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Study the effect of addition of wast plastic on compressive and tensile

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This research studies the effect of adding waste plastic in three percentage 0.5% ،1% ...

This research studies the effect of adding waste plastic in three percentage 0.5% ،1%
And 1.5% by volume on plain structural lightweight concrete (SLWC) produced by using
crushed bricks as coarse lightweight aggregates (LWA) in a lightweight concrete mix
designed according to ACI committee 211-2-82 with mix proportion 1:1.5:3.5 by volume
.The w\c equal to 0.5 and cement content 425 kg\m3
. Different tests where performed for
fresh and hardened SLWC such, unit weight, compressive strength and two indirect tests of
tensile strength (splitting tensile and flexural strength).
The results demonstrated that the effect of addition of waste plastic was more
pronounced on the tensile strength of SLWC than the compressive strength.The maximum
increase of compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths at 28-days were 4.4; 29; 40.8
% in the SLWC containing 1% waste plastic.

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  • 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME415STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDITION OF WAST PLASTIC ONCOMPRESSIVE AND TENSILE STRENGTHS OF STRUCTURALLIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE CONTAINING BROKEN BRICKS ASACOARSE AGGREGATEGhassan Subhi JameelAssistant LecturerDep. of Dams &Water Resources EngineeringUniversity of Anbar‫ا‬:‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬‫إ‬ ‫درا‬‫ا‬ ‫وي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)‫ا‬‫ز‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬(‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ه‬ ‫ث‬0.5%‫و‬1%‫و‬1.5%‫آ‬‫م‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ام‬ ‫وا‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬.‫زن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ــ‬ACI committee211-2-82‫أ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫آ‬1:1.2:3.3‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫إ‬‫ا‬0.5‫ا‬ ‫ى‬ ‫و‬4253kgm.‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ت‬ ‫أ‬‫ت‬‫ا‬‫وه‬‫ا‬‫و‬‫ت‬‫ط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬.‫ا‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫إ‬ ‫أن‬‫ا‬ ‫ت‬‫و‬ ‫أآ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫آ‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إ‬‫و‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ا‬ ‫دة‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ا‬‫ء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬28‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬4.4%،29%،40.8%‫ا‬ ‫ا‬‫ت‬ ‫و‬ ‫وا‬ ‫زن‬ ‫ا‬‫اره‬ ‫ا‬1%.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 415-432© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCIET© IAEME
  • 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME416ABSTRACTThis research studies the effect of adding waste plastic in three percentage 0.5% ،1%And 1.5% by volume on plain structural lightweight concrete (SLWC) produced by usingcrushed bricks as coarse lightweight aggregates (LWA) in a lightweight concrete mixdesigned according to ACI committee 211-2-82 with mix proportion 1:1.5:3.5 by volume.The wc equal to 0.5 and cement content 425 kgm3. Different tests where performed forfresh and hardened SLWC such, unit weight, compressive strength and two indirect tests oftensile strength (splitting tensile and flexural strength).The results demonstrated that the effect of addition of waste plastic was morepronounced on the tensile strength of SLWC than the compressive strength.The maximumincrease of compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strengths at 28-days were 4.4; 29; 40.8% in the SLWC containing 1% waste plastic.Keywords: Waste plastic, crushed bricks, Compressive strength, Flexural strength.1- DEFINITIONSAs the word population grows; so do the amount and type of wastes beinggenerated. Many wastes produced today will remain in the environment for hundreds andperhaps thousands of years. The creation of non-decaying waste materials; combing with agrowing consumer population; has resulted in a waste disposal crisis. one solution of thiscrisis lies in recycling wastes in to useful products [1] .Plastics are polymers, a very largemolecule made up of smaller units called monomers which are joined together in a chain by aprocess called polymerization. The polymers generally contain carbon and hydrogen with,sometimes, other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or Fluorine [2].Waste plastic fibers: This term represent the using of the plastic bottles waste as fibers inconcrete that are uniformly distributed and randomly oriented. The amount of waste plasticadded to a concrete mix is measured as a percentage of the total volume of the composite(concrete and fibers) termed Vf.Structural lightweight concrete: The ASTM C330 [3] defines SLWC as having acompressive strength of 17 MPa or more and a 28 day dry unit weight less than 1850 kgm3.Similar gradients to normal weight concrete (NWC) except that it is made with LWA orcombination of lightweight and normal-weight aggregates but it has different properties. Thelower density and higher insulating capacity are the most obvious characteristics of Light-Weight Aggregate Concrete (LWAC) by which it distinguishes itself from ‘ordinary’ NWC.However; these are by no means the only characteristics, which justify the increasingattention for this (construction) material. If that were the case most of the design, productionand execution rules would apply for LWAC as for NWC, without any amendments.
