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Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial
Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial
Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial
Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial
Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial
Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial
Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial
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Stabilization of medium plastic clays using industrial

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  • 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME38STABILIZATION OF MEDIUM PLASTIC CLAYS USINGINDUSTRIAL WASTESDr. K.V.Krishna ReddyProfessor & Principal, Chilkur Balaji Institute of Technology, Hyderabad-75, AP, IndiaABSTRACTIn the present study, an attempt is made to determine the utility of industrial wastes instabilization of medium plastic clays (CI). Fly ash (FA) and waste tire rubber (WTR) havebeen considered to investigate their potential in stabilizing the CI soils. Laboratoryexperimentation is done to evaluate the optimum contents of fly ash and waste tire rubbercontent to check the California Bearing Ratio strength (CBR), Differential Free Swell % andUnconfined Compressive Strength (UCC) strength. The results indicated that the peakstrength values are obtained at 25% of flyash and 6% of waste tire rubber content by weightof soil.Key Words: Soil Stabilization, Medium Plastic Clays, Waste tire rubber, Fly ashINTRODUCTIONWith rapid industrialization and urbanization, extensive use of land has becomeimminent and in most of the cases land is not readily useful because of low strengthcharacteristics. Clay soils are one among them which cover a large part of the country. Inabsence of good areas that can take the load, it is imperative that the engineer has noalternative but to look for methods of strengthening such areas. It is well-accepted fact thatindustrialization and urbanization leads to production of a number of industrial wastes thatare of serious environmental concern. Two among them are flyash (FA) and waste tire rubber(WTR). In this context the study is oriented to use them for stabilizing clay soils of mediumplasticity with a view to use them in pavements sector.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING ANDTECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 38-44© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.3277 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCIET© IAEME
  • 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME391. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYLaboratory experimentation is done to determine the optimum additives contentfor stabilizing the clay soil of medium plasticity (CI) with fly ash and waste tire rubber.As the requirement for pavement sector aims at achieving not only a higher CBR valuebut also volume stability. Differential Free Differential Free Swell % is also evaluated forthe stabilized soils and UCC Strength.2.1 Flyash as additiveClay of medium plasticity has been procured from Jadcherla, a place near toHyderabad. Flyash is available in abundant quantities from thermal power plants, free ofcost within a radius of 100km to avoid disposal problems. Flyash has been collected fromRamagundam super thermal power plant for the study. Flyash is added at 15, 20, 25, 30and 35% by weight of soil. IS heavy compaction test has been conducted on threesamples of CI soil and that of each modified mix to determine the maximum dry density(MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC). CBR test was conducted on three samplesof each mix at OMC, after curing for 7 days by covering with wet sand followed by 96hours of soaking. Volume stability is investigated by evaluating the Atterberg limits andDifferential Free Swell % of the mix at optimum fly ash content.2.2 Waste tire rubber as additiveWaste tire rubber obtained by grinding scrap pneumatic motor vehicle and trucktires is procured locally. The same is added to CI soil at 2%,4%,6% and 8% by weight ofsoil. IS heavy compaction test has been conducted on three samples of CI soil and that ofeach modified mix to determine the maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisturecontent (OMC). CBR test was conducted on three samples of each mix at OMC, aftercuring for 7 days by covering with wet sand followed by 96 hours of soaking. Volumestability is investigated by evaluating the Atterberg limits and Differential Free Swell %of the mix at optimum WTR content.3 DATA ANALYSIS3.1 Basic Material PropertiesThe basic material properties used are depicted in the Tables 1 to 3. Table 1 givesthe properties of the CI soil, Table 2 represent the properties of waste tire rubber procuredand Table 3 depicts the physical and chemical properties of flyash.
