethanol. A Double wiebe’s function is used for computing heat release rate (premixed and diffusive phase of combustion separately). A Range-kutta fourth order algorithm is used to calculate temperature at every crank angle during combustion phenomenon. In present investigation, neat honge oil and its different blends with ethanol namely straight honge oil (H100), HE80 (80% honge oil and 20% ethanol), HE70 (70% honge oil and 30% ethanol) and HE60 (60% honge and 40% ethanol) are used as test fuels. It is observed that brake thermal efficiency with HE70 is higher than other test fuels, however it is lower than diesel at all load conditions. Results of model (BTE & EGT) for HE70 are validated by conducting experiments and it is found that the simulated values are in closer approximation with experimental results. Key words: simulation, compression ignition engine, honge oil, oxides of nitrogen. 1. INTRODUCTION The demand for energy around the world is continuously increasing due to rapid industrial and automotive growth. Provisional estimate indicates that the crude oil consumption in India in 2007-08 was about 156 million tones and Indian domestic crude oil production meets about 23% of the demand, while the rest is met by import [1]. Soaring oil prices and increase in petroleum oil demand puts heavy financial burden on economies of oil deficient countries due to import of huge amount of crude oil. This has prompted many researchers worldwide to search for alternative energy sources which can reduce the dependency on fossil fuel. Great focus is made on use of bio-fuels, as they are renewable and less polluting due to their closed carbon dioxide cycle. The straight vegetable oils have high viscosity and poor volatility which results in lower thermal efficiency and higher INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013), pp. 366-372 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJMET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 367 hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions, etc [2]. The problem of high viscosity and poor volatility of straight vegetable oil can be overcome by converting it to a fuel with properties very close to diesel fuel. Pre- heating, blending the vegetable oil with diesel or alcohol and converting it to biodiesel by trans-esterification etc. can be used to reduce the viscosity of vegetable oils. [3] used diesel- biodiesel- ethanol blend for operating diesel engine and they found that the calorific value, cetane number and flash point blend was lower than diesel. Significant reduction in emissions like CO and HC and increase in NOx at high engine load were observed compared to diesel. [4] conducted performance and emissions test on four stroke, four cylinder indirect diesel engine fuelled with emulsion of diesel with 10% and 15% ethanol and propanol was used as emulsifier to avoid phase separation. This investigation shows that ethanol addition to diesel reduces the carbon monoxide, soot and SO2 emissions and increases the NOx emissions. [5] Studied the effect of addition of water containing ethanol in blend of ethanol-biodiesel and diesel. In this study, 4 v% water containing ethanol is mixed with (65-90%) diesel using (95-30%) biodiesel and 1 v % butanol as stabilizer and co-solvent respectively. These fuels were tested against those of bio-diesel– diesel fuel blends to investigate effect of addition of water containing ethanol on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine operated generator set. Addition of water containing ethanol resulted in slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and reduction in oxides of nitrogen. [6] Investigated use diesel- ethanol blend for running diesel engine. Palm stearin methyl ester was added to ethanol in diesel blend to improve the solubility. Addition of ethanol upto 30% shows lower brake specific fuel consumption and higher brake thermal efficiency as compared to diesel. Higher HC and CO emissions and lower nitric oxide and smoke emissions were observed with blends as compared to diesel. [7] conducted performance and emission tests on diesel engine to evaluate the effects of addition of ethanol to diesel. During their investigations, various blends of diesel and ethanol (5% and 10% ethanol and remaining diesel) were used for operating the engine. They observed that increase in proportion of ethanol in blend increases the specific fuel consumption and slight increase in brake thermal efficiency. With ethanol- diesel blends, Smoke density, NOx and CO emissions were reduced as compared to diesel, this reduction being higher the higher the percentage of ethanol in blend. However hydrocarbon emissions were increased with increase in ethanol percentage in blend. In present investigation, the concept of ethanol addition to vegetable oil to reduce the viscosity of honge oil is considered. Neat honge oil (H100), various blends of honge oil and ethanol namely HE80 (20% ethanol and 80% honge oil), HE70 (30% ethanol and 70% honge oil) and 30% ethanol and HE60 (40% ethanol and 60% honge oil) used in the present investigation. As Simulation analysis can yield valuable information about the effect of fuel type and engine operating conditions on the combustion process, engine performance and emissions, a theoretical model based on first law of thermodynamics developed by the author of this paper is used[9]. 2. SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 2.1 Simulation Simulation model is based on First law of thermodynamics and programmed in MATLAB for numerical solution of the equations. This model simulates the compression and expansion process with ideal gas equation and polytropic process. An ignition delay is computed using an empirical formula developed by Hardenberg and Hase[10]. A Double wiebe function is used for predicting the rate of heat release during premixed and diffusion phase of combustion separately [11]. The heat transfer is calculated based on Hohenberg’s equation [12]. The model predicts peak cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas temperature and emissions like NOx and soot density etc., for all the test fuels.
