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Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine
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Study of loop formation process on 1 x1 v bed rib knitting machine

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME259STUDY OF LOOP FORMATION PROCESS ON 1X1 V-BED RIBKNITTING MACHINE: THE FACTORS AFFECTING LOOP LENGTHAND VALIDATION OF MODEL1SRINIVASULU K, 2MONICA SIKKA, 1J HAYAVADANA1Department of Textile Technology,Osmania university, Hyderabad, India,500007.2Department of Textile Technology, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India,144011ABSTRACTA study of loop formation process on 1x1 V-bed flat knitting machine is initiated withexperiments designed by considering three knitting process variables: Yarn input tension,Cam setting and Take down load. The interaction between these factors and their effect onloop length and the percentage of contribution of variables on Final loop length isdetermined. It was observed from the results that the contribution of cam setting on looplength is more than the take down load which have a marginal effect only.The proposed model is validated both experimentally and statistically. The unrovedloop length, the theoretical loop length were linearly related with an average of 5% error at95% significance level.Key words: Yarn input tension, cam setting, Takedown load, Unroved loop length,Theoretical loop length.1. INTRODUCTIONFor the last twenty years by far the most important development in knittinghas been the extraordinary rise in popularity of double jersey cloth, particularly for ladies’outwear and even more recently in outer wear garments for men. For instance, theamount of double jersey(Rib) fabric produced today is at least three times than thatof ten years ago.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 2 March – April 2013, pp. 259-270© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME260Properties of the knitted fabrics are mainly governed by two parameters (i.e. length ofloop and shape of the loop), the shape of the loop can be finalized during relaxation treatmentbut the loop length is decided during formation process only. So it is important that the stitchlength of knitted fabric should be uniformly controlled to produce a superior fabric.Loop length plays an important role in knitted fabric production in order to meet buyerspecifications and consumer satisfaction and the investigation of geometrical loop length ortheoretical loop length which makes the production of knitted fabric easy for knitter and itconsumes time to produce the fabric of different specifications. Ultimately the rate ofproduction will increase if we know the theoretical calculations of knitted fabric parameters.The loop formation process became a subjective matter of research from past 50 years,and some studies related to loop formation process are available in literature. The mechanismof single jersey loop formation process as explained by Knapton and Munden (1966) wasbased on the concept of robbing back (%). A mathematical model of the single jersey weftknitted process involving flat bottom stitch cam was formulated by Alsaka. Peat and Spicerdeveloped a geometrical model of single jersey loop formation process. A mathematicalmodel of single jersey loop formation process involving non-linear stitch cam andincorporating five different stages of initial geometry of knitting zone was developed by Lauand Knapton.A model of single jersey loop formation process based on the concept of balancing forcesacting on needle that decides the loop forming point by Ghosh and Banerjee, and a model of1x1 rib loop formation developed by Sadhan Chandra ray and Banerjee on dial and cylindermachine.In present work an attempt has made to study the impact knitting processing variables likeyarn Input tension, Cam Setting, and Take down Load on loop length and developed amathematical model of loop formation on 1x1 rib loop formation process on V-Bed flatknitting machine.The model is developed by considering two-dimensional coordinates of knitting elements byrotating both front bed and back bed to 450and considering the tuck point as an origin ofcoordinate system. Based on 2D geometry a mathematical model has been developed for ribloop length. The model is validated experimentally and statistically.2. EXPERIMENTAL2.1. MaterialsThe material selected for producing samples is three-ply Acrylic yarn of count 229TEX.Experimental samples were produced on Hand driven V-bed machine by combinations of 3processing variables (i.e. Yarn input tension, Cam setting, Take down load). For identifyingthe role of one variable, and other variables kept as constant.2.2. Methods2.2.1. Measurement of Yarn input tensionTo identify the effect of yarn input tension, 9 samples were produced by varying inputtension from 5g, 15g, and 25g by keeping cam setting and takedown load constant for a set.The unroved loop length was subsequently measured for all samples. The Tensioner used forvarying yarn input tension is spring disc type and tension variation can be measured bytension meter as shown in figure 1.