  • 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME4172- INTRODUCTIONRecycled fibres from various sources have been studied as reinforcement inconcrete, including tire cords, carpet fibres, feather fibers, steel shavings, wood fibers frompaper waste, and high density polyethylene [4].Addition of fibers makes the concrete more homogeneous and isotropic and therefore it’stransformed from a brittle to amore ductile material. When concrete cracks, the randomlyoriented fibers arrest a micro cracking mechanism and limit crack propagation. The LWChaving less compressive strength than NWC .as such, a form of additional reinforcement isneeded to enhance the weakness of tensile strength in SLWC. This will achieved by usingfibers.Advantages of using SLWC [5]:• Reduction in dead weight of structure.• Savings in steel reinforcement.• Reduction in dead weight gives better resistance to earthquake loading.• Reduced handling, transportation and construction cost for precastConcrete elements. • Properties of FRC as compared with those of normal concrete [6]:– Higher tensile strain at failure– Higher toughness and resistance to impact– Ultimate tensile strength increased only slightly– Reduced workability of fresh concrete– Increase fatigue life– Similar elastic modulus– Similar drying shrinkage– Similar compressive creep, but lower tensile creep and flexural creep.Abdul-khader al hadithi study the effect of adding the chips resulting from cutting the plasticbeverage bottles as fiber added to the concrete with very small percentages of concrete volume(0.1 and 0.2%). Results proved that adding of plastic fibers leads to improvements incompressive strength (11.28; 14.28%) and flexural strength (46.15-64.61%) of concretecontaining plastic fibers [7].Extensive research efforts have been given to investigate the normal weight FRC [8]. Alsothose studied SLWC [9] [10] [11] [12] etc. However .A research work has been undertaken toinvestigate the effect of addition of waste plastic fiber in compressive and tensile strengths ofSLWC.3- EXPERIMENTAL WORK3-1 Materials3-1-1 Cementordinary Portland cement produced by Kubaisa cement factory was used throughoutthis study physical properties of used cement are listed in Table (1).The results are conformedto the Iraqi specification No.5 1984[13].
  • 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME418Table (1) Physical properties of used cementLimits of (I.O.S)NO.51984Test resultsPhysical properties1 hr (Min.)10 hr (Max.)1:203:35Initial setting (vicat) hrFinal setting (vicat) hr10 (Max.)4.5Soundness(le-chatelier) mm15 (Min.)23 (Min.)16.7529.6Compressive strength ofmortar MPa3-day7-day3-1-2 Fine aggregateA normal weight sand of 4.75 mm maximum size was used .Table (2) and(3)shows thegrading and physical properties of used fine aggregate .The grading was conformed to thelimits of Iraqi specifications No.45 1984[14] .Table (2) Physical properties of used fine aggregatesLimits of (I.O.S)NO.451984Test resultsPhysical properties------2.61Specific gravity1450-16001549Loose density (kgm3)1530-18001803Compacted density (kgm3)------3.2Absorption %5(Max.)3.6Material finer than75 µ %------2.33Fineness modulusTable (3) Sieve analysis of fine aggregate3-1-3 coarse lightweight aggregateA crushed bricks were used as coarse LWA .The bricks pieces which are consideredas waste materials were crushed into smaller sizes by means of crusher machine (jaw crusher).Table 2 and 3 shows the grading and physical properties of coarse LWA respectively .Thegrading was confirmed to ASTM C330 [2] for structural LWA .The lightweight aggregateused in a saturated surface dry (SSD) condition recommended by ACI 211-2-82 [15 ] aftersubmerged in water for 1 hour and spread in laboratory until obtaining saturated surface dryaggregates . Plate (1) and plate (2) show the course aggregate.Limits of ASTM C330Test resultsSieve size mm10010012.580-100919.55-40334.750-2052.360-1031.18
