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The novel techniques for data dissemination in vehicular The novel techniques for data dissemination in vehicular Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME264THE NOVEL TECHNIQUES FOR DATA DISSEMINATION INVEHICULAR NETWORKS TO TRIUMPH OVER BROADCASTSTORM PROBLEMMohd Umar Farooq Dr .Khaleel Ur Rahman KhanDept of Information Technology Dept of Comp Science & EnggMuffakham Jah College of Engg & Tech. ACE Engineering CollegeHyderbad,India Hyderabad, IndiaABSTRACTVehicular Ad-hoc networks are a mechanism for establishing inter-vehicular and road tovehicle communication which is mostly required in avoiding vehicular collisions. Several solutionshave been proposed to establish an efficient and reliable network. The challenging part of the ad-hocnetworks is routing along with traffic control and protocol design. In this paper we present Threestrategies for an effective and simple mechanism for inter vehicular and road to vehiclecommunication (V2V and R2V). In the proposed solution we also control the number of packetstransmitted by each node in the network. The number of packets transmitted by each node is not fixedbut dynamic and is transmitted at R.P.M(Rotations per Minute) rate and vincenty’s formula on ns-2.Keywords: Vehicular AdHoc Networks, RSU, Intelligent Transportaion SystemsI. INTRODUCTIONAd-hoc Network is a collection of communicating nodes over wireless links with base stationacting as an administrator. Here each node acts as a host and a router as well. Each node transmitsinformation about its position, speed and heading direction to its neighbor nodes and also to theroadside base stations. In Vanets, each node takes a routing decision to forward the packet it received.Many routing protocols (DSDV, Heuristic protocol, Greedy protocol, Flooding) have been proposedto make a node choose an optimized path to route the packet with less amount of delay and requiringlower bandwidth. Vanets provide efficient mechanism for inter vehicular and road to vehiclecommunication which helps us in tracing the exact location of a node at any point of time. In case ofcollision the network intimates the other vehicles to avoid secondary collisions. In deploying a vanetnework the challenging part that a designer faces is to design an efficient routing protocol with no orless packet congestion, high reliability and minimum delay. In this paper, a protocol is proposedwhich provides a mechanism of data exchange between a node and a road side unit(RSU). TrafficINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, April 2013, pp. 264-272© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME265congestion is also taken care of by minimizing the number of packets transmitted by each node attimes. The following figure is a schematic representation and topology of the nodes under two basestations.Fig (a): Topology of the nodes under two RSUsV2V and R2V communication is clearly depicted in the above figure. Further the area covered by twobase stations is disjoint. As shown in the figure cluster1 is the area covered by the base station1 andcluster2 is the area covered by base station2. Here each node i.e., each vehicle is in the vicinity ofonly one particular base station at any point of time and transmits the packets to only one base station.No two base stations can have a common vehicle in their proximities. Later in the report we present aprotocol which demonstrates how the vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to road side unit communicationstakes place.II. LIFETIME OF A PACKET IN NETWORKIn our proposed solution, each node broadcasts its packet to every other node which are in itstransmission range and each node upon receiving the packet, broadcasts the packet to other. Thisprocess continues till the packet reaches the base station. To meet the criteria that no node is in thevicinity of more than one base station, a hop count is fixed with each packet sent. The hop count fixedlimits the life of the packet in the network so that the packet is discarded before it is received by anynode in the adjacent cell.III. VELOCITY OF PACKETS AND TRAFFIC MINIMIZATIONWe present a mechanism where packet transfer rate of a node is not fixed by dynamic andchanges proportionally to its RPM(Rotations Per Minute). By measuring the r.p.m of the wheel wecan not only determine the distance the vehicle covers in certain time but also the duration for whichit is going to be in the vicinity of the base station and thus vary the velocity of the packets it transmits.Therefore Velocity of the packets = k (r.p.m) of a node.With the above mechanism, we control the number of packets transmitted by a node unlikethe other mechanisms where each node transmits packets at a constant rate which adds to trafficcongestion. The key idea here is “fast moving vehicles transmit and notify their position morefrequently than the slow moving vehicles” because RSU is more certain about a slow movingvehicle’s position than a faster ones. . Fast moving vehicle has to send the packets at higher rate sothat RSU is updated about its current position. Slow moving vehicle need not send the packets at thesame rate as RSU is more certain about its position since the node is going to be in its vicinity for alonger time. With this mechanism number of packets in the network is minimized and therebyavoiding traffic congestion RPM of the node is constantly monitored to check whether the vehicle isaccelerating or decelerating and accordingly its flood rate is determined.