  3. 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 368 2.2 Experimental setup Experimental results with TV-1, stationary, single cylinder, water cooled, variable compression ratio diesel engine developing 3.5 kW at 1500 rpm are used for model validation. The engine is coupled to a water cooled eddy current dynamometer for loading. Thermocouples are used for measurement of coolant and exhaust gas temperature. An air box with water manometer is used to measure air flow rate. A differential pressure transmitter is used for measurement of fuel consumption. The cylinder pressure data is recorded by using piezoelectric transducer. The engine specifications and fuel properties used for present analysis are shown in table 1 and 2 respectively. Table 1. Engine Specifications Table 2. Fuel Properties Parameter Specification Type Four stroke direct injection single cylinder VCR diesel engine Software used Engine soft Injector opening pressure 200 bar Rated power 3.5 kW @1500 rpm Cylinder diameter 87.5 mm Stroke 110 mm Compression ratio 17.5:1 Injection timing 23 degree before TDC Properties Diesel (D0) Honge (H100) Ethanol Viscosity in Cst (at 30°C) 4.25 40.25 1.2 Flash point(°C) 79 40 21 Fire point(°C) 85 47 25 Calorific value (kJ/kg) 42000 37200 27569 Specific gravity 0.830 0.925 0.78
  4. 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 369 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure.1 BTE v/s Load Figure.2 BSEC v/s Load Figure.3 EGT v/s Load Figure.4 NOx v/sLoad Figure.5 Soot v/s Load 0.00E+00 2.00E-07 4.00E-07 6.00E-07 8.00E-07 1.00E-06 1.20E-06 1.40E-06 1.60E-06 1.80E-06 0 25 50 75 100 soot(gm/m^3) Load (%) D0 H100 HE80 HE70 HE60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 25 50 75 100 BrakeSpecificEnergy Consumption(MJ/kW-hr) Load (%) D0 H100 HE80 HE70 HE600 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 25 50 75 100 BrakeThermalEfficiency(%) Load (%) D0 H100 HE80 HE70 HE60 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 25 50 75 100 NOx(ppm) Load (%) D0 H100 HE80 HE70 HE60 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 25 50 75 100 ExhaustGasTemperature(°c) Load(%) D0 H100 H80 H70 H60
  5. 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 370 Figure 1 shows the comparison of brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with load for different test fuels. For all test fuels, the brake thermal efficiency increases with increase in load due to lower heat losses at higher loads. It is noticed that at full load the brake thermal efficiency with H100, HE80, HE70, HE60 and diesel is about 21.15%, 22.47%, 23.23%, 21.35% and 24.98% respectively. The reason for lower thermal efficiency with H100 is due to its higher viscosity, lower calorific value and poor volatility which results in injection of larger droplets which in turn results in poor combustion and lower thermal efficiency. The addition of ethanol to vegetable oil reduces the viscosity of the fuel, increases volatility and the inherent oxygen in ethanol improves the combustion phenomenon. HE80 and HE70 shows higher brake thermal efficiency as compared to HE100. Further increase of percentage of ethanol in blend reduces the calorific valve of fuel, takes more amount of fuel to develop same power, and hence the brake thermal efficiency with HE60 is reduced. Figure 2 shows variation of brake specific energy consumption with load for various test fuels. The brake specific energy consumption (BSEC) decreases with increase in load with all the test fuels due to better combustion and lower heat losses. It is observed that the BSEC with neat vegetable oil (H100) at full load is 16.23 MJ/kW-hr which is highest among all the test fuels. This may be due to lower calorific value, higher viscosity and poor atomization of H100. With HE70, at full load, the BSEC is 14.70 MJ/kW-hr which is lower as compared to H100. At full load HE60 shows BSEC of 15.85 MJ/kW-hr which is higher than HE70. This increase in BSEC with HE60 due to reduction in calorific value of the blend, lower heat release rate and more energy consumption. Figure 3 indicates variation in exhaust gas temperature for various test fuels with load. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increases with increase in load for all the tested fuels. This increase in EGT is due the fact that at higher load, extra amount of fuel is injected to develop more power. H100 shows highest exhaust gas temperature as compared to diesel and various honge-ethanol blends. The reason for higher EGT is poor atomization of vegetable oil due to higher viscosity which causes slow combustion and part of the oil supplied may burn late in cycle. Lower exhaust gas temperature with blends is due to the better combustion and lower heat losses in exhaust gases. Figure 4 indicates variation in oxides of nitrogen emissions for various test fuels with load. A lower oxide of nitrogen emission with H100 is observed due to poor combustion. Addition of ethanol (upto 30%) to honge oil results in improvement in combustion phenomenon which causes slight increase in NOx emissions. Dilution of honge oil with 40% ethanol results in lower NOx emissions as compared to HE70 due to net reduction in heat release because of lower calorific value of the blend. Figure 5 shows comparison of smoke density for various test fuels with load. Highest smoke density is observed with H100 as compared to other test fuels. Lower smoke density with honge oil– ethanol blends is observed due to improvement in combustion process and reduction in fuel rich regions in combustible mixture. 4. MODEL VALIDATION The theoretical results predicted with simulation model for brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature for HE70 at various loads is validated by conducting experimental investigation. It is observed that the predicted results are in closer agreement with experimental results (Figure 6 and 7)