  • 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME419Table (4) Physical properties of LWAASTM C330Test resultsPhysical properties-------1.8Specific gravity-------689Loose density ( kgm3)800 Max.800Compacted density (kgm3)Table (5) Grading of LWAPlate (1)Limits of ASTM C330Test resultsSieve size mm10010012.580-100919.55-40334.750-2052.360-1031.18
  • 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME420Plate (2)3-1-4 waterPotable water was used in all mixes.3-1-5 plastic fibersPlate (3) and (4) show the waste plastic. fibers were used is the pieces of plasticwere used and become as a waste and we take it and cut to small pieces with limited lengthand diameter to acts as a fiber .The properties of the used fibers are illustrated in Table (6 ) .Table (6) Properties of used fibersresultspropertyStraightFiber type30 mmFiber length3mmFiber diameter1100 kgm3density
  • 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME421Plate(3)Plate (4)
  • 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME4223-2 Mixing of concreteA pan mixer of 0.1% m3capacity was used to mix the concrete ingredients .The mixerwas firstly cleaned from the remaining lumps of concrete .The dry mixed ingredients wereplaced in the pan mixer and they were mixed for 2 minutes to ensure the homogeneity ofwaste plastic and to split the agglomerations of cement particle .The required quality of waterwas added to the mix and the whole constitutes were mixed for 3 minutes.3-3 Preparation, casting, curing and types of the test specimensSteel molds were used for casting all the tested specimens .Before casting the moldswere cleaned and oiled to avoid the adhesion of hardened concrete to the inside faces ofmolds. The fresh concrete was placed inside the molds with approximately equal layers of 50mm for all the specimens and consolidated by the mean of vibrating table for a sufficientperiod .Care was taken to avoid segregation of LWA because the lightest particles of LWAtend to float on the surface of concrete causing segregation of the mix consistent .Aftercasting ,the concrete surface was leveled and covered with nylon sheets to preventevaporation of water so as to avoid the plastic shrinkage cracks. On the second day thespecimens were remolded, marked and immersed in tap water until the test age. 100x100x100mm cubes, 100x200mm cylinders and 100x100x500 prisms were used for compressive,splitting tensile and flexural tensile strengths tests respectively. Plate (5) shows the some ofspecimen before testing.Plate (5)
  • 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME4233-4 Testing program3-4-1 Slump testThe test was performed according to ASTM C143a [16].3-4-2 Fresh and hardened unit weightsThe test was performed according to ASTM C 567-85 [17].Note: The above tests in addition to compressive strength test at 28 days were conducted toachieve the requirements for SLWC in ASTM C330 [2]3-4-3 Compressive strength testThe test was conducted on 100 mm cube according to BS 1881 part 116 :1989 [18] .Thetest was performed at ages 7,14 and 28 days .3-4-4 Tensile strength3-4-4.a Splitting tensile strength testThe test was conducted on cylinders of 100x200 mm according to ASTM C496-86 [19].The splitting tensile strength was calculated using the following equation:)( ldpMPastrengthtensileSplittingπ2=Where: p: maximum applied load (N).d: diameter of test specimen (mm).L: length of test specimen (mm).3-4-4.b Flexural strength testThe test was performed on prisms 100x100x500 mm according to BS 1881 part 118 ,1989 [20].The flexural strength was calculated using the following equation as the failure ofall test specimens occurred in the mid part.)( 2dblpMPastrengthFlexural =Where: p: maximum applied load (N)L: length of test specimen (mm).d, b : depth and width of test specimen (mm)4-1 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION4-1-1 Compressive strengthThe results of compressive strength of reference and SLWC specimens containing0.5% , 1% and 1.5% fibers at 7,14 and 28 days are shown in Fig(1) and figure (2) .From theseresults the following notes are observed :- The reference mix is confirmed to the requirements of SLWC in ASTM C330 [2] where ithad 20.04 MPa compressive strength and 1875 kgm3unit weight at 28days.