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME266IV. V2V COMMUNICATION AND CALCULATION OF INTER VEHIULAR DISTANCEWhen a particular node broadcasts a packet, it is received by its neighbors who forward thepacket further until it reaches the base station. When a node receives a packet it calculates the distancebetween it and sender by measuring the difference between the received and transmitted power whichis inversely proportional to the separation distance and if the distance between the vehicles is less thancertain threshold the receiver then immediately intimates the sender about the imminent event thatthey are about to collide. Vehacol [2] is the protocol that calculates the inter vehicular distance bymeasuring the difference between the received and transmitted power.The acknowledgement may also include the push data like weather and traffic information tothe node in reply. The following data flow diagrams shown below will throw light on R2Vcommunication.Fig (b): First packet that a node broadcast Fig (c): First packet lost packet lostAs shown in Fig (c), when a node sends the first packet to the base station, it waits for theacknowledgement for certain time and when the timer is out it considers that the packet is lost andretransmits the packet by changing its sequence number so the packet is not discarded by its neighborsconsidering it as a duplicate packet.Fig (d): Acknowledgement lost Fig (e): Packet Lost
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME267Fig (c) is similar to Fig (d), here after the sender sends the packet, waits for anacknowledgement and retransmits the packet if it doesn’t receive a packet after certain time. This isagain same as the sender is sending the first packet but with a changed sequence number to avoidpacket being discarded by its neighbors.The above figure shows the state where base station sends an acknowledgement to the sendernode and waits for the succeeding packets. The time slot is set in such a way that a packet of slowestmoving vehicle is received before the time is out. If the base station doesn’t receive any succeedingpacket, it sends a request packet to the sender and waits for the reply. If the node is still in the cellarea of the base station, it retransmits the last packet with changed sequence number. It can also senda new packet with current information about the node as retransmitting the old packet is sending theinformation about past time. sends a request packet and waits for the reply for same time slot and if itdoesn’t receive any reply it considers that the node is no more in its vicinity and removes its entryfrom the table. If the base station is equipped with GPS, when it sees a new node entering its cell area,it can push a packet requesting details about the node. With this, the base station need not wait until anew node broadcasts a message to it. It can immediately make a table entry of the new node. If thebase stations are equipped with GPS, hand off between the node and base station can be implementedusing MAHO (Mobile Assisted Hand Off).V. AREA COVERED BY A RSU AT JUNCTIONSThe area covered by base stations along a straight path is more than the base stations locationat junctions. The circle shown in the figure is the area covered by base station 1 which is small whencompared to other base stations around whose cell area is not shown in the figure.Fig (f): The circle shows the area covered by the RSUVI. STRATEGY FOR IMPLEMENTING VINCENTY’S APPROACH FOR DATADISSEMINATION IN VANETSJAS is the solution which we propose to solve the broadcast storm problem. In this approachthe victimized vehicle send a message to the nearest vehicle and the roadside equipment. The nearestvehicle can be calculated using the Vincenty’s formula, which is used to calculate the distancebetween two vehicles using its latitudes and longitudes. These values areobtained from the vehiclesGPS system (we assume that every vehicle is equipped with GPS system).The infrastructure sends amessage over the network about a new alert message and waits for a request from any of the vehicles.If a vehicle asks for the message, the infrastructure responds to the request by sending the alertmessage.When the car receives the message it just forwards it to the nearest car in its range (usingVincenty’s formula). The car stores any message received in its buffer. If a car gets a message from acar and as well as from the infrastructure it checks both the message and if the messages are same oneof the message would be deleted and the other message is stored and broadcasted. If the messages aredifferent the latest message is saved for rebroadcast.From the figure, the victimized vehicle A broadcast the message about the incident to thenearest car and the infrastructure. Using Vincenty’s formula we find that vehicle B is closer to A and