  6. 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 371 Figure.6 comparison of experimental and Figure.7 comparison of experimental and simulated brake thermal efficiency for HE70 simulated exhaust gas temperature for HE70 5. CONCLUSION Based on the results and discussions following conclusions are drawn • Use of neat honge oil results in inferior engine performance as compared to its blends with ethanol. • Among all blends, highest brake thermal efficiency is observed with HE70. • Reduction in brake thermal efficiency with HE60 as compared to HE70 is observed due reduction in calorific value. • Increase in percentage of ethanol in the blend reduces the exhaust gas temperature. • Increase in NOx and reduction in soot emissions are observed with honge – ethanol blends as compared to neat honge oil. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my gratitude to my guide Dr. M. M. Akarte, National Institute of Industrial Engineering Mumbai-India for his valuable advice and guidance throughout this work. I would also like to thank my daughters Shreya patil and Tanvi patil for supporting me during this work. REFERENCES [1] National Policy on Biofuels Ministry of New & Renewable Energy, Government of India. [2] Recep Altin, Selim C etinkaya, Huseyin Serdar, Yucesu, The potential of using vegetable oil fuels as fuel for diesel engines Energy Conversion and Management 42 (2001) 529-538. [3] Prommes Kwanchareon, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai, Samai Jai-In. “Solubility of a diesel– biodiesel–ethanol blend, its fuel properties, and its emission characteristics from diesel engine” Fuel, Volume 86, Issues 7–8, May 2007, pp 1053–1061. [4] Ozer Can, Ismet Celikten, Nazim Usta. “Effects of ethanol addition on performance and emissions of a turbocharged indirect injection Diesel engine running at different injection pressures”. Energy Conversin and Management. Vol.45, Issue 15-16, pp 2429-2440. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 25 50 75 100 Exhaustgastemperature(°C) Laod (%) HE70_exp HE70_simu 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 25 50 75 100 Brakethermalefficiency(%) Load (%) HE70_exp HE70_simu
  7. 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 4, July - August (2013) © IAEME 372 [5] Wen-Jhy Lee, Yi-Cheng Liu, Francis Kimani, M wangi,Wei-hsin Chen, Sheng-Lun. “Assessment of energy performance and air pollutant emission in a diesel engine generator fueled with water containing ethanol-biodiesel- diesel blends of fuels”. Energy, Vol.36, Issue 9. pp. 5591-5599. [6] Donepudi Jagadish, Puli Ravi Kumar and K. Madhu Murthy. “The effect of supercharging on performance and emission characteristics of compression ignition engine with diesel – ethanol-Ester blends”. Thermal Science, Vol.15. no.4, pp 1165-1174. [7] D.C.Rakopoulos, C.D.Rakopoulos.E.C. Kakaras and E.G.Giakounis. “Effects of ethanol- diesel fuel blends n the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine”. Energy Conversion and Management. 49(2008).pp 3155-3162. [8] Jamil Ghojel, Damon Honnery. “Heat release model for the combustion of diesel oil emulsions in DI diesel engines”. Applied Thermal Engineering 25, 2072–2085, 2005. [9] Sanjay Patil, “Theoretical Investigation on Performance and Combustion Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled With Honge Oil and Palm Oil Methyl Ester”. 2nd International Conference on Advancements in Engineering and Management. Organized by Royal Institute of Technology and Science, chavela, 27&28 feb-2013. pp 295-298. [10] J.B. Heywood (1988), “Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals”, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0- 07-100499-8. [11] Colin R. Ferguson and Allan T.Kirkpatrick, Internal Combustion Engines Applied Thermo sciences, second edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [12] Ganesan, V (2000), Computer simulation of Compression-Ignition engine processes, University Press(India) Ltd., Hyderabad, India. [13] Lijo P Varghese, Rajiv Saxena and Dr. R.R. Lal, “Analysis of the Effect of Nozzle Hole Diameter on CI Engine Performance using Karanja Oil-Diesel Blends”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 79 - 88, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [14] Manu Ravuri, D.Harsha Vardhan, V.Ajay and M.Rajasekharreddy, “Experimental Investigations and Comparison of DI Diesel Engine Working on Jatropha Bio-Diesel and Jatropha Crude Oil”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 24 - 31, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359. [15] Z. Ahmed and D. K. Mahanta, “Exergy Analysis of a Compression Ignition Engine”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 633 - 642, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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