  • 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME424- All SLWC mixes, generally exhibited continuous strength gain .This is, generally, attributedto the continuous formation of hydration products during the curing period.-The addition of 0.5% , 1.5% and 1.5 % waste plastic fibers to the reference mix increasedthe compressive strength at all ages:-• 0.5% of plastic fiber is given compressive strength greater than reference mix at allages. The maximum increase of such concrete was 4.04% at 28 days.• 1% of plastic fiber is given compressive strength greater than reference mix and mixcontaining 0.5% fibers at all ages .The maximum increase of such concrete was 4.4%at 28 days.• 1.5% of plastic fiber is given compressive strength greater than reference mix but lessthan mix containing 0.5% and 1% fibers .The maximum increase of such concretewas 1.2% at 28 days.4-1-2 Tensile strength4-1-2 a Splitting tensile strengthThe results of Splitting tensile strength of reference and SLWC specimens containing0.5% , 1% and 1.5% fibers at 7,14 and 28 days are shown in Fig(3) and fig(4) .From theseresults the following notes are observed :-The addition of 0.5% , 1% and 1.5 % waste plastic fibers to the reference mix increased theSplitting tensile strength at all ages:-• 0.5% of plastic fiber is given Splitting tensile strength greater than reference mix at allages. The maximum increase of such concrete was 9.18% at 28 days.• 1% of plastic fiber is given Splitting tensile strength greater than reference mix andmix containing 0.5% fibers at all ages .The maximum increase of such concrete was29% at 28 days.• 1.5% of plastic fiber is given splitting tensile strength greater than reference mix butless than mix containing 1% fibers .The maximum increase of such concrete was15.94% at 28 days.• The increasing of Splitting tensile strength with percent greater than compressivestrength refers to important of using waste plastic fiber because my search appearancethe advantage of this uses like economical and increasing the strength of concreteagainst tension stress . An initial crack (a pre-existing crack-like flaw) is allowed topropagate when the stress intensity factor reaches the toughness of the brittle material.In fiber reinforced cement composites, cracks are bridged by fibers, which in turnsgovern the behavior of the crack in growth stability, length and crack opening profile[21].4-1-2 b Flexural strengthThe flexural strength was determined at 7, 14 and 28 days and illustrated in Fig (5) andfig (6). From these results the following notes are observed:-The addition of 0.5% , 1% and 1.5 % waste plastic fibers to the reference mix increased theflexural strength at all ages:-• 0.5% of plastic fiber is given flexural strength greater than reference mix at all ages.The maximum increase of such concrete was 20% at 28 days.
  • 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME425• 1% of plastic fiber is given flexural strength greater than reference mix and mixcontaining 0.5% fibers at all ages .The maximum increase of such concrete was40.8% at 28 days.• 1.5% of plastic fiber is given flexural strength greater than reference mix but less thanmix containing 1% fibers .The maximum increase of such concrete was 32% at 28days.The results indicate that the SLWC mixes had similar behavior in flexural strengthcorresponding to splitting tensile strengths .This may be related to the fact that the splittingand flexural strength tests are indirect tests of tensile strength .The difference is the highervalues of flexural strength at all ages due to the different between tests procedures and theshape of test specimens. On the other hand, Fig (5) demonstrates that 1%-SLWC showedhigher flexural strength gain between 7, 14 and 28 days corresponding to 0.5%; 1.5% and R-SLWC.• We note that the mixes With 1.5% of waste plastic had tension strength less than mixeswith 1% this case attributed to the masses of the waste plastic , this case called(segregation).Note: as well as the increasing in magnitude of strength that caused by using of waste plasticwe notice that there is addition advantage. There is very important advantage is called(mode of failure) this specification convert the way of failure from brittle (collapse) to ductileas we show this appearance in down pictures. Plate (6), (7), (8) and (9) shows the modes offailures in plain mix and mix containing waste plastic.Plate (6) Section from specimen after testing of plain concrete