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, MFigure 1. Position of tension meter along yarn path2.2.2. Measurement of Cam settingThere are 18 samples produced in order to identify the role of cam setting on loop length. Thesamples are produced by keeping yarn input tension, Take down load as constant and camsetting varying from 5mm-15mm. Out of 18 sfront bed cam setting, keeping back bed setting constant and vice versa for remainingsamples. The unroved loop length can be measured simultaneously after producingsamples.cam setting is change by rotatingFigure 3.International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME261f tension meter along yarn path Figure 2. Digital tension meterCam settingThere are 18 samples produced in order to identify the role of cam setting on loop length. Thesamples are produced by keeping yarn input tension, Take down load as constant and cam15mm. Out of 18 samples 9 sample are produced by varyingfront bed cam setting, keeping back bed setting constant and vice versa for remainingsamples. The unroved loop length can be measured simultaneously after producingsamples.cam setting is change by rotating cam jack screw as in figure 3.3. Cam jack in V-bed knitting machineInternational Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –April (2013), © IAEMEDigital tension meterThere are 18 samples produced in order to identify the role of cam setting on loop length. Thesamples are produced by keeping yarn input tension, Take down load as constant and camamples 9 sample are produced by varyingfront bed cam setting, keeping back bed setting constant and vice versa for remainingsamples. The unroved loop length can be measured simultaneously after producing
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME262C1*a C2*aβαStitch camFigure 4. Take down load set up2.2.3. Measurement of Take down loadSample fabric were knitted over a range of 1500g, 2000g, 2500g of take down loadthis is achieved by maintaining yarn input tension, cam setting as constant. There are 9samples produced by hanging dead weights over width of 25 needles. The unroved looplengths are measured simultaneously after removal of weights. The take load is varied bychanging weights as shown figure 4.3. MEASUREMENT OF STITCH CAM CHARACTERISTICSThe length of the yarn in the kitted loop is decided by stitch cam the characteristics asshown in figure 5. Where a represents distance between neighboring Front bed and Back bedneedles, while α, β represents cam angles and C1 &C2 are some constants. The stitch camangles can be determined by observing movement of yarn up to knitting point.Figure 5. Stitch cam characteristics of V-bed flat knitting machine
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME2634. MEASUREMENT OF YARN NEEDLE DIMENSIONSThe dimensions of yarn and needles like diameter, movement of yarn path can bemeasured by using image analyzer. For each sample, one hundred readings were taken forworking out the average value. The modulus of yarn is tested on Zwick tensile tester.The movement of yarn and configuration inside the knitting zone are taken as images bydigital camera and the dimensions of needle, wrap angles (ѲL, ѲT and δL) around the front bedand back bed needles, angle of path (ψ) of yarn between bed verges were measured.4.1. Observation of yarn and needle movements under Quasi-static conditionBy moving the hand lever very slowly, one front bed needle (FN) is made to catch thefeed yarn. In that position, a mark was applied on the yarn lying across the preceding back bedneedle (BN) with indelible ink. The coordinates of marked point and of relevant FN and BN wererecorded. The machine was moved to short distance and the new positions of the marked pointand relevant needles were recorded. This procedure was continued till the FN under observationreached the running position after passing through the knitting points5. DETERMINATION OF UNROVED LOOP LENGTHThe fabric was prepared in such a manner that the length of yarn forming completeknitted courses can be unroved. The lengths of yarn are measured in a straightened state undersuitable tension (B S: 5441). The straightened state is achieved by removing the knitting crimpand/or yarn crimp as found in textured filament yarn.The stitch length can be calculate by counting the number of Wales available for fabric sampleand divide the course length by the number of needles used and express the results in cm.6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION6.1 Effect of process variables on loop length6.1.1 Effect of yarn input tension on loop lengthLoop lengths are calculated over a range of yarn input tension (from 5g to 25g) and camsetting (from 5mm to 15mm), and take down load kept constant. The values are plotted in graph(figure 6). And the 3-Dimensional graphs were plotted with help of MATLAB softwareFigure 6 Effect of yarn input tension on loop length
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME264It is observed form the graph 6 that, at a constant value of take down load and camsetting, an increase of yarn input tension level from 5g to 25 g always results in linearlydecrease in loop length. And the trend is same in all 3 level of cam setting (5mm, 10mm, and15mm).For higher cam settings, the curves shifts upwards, the shape remains the same. Ingeneral, the rate of increase in loop length with an increase in input tension decreases forhigher cam settings.6.2. Effect of cam setting on loop length6.2.1. Effect of front bed cam setting on Loop lengthThe samples were produced in order to see the effect of cam setting on Loop length.Loop lengths were measured over a range of cam setting (from 5mm to 15mm) and the inputtension and take down load kept as constant. And the measured values were plotted in graph(figure 7)Figure 7. Effect of front bed cam setting on Loop lengthIt is observed from the graph 7 that at constant values of input tension, take download, an increase in the stitch cam setting results in linearly increase in loop length at 3 levelsof back bed cam setting (5mm, 10mm, and 15mm).The trend of the graph is nearly same as the authors worked on single jersey(Banerjee P K,and Ghosh S,1999) and 1x1 circular Bed knitting machine (Ray S C, 2003) but the slope ofcurve is different because of linear cam profile of 1x1 V-bed flat rib knitting machine.6.3. Effect of back bed setting on loop lengthThe samples were produced by varying back bed cam setting from 5mm to 15mmat three levels of front bed cam setting (at 5mm, 10mm, and 15mm), the variables inputtension, take down load kept constant. The measured values were plotted ongraph (figure 8).