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME268the message is send to it. The infrastructure waits for a request from a vehicle. The message isforwarded on the basis of the distance from the current vehicle. The tick mark specifies the vehiclesthat get the messages for broadcast.DESIGN PRINCIPLESA. AlgorithmThe algorithm for JAS is given below:Step 1: Start.Step 2: The victimized vehicle v has to send the message to infrastructure i and the nearestvehicle v’ Step 3: Run JASSend message to nearest vehicle calculated from the nearest vehicleand the distance is calculated using the Vincenty’s formula (Given after the algorithm).i) if (vehicle=v) thensend message to infrastructure i;Step 4: i broadcasts a message to all vehicle about a newalert message and wait for a response. If response is received the message is send to the requested carand again i will wait.Step 5: The car v’ runs JAS and send the message to the nearest car.Step 6: If a car receives two messages from the infrastructure as well as from another car the messageis checked.Step 7: if (messages are same) thenDelete one of the messages and store one in the buffer for rebroadcast.Else if (messages are different) thenDelete the first message received from carAnd store the latest one for broadcast.Step 8: Stop.B. Vincenty’s formulaThe code for the particularVincenty’s formula is provided below:a, b = major & minor semi axes of the ellipsoidf = flattening (a−b)/aφ1, φ2 = geodetic latitudeL = difference in longitudeU1 = atan ((1−f).tanφ1) (U is ‘reduced latitude’)U2 = atan ((1−f).tanφ2)λ = L (first approximation)
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME269Note: Vincenty observes that eqn. (18) becomes indeterminate over equatorial lines (since cos²α → 0);in this case, set cos2σm to 0 and the result is computed correctly. He also points out that the formulamay have no solution between two nearly antipodal points; an iteration limit traps this case (Vincentysays “this will occur when λ, as computed by eqn. (11), is greater than π in absolute value”, but this isnot always a reliable test).Note: some implementations of Vincenty’s formula inefficiently use a large number of trig functions;Vincenty devised this solution with an eye for efficiency in implementation, and this one uses just oneeach of sin, cos, sqrt, and atan2 for each iteration – only 3 or 4 iterations are generally required.[Formulation updated Dec 05 to make it closer to Vincenty’s original and computationally moreefficient.]note that to locate latitude/longitude points on these ellipses, they are associated with specificdatums: for instance, OSGB36 for Airy in the UK, ED50 for Int’l 1924 in Europe; WGS-84 definesa datum as well as an ellipse. See my convert coordinates page for converting points betweendifferent datums. Some of the terms involved are explained in Ed Williams’ notes on SpheroidGeometry.Test case (from Geoscience Australia), using WGS-84:Flinders Peak 37°57′03.72030″S, 144°25′29.52440″EBuninyong 37°39′10.15610″S, 143°55′35.38390″ES 54 972.271 mα1 306°52′05.37″α2 127°10′25.07″ (≡ 307°10′25.07″ p1→p2)Notes:• Trig functions take arguments in radians, so latitude, longitude, and bearings in degrees(either decimal or degrees/minutes/seconds) need to be converted to radians, rad = π.deg/180.When converting radians back to degrees (deg = 180.rad/π), West is negative if using signeddecimal degrees. For bearings, values in the range -π to +π [-180° to +180°] need to beconverted to 0 to +2π [0°–360°]; this can be done by(brng+ 2.π)%2.π [brng+ 360)%360] where % is the modulo operator.• The atan2 () function used here takes two arguments, atan2(y, x), and computes the arctangent of the ratio y/x. It is more flexible than atan(y/x), since it handles x=0, and it alsoreturns values in all 4 quadrants -π to +π (the atan function returns values in the range -π/2 to+π/2).• If you implement any formula involving atan2 in Microsoft Excel, you will need to reversethe arguments, as Excel has them the opposite way around from JavaScript – conventionalorder is atan2(y, x), but Excel uses atan2(x, y). To use atan2 in a (VBA) macro, you can useWorksheetFunction.Atan2 (). You will also have to rename the variables A, B / a, b, as VBAis case-insensitive.• All bearings are with respect to true north, 0°=N, 90°=E, etc; if you are working from acompass, magnetic north varies from true north in a complex way around the earth, and thedifference has to be compensated for by variances indicated on local maps.• For miles, divide km by 1.609344• For nautical miles, divide km by 1.852