  • 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME426.Plate (7) Mode of failure of reference mix plate (8) mode of failure with use fibersPlate (9) Waste plastic act as abridge even after failure
  • 13. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March05101520253014.2517CompressiveStrength(Mpa)fig(2)the compressive strength of plain mix compared with mixesR1415161718192021227CompressiveStrength(MPa)figure (1) The compressive Strength of plain mix compared with mixInternational Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 09766316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME4277142817.2320.0416.1118.420.8516.3118.820.931618.120.28)the compressive strength of plain mix compared with mixescontaining waste plastic fiberw1 w2 w314 28Age (day)) The compressive Strength of plain mix compared with mixcontaining waste plastic fiberR w1 w2 w3International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308April (2013), © IAEME
  • 14. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March11.31.61.92.22.52.8SpiltTesileStrength(MPa)figure (3) The Split Tensile Strength of plain mix compared with00.511.522.533.51.051.SpliteTensileStrength(MPa)Figure (4) Split Tensile Strength for plain concrete compared withmixes containing waste plastic fiberInternational Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 09766316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME4287 14 28Age (day)) The Split Tensile Strength of plain mix compared withmix containing waste plastic fiberR w1 w2 w371428.3432.071.21.72.261.522.671.31.82.4) Split Tensile Strength for plain concrete compared withmixes containing waste plastic fiberR M1 M2 MInternational Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308April (2013), © IAEME
  • 15. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March11.251.51.7522.252.52.7533.253.53.757FexuralStrength(MPa)figure(5) The flexural Strength of plain mix compared with mixR00.511.522.533.544.51.96flecturalStrength(MPa)Figure (6) The flextural Strength of plain mix compared with mixRInternational Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 09766316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME42914 28Age (day)) The flexural Strength of plain mix compared with mixcontaning plastic waste fiberR w1 w2 w3712962.222.721.82.4232.22.763.5222.563.3) The flextural Strength of plain mix compared with mixcontaining waste plastic fiberw1 w2 w3International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308April (2013), © IAEME
  • 16. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME4304-1-3 the relationship between compressive and tensile strength of R, 0.5%; 1% and1.5%mixesFigs (7) and (8) show the relationship between compressive and tensile strength for R,0.5%; 1% and 1.5% mix. Where the tensile strength tested in two indirect tests (splittingtensile and flexural strength).Results indicate that the tensile strength of all LWC mixesincreases with the increase of compressive strength .In Fig (7) and (8) it is apparent that theR-SLWC showed lower values and slope in such relation corresponding to 0.5%; 1% and 1.5% SLWC. The higher slope was observed in 1%-SLWC .On the other hand, the effect ofwaste plastic was more clearly in flexural strength than splitting tensile strength of all SLWCmixes .This may be due to significant bond improvement gained by using this material.Fig (7) the relationship between compressive and splitting tensile strengthFig (8) the relationship of compressive and flexural strength11.21.41.61.822.22.42.62.815 16 17 18 19 20 21 22Splittingtensilestrength(Mpa)Compressive strength(Mpa)RW1W2W31.522.533.5415 16 17 18 19 20 21 22Flexturalstrength(Mpa)Compressive strength(Mpa)RW1W2W3
  • 17. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME431CONCLUSIONBased on the results of present study the following conclusions can be drawn:1- The produced R-LWC using crushed bricks as a LWA were confirmed to the requirementsof SLWC.2- The addition of waste plastic increased the compressive strength of R- SLWC at all agesup to 28 days.3-The addition of waste plastic provided clear increment in the tensile strength more thancompressive strength especially flexural strength.4-The use of 0.5% and 1.5% waste plastic in SLWC increase the compressive ,splittingtensile and flexural strength 4.04;1.2;9.18;15.94;20;32% respectively at 28 days while theuse of 1% showed superior performance .The corresponding increment was 4.4;29; and40.8%.6-Adition of 0.5 and 1.5% waste plastic increase the slope of relationship betweencompressive and tensile strength .Superior increase of such slope was observed