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, MFigure 8 Effect of back bed setting on loop lengthFrom the graph it shows that the increasecam setting but the slope of the curve is exactly linear as compared to front bed cam setting itis due to cam profile of V-bed machine.6.4. Effect of Take down load on Loop lengthLoop lengths were calculated ovcam setting levels at 5mm, 10mm, and 15mm, and yarn input tension kept as constant value.There were 9 samples produced in order to see the effect take down load on loop length. Thevalues of loop length are on graph (Figure 9 Effect of Take down load on Loop lengthIt is observed from the graph that there is a nearly linear increase of loop length withan increase in take down load. Compare to other variables there isdown load on loop length (Banerjee P K, Ray S C, 2003) and (Banerjee P.K, Ghosh.S, 1999).International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 09766499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME265Effect of back bed setting on loop lengthFrom the graph it shows that the increase in loop length trend is same as front bedcam setting but the slope of the curve is exactly linear as compared to front bed cam setting itbed machine.. Effect of Take down load on Loop lengthLoop lengths were calculated over range of take down load from 1500g to 2500g andcam setting levels at 5mm, 10mm, and 15mm, and yarn input tension kept as constant value.There were 9 samples produced in order to see the effect take down load on loop length. There on graph (Figure 9).Effect of Take down load on Loop lengthIt is observed from the graph that there is a nearly linear increase of loop length withan increase in take down load. Compare to other variables there is marginal effect of takedown load on loop length (Banerjee P K, Ray S C, 2003) and (Banerjee P.K, Ghosh.S, 1999).International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –April (2013), © IAEMEin loop length trend is same as front bedcam setting but the slope of the curve is exactly linear as compared to front bed cam setting iter range of take down load from 1500g to 2500g andcam setting levels at 5mm, 10mm, and 15mm, and yarn input tension kept as constant value.There were 9 samples produced in order to see the effect take down load on loop length. TheIt is observed from the graph that there is a nearly linear increase of loop length withmarginal effect of takedown load on loop length (Banerjee P K, Ray S C, 2003) and (Banerjee P.K, Ghosh.S, 1999).
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME2667. STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF EFFECT OF VARIABLES ON LOOPLENGTHTo determine the impact of Input variables on output variable (Loop Length) thecomplete data (Measured Loop length values) was analyzed by using STATISTICASOFTWARE. The result in terms of contribution of each variable on loop length isdetermined. And the analytical data is explained by plotting graphs of input variables in termsof chi- square value (Figure 10).During loop formation process an interaction takes place between these three inputvariables over loop length, and this interaction is explained in terms of regression equation.The interaction result is show through regression equation in terms of F-value.The equation as follows݈‫݌݋݋‬ ݈݁݊݃‫݄ݐ‬ ൌ 1.719341 ൅ 0.0785‫ܵܥܨ‬ ൅ 0.626‫ܵܥܤ‬ െ 0.0001ܶ‫ܮ‬ െ 0.00147‫ܶܫ‬WhereFCS- Front bed cam setting, BCS-Back bed cam setting, TL-Take down load, IT-Input tension.7.1 Impact of input variables over Loop length0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50Importanceof variables (Loop lenghth (Chi-square))TLITFCSBCSFigure 10. Impact of input variables over Loop length