  • 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME40Table 1 Properties of CI soilS. No. Property Value1 Grain Size DistributionGravel (%)Sand (%)Silt size (%)Clay size (%)-1.231.467.42 Atterberg LimitsLiquid Limit (%)Plastic Limit (%)Plasticity Index4825233 Compaction propertiesOptimum moisture content (%)Maximum Dry Density (g/cc)17.01.634 Soaked CBR (%) 2.865 Specific gravity 2.7Table 2 Properties of waste tire rubberProperty ValueParent Bus and Truck tireSpecific gravity 1.19Particle size takenPassing 1.18mm sieveRetained on 0.6mm sieveTable 3 Properties of FlyashS. No. Property Pond ash1 Grain Size DistributionGravel (%)Sand (%)Silt size (%)Clay size (%)-54.643.61.82 Atterberg Limits NP3 Specific gravity 2.044 Loss on ignition (%) 2.225 Chemical Composition (%)SiO2A12O3Fe2O3TiO2K2OCaOMn2O3ZrO2SrONiONb2O5V2O557.00719.55115.7093.1581.2713.5100.1970.1840.0280.0420.0120.049
  • 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME413.2 Trials with flyashAs indicated in the methodology, flyash was added at the rate of 20, 25 and 30% byweight of soil. It has been observed that there was a decrease in the optimum moisturecontent from 17.05% to 16.50% with an increase in the flyash content from 0 to 30%. Themaximum dry density increased from 1.63g/cc to 1.68g/cc up to 25% flyash and thendecreased to 1.63g/cc as the flyash content increased to 30%.The CBR value increased from 2.86 to 10.09 as the flyash content increased from 0 to25% and then a decrease was observed with increase in the flyash beyond 25%. Thecompaction characteristics and CBR values of the modified mix are depicted in Table 4. TheCBR curves for CI soil with flyash as admixture are depicted in Fig. 1.Table 4 Properties of CI soil with flyash as admixtureS.NoPropertyType of MixCICI +20% FACI + 25% FA CI + 30% FA1 CompactionPropertiesOMC (%)MDD (g/cc)17.01.6316.951.65816.801.67516.501.6302 Soaked CBR(%)2.86 4.97 10.09 7.080.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00Penetration (0.01mm)0.0050.00100.00150.00200.00250.00Provingringreading(div)1234SNO MIX CBR(%)1 CI+0%FA 2.862 CI+20%FA 4.973 CI+25%FA 10.14 CI+30%FA 6.58Fig1. Penetration Vs Proving Ring Reading for CI and FA Stabilized CI Soil3.3 Trial with waste tire rubberWaste tire rubber is added at 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by weight of CI soil and thecompaction properties along with soaked CBR values are indicated in the table 5. It has beenobserved that the maximum CBR strength occurred at an optimum rubber content of 6%. TheCBR curves for BC soil with waste tire rubber as admixture are depicted in Fig. 2
  • 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME42Table 5 Properties of CI soil with Waste tire Rubber as admixtureS.NoPropertyType of MixCICI +2% WTRCI + 4%WTRCI + 6%WTRCI + 8%WTR1 CompactionPropertiesOMC (%)MDD (g/cc)17.01.6317.91.6017.71.5717.641.5817.81.562 Soaked CBR(%)2.86 3.25 4.20 4.36 3.950.00 100.00 200.00 300.00 400.00 500.00Penetration (0.01mm)0.0020.0040.0060.0080.00100.00Provingringreading(DIV)54321SNO MIX CBR(%)1 CI+0%WTR 2.862 CI+2%WTR 3.253 CI+4%WTR 4.204 CI+6%WTR 4.365 CI+8%WTR 3.95Fig2. Penetration Vs Proving Ring Reading for CI and WTR Stabilized CI Soil4 RESULTThe Soaked CBR, Differential Free Swell % and the 7 day Unconfined Compressivestrength of the CI soil in comparison with the stabilized mixes are indicated in table 6.Table 6 Differential Free swell and strength characteristics of stabilized mixesS.NoPropertyType of MixCICI +25%FACI +6%WTR1 Soaked CBR (%) 2.65 102 Differential Free Swell (%) 22 11 173 UCC kN/m2(7Day) 61 330 182