in 1%-SLWC.REFERENCES1. B.v.kiran Kumar and P.prakash” use of waste plastics in cement concrete pavement”.2. Converting Waste Plastics into a Resource” United Nations EnvironmentalProgramme”Division of Technology, Industry and Economics “InternationalEnvironmental Technology Centre. Osaka/Shiga.3. Johnston, C. "Fiber Reinforced Concrete." Significance Properties of Concrete andConcrete-Making Material, ASTM STP 169C, 1994, pp. 547-561.4. Wang, Youjiang, Wu, H.C. and Li, Victor C. "Concrete Reinforcement with RecycledFibers ", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2000, 314-319.5. ASTM C 330-87, " Standard specification for lightweight aggregate for structuralconcrete " Annual book of ASTM standards , Vol. 04.02 ,1989 ,pp. 112-118 .6. Concrete Technology, “Progress in Concrete Technology “, University of Washington,http://nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu/~tia/3501-11.pdf7. Some concrete properties of concrete using waste plastic fiber with a verysmallpercentage”Al-hadithi A.I.A”second hallab conference.8. Concrete Technology,“Progress in Concrete Technology “, University of Washington,http://courses.washington.edu/cm425/.9. Newman , J.B. and Bremner , T.W. , “ The testing of structural lightweight concrete “ ,Proceeding of the second international congress on lightweight concrete , The concretesociety , London 1980 , pp. 152-171 .10. Seabrook, P.I. , and Wilson , H.S. , “ High strength lightweight concrete for use inoffshore structures : utilization of fly ash and silica fume “ , The international journal ofcement campsites and lightweight concrete , Vol. 10,No.3, Aug.1988,pp. 183-192.11. Wilson , H.S. , and Malhotra , V.M. , “Development of high strength lightweightconcrete of structural applications “ The international journal of cement composites andlightweight concrete ,Vol.10,No.2, May 1988, pp. 79-90.12. Zhang, M.H. and Gjorv , O.E. , “ Permeability of high strength lightweight concrete “ACI material journal , Vol.88 , No.5, Sep.-Oct. 1991, pp.463-469 .
  • 18. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), © IAEME43213. Al-Hadad, M.Y., “Durability of porcelinite lightweight concrete against chloride andsulfate solution “, M.Sc. Thesis, University of technology, Aug.2001.14. ‫،ر‬51984‫ي‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ا‬ ‫،ا‬ (I.O.S ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)15. ، ‫ر‬451984‫ا‬ ‫در‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫،رآ‬ (I.O.S ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬)16. ‫ء‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬17. ACI committee 211, “Standard practice for selecting proportions for structurallightweight concrete” (ACI 211.2-81), ACI manual of concrete practice, part 1 1990,pp.211.2-1-18.18. ASTM C 143-89a,”Standard test method for slump of hydraulic cement concrete “,Annul book of ASTM standards, Vol. 0402, 1989, pp. 85-86.19. ASTM C 567-85 “Standard test method for unite weight of structural lightweightconcrete “, Annul book of ASTM standards, Vol. 0402, 1989, pp. 277-279. . .20. BS 1881, part 116, 1989 “Standard test method for determination of compressivestrength of concrete cubes ”British Standard Institution, pp.3.21. BS 1881 , part 117 ,1989 “ Standard test method for determination of splitting tensilestrength " British Standard Institution ,pp. 4 .22. BS 1881, part 118, 1989 “Standard test method for determination of flexural strength ofconcrete cubes ”British Standard Institution, pp.3.23. 15th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conference June 2-5, 2002, Columbia University,New York, NY.24. Dr. Prahallada. M.C., Dr. Shanthappa B.C. and Dr. Prakash. K.B., “Effect of Redmudon the Properties of Waste Plastic Fibre Reinforced Concrete an ExperimentalInvestigation”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET),Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 25-34, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 –6316.25. Dr. Abdulkader Ismail Abdulwahab Al-Hadithi., “Improving Impact and MechanicalProperties of Gap-Graded Concrete by Adding Waste Plastic Fibers”, InternationalJournal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013,pp. 118 - 131, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.26. D.B.Mohite and S.B.Shinde, “Experimental Investigation on Effect of Different ShapedSteel Fibers on Flexural Strength of High Strength Concrete”, International Journal ofCivil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 332 - 336,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.