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME270VII. SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONThe above proposed protocol RPM has been simulated on QualNet network simulator neighborcoverage on NS-2 . The scenario is described below.A. SCENARIO DESCRIPTIONA scenario has been created with three mobile nodes (vehicles in this case) and three roadside units (RSU). The mobile nodes are moving at different speeds and we have made the nodes tobroadcast the packets at the speed which is directly proportional to the rate of their rpm. The scenariois configured so as to simulate the proposed road to vehicle protocol as shown in the above vectortiming diagrams. The following graphs depict the flow and the manner in which the data flow takesplace in the above stated protocol. The mobile nodes are moving at different speeds and hence thenumber of packets broadcasted by them is directly proportional to their rate of rpm.A. Simulation SetupThe simulation topology consists of 10 moving nodes which are termed as vehicles and 2RSU each equipped with a wireless interface working on the same channel. The packet data areexchanged between the vehicles using Constant Bit Rate (CBR). The broadcast interval of eachpacket is 3 secondsB. Scenario DescriptionThe objective of the paper is to reduce the broadcast storm problem that occurs in VANETs.To describe the performance of the algorithm we use the metric of the total bytes transferred fromone node to another. The packets are exchanged among the RSUs and vehicles (victimized and othermoving vehicles). The scenario consists of 10 mobile nodes (vehicles) and 2 RSUs. The datapackets are send from the victimized vehicle to the RSU and nearer vehicle and the message isforwarded to the vehicles nearby. Our proposed scheme is compared with another scenario of aproposed solution from the previous work [1].C. Simulation ResultWe compare both the scenarios (that is scenario of our proposed solution and scenario ofprevious solution) on the basis of total bytes send and received among the vehicles.Graph showing the total bytes sent by each vehicle to the RSUsthe above graph is the time line showing the time when the first packet is forwarded from a basestation to the three vehicles. The other graph depicts the total bytes of data sent by each vehicle to the
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME271three RSUs. It is evident from the above graph that the number of packets sent by the three vehicles isnot fixed and depends on its RPM. Scenario is configured such that the base station acknowledgesonly the first packetreceived from the mobile node. The packets following the first packet are not acknowledged and theroad side unit just updates its table whenever it receives a packet and piggybacks if it doesn’t receiveany packet before the timer is out.SIMULATION SCENARIO Xgraph Comparison in VANETs with andwithout NCThe graph above is the throughput graph of a proposed solution [3] A Stable RoutingProtocol to Support ITS where vehicles are grouped according to their moving directions andchoosing the most stable route to avoid path brakes with varying speed of vehicle The graph below isthe system aggregate graph obtained from the Qualnet network simulator by running the configuredscenario with parameters total bytes received and total bytes sent. Simulations on NS2VIII. CONCLUSIONIn this paper we introduced three scheme which establishes an effective and reliablecommunication between vehicles and road side units (RSUs). The key idea behind the proposedscheme is to control the number of packets in the network by making all the nodes flood packets atdifferent rates which is directly proportional to their RPM. An effective mechanism of data exchangebetween nodes and RSUs has also been proposed where the RSU doesn’t acknowledge all the packetsit receives except the first packet. we have given the approach how can we handle broadcast stormproblem. This approach is used to enhance the performance of the VANET for broadcasting themessages. When the accident has occurred the victimized vehicle sends the message and outtechnique chooses the first vehicle to send the message.IX. REFERENCES[1] T.Rappport- wireless mobile communication Taunenbaum – Computer Networks[2] VEHACOL:VehicularAntiCollisionMechanism using a Combination of PeriodicInformationExchange and Power Measurements -Ashwin Gumaste and Anirudha Sahoo
  • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME272[3] A Stable Routing Protocol to Support ITS Services in VANET Networks Tarik Taleb, Member,IEEE, Ehssan Sakhaee, Student Member, IEEE, Abbas Jamalipour, Fellow, IEEE, Kazuo Hashimoto,Member, IEEE, Nei Kato, Senior Member, IEEE, and Yoshiaki Nemoto, Senior Member, IEEE[4] M. Shulman and R. Deering, “Third annual report of the crash avoidance metrics partnershipApril 2003–March 2004,” Nat. Highw. Traffic Safety Admin. (NHTSA), Washington, DC, Jan.2005. DOT HS 809 837.[5] C. Bergese, A. Braun, and E. Porta, “Inside CHAUFFEUR,” in Proc. 6thITS World Congr.,Toronto, ON, Canada, Nov. 1999.[6] L. Andreone and C. Ricerche, “Activities and applications of the vehicle to vehicle and vehicle toinfrastructure communication to enhance road safety,” in Proc. 5th Eur. Congr. Exhib. ITS,Hannover, Germany, Jun. 2005.[7] R. Kruger, H. Fuler, M. Torrent-Moreno, M. Transier, H. Hartenstein, and W. Effelsberg,“Statistical analysis of the FleetNet highway movement patterns,” University of Mannheim,Mannheim, Germany, Tech. Rep. TR-2005-004, Jul. 2005.[8] W.-B. Zhang, H.-S. Tan, A. Steinfeld, B. Bougler, D. Empey, K. Zhou,[9] M. Heddebaut, J. Rioult, J. P. Ghys, C. Gransart, and S. Ambellouis, “Broadband vehicle-to-vehicle communication using an extended autonomous cruise control sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol.,vol. 16, no.6, pp. 1363–1373, Jun. 200[10]M. Tomizuka, “Implementing advanced vehicle control and safetysystems (AVCSS) for highwaymaintenance operations,” in Proc. 6thAnnu. World Congr. ITS, Toronto, ON, Canada, Nov. 1999.[12]Y. Ko and N. H. Vaidya, “Location-aided routing (LAR) in mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proc.IEEE/ACM MobiCom, Dallas, TX, Oct. 1998,[13]Kanitsorn Suriyapaibonwattan and Chotipat Pornavalai, “An Effective Safety Alert BroadcastAlgorithm for VANET”, in International Symposium on Communication and InformationTechnology, 2008[14] Ozan Tonguz, Nawapron Wisitponghan, Fan Bai, Priyantha Mudalige and Varsha Sadekar,“Broadcasting in VANET,” in Proc. ACM VANET,sep. 2007, pp.1-6.[15]C.-F. Chiasserinity, E.Fasoloz, R.Furuatoz and R.Gaeta, “Smart Broadcast of Warning Messagesin Vehicular Ad HocNetworks,” in the NoE NEWCOM Oct. 2006.[16]S. Ni, Y. Tseng, Y. Chen, and J. Sheu, “The broadcast storm problem in a mobile ad hocnetwork,” in Proc. ACM Intern. Conf. on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), Seattle,USA, 1999, pp. 151- 162.[17]C. Hu, Y. Hong, and J. Hou, “On mitigating the broadcast storm problem with directionalantennas,” in Proc. IEEE International Conf. On Commun. (ICC), vol. 1, Seattle, USA, May 2003, pp.104- 110.[18][19]N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, J. Parikh, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “On the BroadcastStorm Problem in Ad hoc Wireless Network.” In IEEE Wireless Communications, to appear.[20]N. Wisitpongphan, O. Tonguz, F. Bai, P. Mudalige, and V. Sadekar, “On the Routing Problem inDisconnected Veicular Ad Hoc Networks,” in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM,[21] Venkatesh Kumar .P,Vallikannu A.L and Kavitha B.C, “Effective Broadcasting in MobileAd Hoc Networks Using Grid Based Mechanism” International journal of Computer Engineering &Technology (IJCET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 39 - 46, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online:0976 – 6375.[22] S.V.M.G.Bavithiraja and Dr.R.Radhakrishnan, “Power Efficient Context-Aware BroadcastingProtocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Network”, International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology(IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 81 - 96, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.