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME2678. VALIDATION OF THE MODEL8.1 Comparison of Unroved and Theoretical loop length (From Mathematical Model)In order to validating the model the values of unroved loop length and theoreticalvalues should be compared. The computed or theoretical values were determined bygenerating a JAVA programme (Sinivasulu K, 2013) and the actual values for calculation oftheoretical loop length are taken from machine (angles and distances) for every combinationof samples. The computed value s of 3 variables of samples is given in tableTable 1: Experimental and theoretical (from the model) values of output variablesS.NoUnroved Looplength(Lu)(cms)Theoretical Looplength(Lt)(cms) % Error1 2.40 2.45 -2.0832 2.23 2.31 -3.5873 2.10 2.16 -2.8574 3.05 3.12 -2.2955 2.84 2.91 -2.4656 2.68 2.72 -1.4937 3.65 3.70 -1.3708 3.45 3.53 -2.3199 3.35 3.42 -2.09010 2.30 2.41 -4.78311 2.60 2.65 -1.92312 2.95 3.12 -5.76313 2.56 2.65 -3.51614 3.00 3.06 -2.00015 3.40 3.45 -1.47116 2.95 3.05 -3.39017 3.35 3.41 -1.79118 3.72 3.84 -3.22619 2.25 2.41 -7.11120 2.75 2.81 -2.18221 3.05 3.14 -2.95122 2.60 2.68 -3.07723 2.80 2.96 -5.71424 3.35 3.42 -2.09025 3.30 3.38 -2.42426 3.86 3.89 -0.77727 4.60 4.71 -2.39128 1.95 2.05 -5.12829 2.15 2.20 -2.32630 2.30 2.35 -2.17431 2.60 2.61 -0.38532 2.72 2.84 -4.41233 2.83 2.89 -2.12034 3.20 3.30 -3.12535 3.42 3.52 -2.92436 3.60 3.68 -2.222
  • 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME268Scatterplot with Histograms of theoritical loop length against unroved loop length010201.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5unroved loop length1.01.52.02.53.03.54.04.55.05.5Theoriticallooplength0 10 20Figure 11. A scatter plot between theoretical and unroved loop lengthFrom the table and graph it is observed that there is an average of 5% error betweentheoretical loop length and unroved loop length, and the linear relation is given by graph‫ݐܮ‬ ൌ 0.0784 ൅ 1.006 ‫כ‬ ݈‫ݑ‬And it is concluded that both experimentally and statistically the proposed model (SrinivasuluK, 2013) on 1x1 V-bed rib knitting machine is feasible.9. CONCLUSIONSFollowing are the conclusions drawn from the experimental work conducted.An increase of yarn input tension results in linearly decreasing loop length. Forhigher cam settings, the curves shifts upwards, but the shape remains the same. Ingeneral, the rate of increase in loop length with an increase in input tension decreasesfor higher cam settings.Back bed cam setting gives more loop length value as compared to front bed camsetting, and the variation is due to difference in profile of stitch cam for both the beds.Effect of take down load on loop length is very marginal as compared to othervariables.The results of the work suggest that suitable combinations of variables can be used(i.e the critical adjustment of the yarn input tension , stitch-cam setting and take download in conjunction with the properties of the yarn to be knitted.) to produce highquality fabric and to meet the requirements or specifications of the buyer.A two dimensional mathematical model is proposed to determine the loop length of v-bed rib knitted structure. This theoretical value can be used to produce a knitted fabricof particular specifications. (G.S.M and Tightness factor).
  • 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME26910. REFERENCES1. Banerjee, P.K., and Alaiban, T.S., Mechanism of Loop formation at Extreme cam settingon a sinker top machine: part II Analysis of limiting conditions, Textile research journal,57, 568-574(1987).2. Banerjee, P. k., and Alaiban, T.S., Mechanism of Loop formation at Extreme cam settingon a sinker top machine: part I Relation between count, gauge, and tightness factor,Textile research journal, 57, 513-518(1987).3. Banerjee, P. K., and Ghosh, S., A model of single-jersey Loop-formation process,Journal of textile institute, 90,187-208(1999).4. Carmine Mazza, Paola Zonda, Knitting (A reference book of textile technology),ACIMIT, The Italian association of textile machinery producers, first edition 2001.5. C. Prakash and C. V. Koushik., Effect of loop length on the dimensional properties ofsilk and model union knitted fabric, Indian Journal of Science and Technology,7,752-754(2010).6. David H. Black., Design And Performance Of Weft-Knitting Machinery, a Ph.D thesisreport, 1968.7. Efthymios Gravas., A Study on the Theoretical and Practical Application of Predictingthe Fabric Mass per Unit Area for Weft Single and Double Knitted Structures, a Ph.Dthesis report (2005).8. Ghosh, S., and Banerjee, P. K., Mechanics of the single jersey weft knitting process,Textile Research Journal. 60,203-211(1990).9. Ghosh.S., Effect of yarn characteristics on knitting performance, Textile Trends,31-33(1997).10. J. J. F. Knapton and T. W.-Y. Lau., The design and dynamics of non-linear cams for usein high-speed weft-knitting machines part 1: the theoretical dynamics of non-linearcams., Journal Of Textile Institute ,69,161-168(1978).11. Knapton, J.J.F., and Munden, D.L., A study of mechanism of loop formation on weftknitting machinery ,Textile Research Journal 36, 1072-1090(1966).12. Knapton, J. J. F., the dynamics of weft knitting: further theoretical and mechanicalanalysis, Textile Research Journal, 38,914-924(1968).13. Knapton, J.J.F., and Munden, D.L., A study of mechanism of loop formation on weftknitting machinery, part II: the effect of yarn friction on yarn tension in knitting and loopformation ,Textile Research Journal 36, 1081-1091(1966).14. Srinivasulu K, Monica Sikka, and Hayavadana J., Study of loop formation process on1X1 V-Bed rib knitting Machine: A Mathematical Model, International Journal ofTextile and Fashion Technology, March(2013)15. M. S. Burnip and s. M. A. Fahmy., Experimental studies of the dimensional Properties ofdouble-knit fabrics, Journal of Textile Institute, 9,272-282(1977).16. Noboru Aisaka., Mathematcial considerations of weft knitting process, Journal Of TheTextile Machinery Society Of Japan,24,82-90(1971).17. Nuiting. T.S., Kinetic Yam Friction and Knitting, Journal of Textile Institute, 51, 190-202(1960).18. Noboru aisaka, and Tatsuya kawakami., knitting tension during weft knitting process,Journal of Textile Machinery Of Japan,22,228-233(1969).19. Necia Ann Tou, An investigation of arcing in two structure weft knit fabrics, A ph.Dthesis, 2005.
  • 12. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME27020. Pietikaeinen, L., Influence Of Yarn Properties And Type Of Yarn Feeding On LoopFormation Process, Melliand Textilber, 10, 603-608(1981).21. Ray, S.C., and Banerjee P.K., Some preliminary investigations into mechanics of 1x1 ribloop formation on a dial and cylinder machine, Indian Journal of Fibre & TextileResearch. 25, 97-107(2000).22. Semnani, D., and Sheikhzadesh ,M .,Online control of knitted fabric quality, Journal ofEngineered Fibers And Fabrics ,1-5 ,2005.23. Spencer, D.J., knitting technology, third edition, 85(2001), Woodhead PublishingLimited.24. Sadhan chandra Ray., and Banerjee P.K., Mechanics of 1x1 rib loop formation on a dialand cylinder machine: part I- Modelling of the 1x1 rib loop formation process, IndianJournal of Fibre & Textile Research. 28,185-196(2003).25. Sadhan chandra Ray., and Banerjee P.K ., Mechanics of 1x1 rib loop formation on a dialand cylinder machine: part III-Validation of the Model, Indian Journal of Fibre & TextileResearch. 28,246-259(2003).26. Shusov E.Yu.,kudryavin, and Yu.S.Shustov, Mathematical determination of threadlength in the knitted loop, Fibre chemistry, 37(2), 2005.27. T. Pusch., I. Wünsch, P. Offermann., Dynamics of yarn tension on knitting machines,AUTEX Research Journal, 2, 54-63(2000).28. T. W.-Y. Lau and J. J. F. Knapton., The design and dynamics of non-linear cams for useIn high-speed weft-knitting machines Part II: the analysis of knitting-yarn tensions withNon-linear cams and negative feed, Journal of Textile Institute, 6,169-175(1978).29. Tou, Necia Ann., An Investigation of Arcing in Two Structure Weft Knit Fabrics, a Ph.Dthesis report (2005).30. W. Marvin and M. Mulchandani., Some Observations on Yarn Tension during Knitting,Supplement To The Textile Institute And Industry, 4-11(1965).31. www.Ellis Developments Limited.com.32. Vivek Chauhan, Mukesh Verma, Sarabjot Singh and Prince, “Optimization and Analysisof Coloring of Cotton Yarn System in Mat Manufacturing unit by using Reliability andAvailability Engineering”, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering &Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 217 - 225, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340,ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.

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