  • 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME435 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAt the outset the author would thank the Head, CED, Vasavi college of Engineering,SE R&B Department for their valuable guidance and encouragement during experimentation.6. CONCLUSION(a) 25% addition of fly ash to the medium plastic clay soils (CI) resulted in a CBR valueof 10% and a 7 Day UCC strength of 330 kN/Sqm.(b) 6% addition of waste tire rubber content to CI soil resulted in a CBR value of 4.36%and a 7 day UCC value of 80kN/Sqm.(c) The differential free swell % evaluated for the optimal mixes indicated that thestabilized mixes exhibited low expansiveness.(d) Industrial wastes namely fly ash and waste tire rubber can be effectively used tostabilize clay subgrades to achieve high strength values thus resulting in decreasedpavement thickness and low maintenance.7. REFERENCES1. Chaturvedi, A.C. (1977), “Expansive Soil in India with special reference to U.P.”, Proc.of First National Symposium on Expansive Soils, HBTI- Kanpur, India, pp 2-1 to 2-5.2. Chen, F.H (1988), “Foundations on Expansive Soils”, Elsevier Publishing Co.,Amsterdam.3. Chopra, S.K., Reshi, S.S., and Garg, S.K. (1964), “ Use of Fly Ash as a Pozzolana”,Proc. Symposium on Pozzolan, their survey, Manufacture and Utilizat5ion, CRRI,India, p.18.4. Chu, S. C., and Kao, H. S. (1993), “A Study of Engineering Properties of a ClayModified by Flyash and Slag”, Flyash for Soil Improvement Geotechnical SpecialPublication, Vol. 36, pp 89-99.5. Chu, T.Y. (1955), “Soil Stabilisation with Lime Fly Ash mixture, Preliminary studieswith Silty and Clayey Soils”, HRB, No.108, p.102.6. Cokca, E. (2001), “Use of Class C Fly Ashes for the Stabilisation of an ExpansiveSoil”, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 127, No.7, pp568-573.7. Collins, R. J., and Ciesielski, S. K. (1992), “Highway Construction use of wastes andBy-products” Utilization of Waste Materials in Civil Engineering Construction,Published by ASCE, New York, pp.140-1528. Eades, J.L., and Grim, R.E. (1960), “Reaction of Hydrated Lime with Pure ClayMinerals in Soil Stabilisation”, HRB, No.262, pp.51-63.9. Edil, T.B., Benson, C.H., Bin-Shafique, M.S., Tanyu, B.F., Kim, W.H., Senol. (2002),“A Field Evaluation of Construction Alternatives for Roadways over Soft Subgrade”,TRR-1786, TRB, pp 36-48.10. Ferguson, G. (1993), “Use of self-cementing flyash as a soil stabilizing agent” Proc.Geotechnical special publication, No. 36, ASCE, New York.11. FHWA, (1995), “Flyash Facts for the Highway Engineers” FHNA – SA – 44 – 081,December 1995, pp. 70.
  • 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), © IAEME4412. Ghosh, R.K., Chadda, L.R., Pant, C.S., and Sharma, R.K. (1973), “Stabilisation ofAlluvial Soils with both Lime and F1yash”, Journal of Indian Roads Congress, Vol. 35,No.2, pp 481-511.13. Gizienski, S.F., and Lee, L.J, (1965), “Comparison of Laboratory Swell Tests to SmallField Tests”, Proc. 2ndInternational Research and Engineering Conference onExpansive Clay Soils, Texas.14. Goecker, W.L. (1956), “Stabilisation of Fine Coarse Grained Soils with Lime and FlyAsh Mixtures”, HRB, No.129, p.63.15. Holtz, W.G and Gibbs, H.J (1956), “Engineering Properties of Expansive Clays”,Transactions of ASCE, Vol. 121, pp 641-647.16. Holtz, W.G., and Gibbs, H. J. (1959), “Expansive Clay Properties and Problems”,Quarterly of Colorado Scholl of Mines, Vol. 54, No.4.17. Hopkins, T.C., Beckham, T.L., Sun, L., Ni, B., and Butcher, B. (2002), “Long-TermBenefits of Stabilizing Soil Subgrades” Rep. No. KTC-02-19/SPR-196-99-1F,Kentucky Transportation Centre, University of Kentucky.18. Little Dallas N. (1999), “Assessment of Insitu Structural Properties of Lime StabilizedClay Subgrades”, TRR-1546, pp. 13-31.19. Ramana Murthy, V. (1998), “Study on Swell Pressure and the Method of ControllingSwell of Expansive Soil”, Ph.D. Thesis, Kakatiya University, REC, Warangal.20. Seda, J. H., Joon, L. C., & Carraro, J. A. (2007). Beneficial Use of Waste Tire RubberforSwelling Potential Mitigation in Expansive Soils. Geotechnical Special Publication172.Denver, Colorado: American Society of Civil Engineers.21. Youwai, S., & Bergado, D. (2003). Strength and Deformation Characteristics ofShredded Rubber Tire-Sand Mixtures. Can. Geotech, 254-264.22. Dr. K.V.Krishna Reddy, “Rutting Resistance of Filler Modified Bituminous ConcreteSurfaces”, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 250 - 257, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.23. Dr. K.V.Krishna Reddy and K.P.Reddy, “Maturity Period and Curing as ImportantQuality Control Parameters for Lime Stabilized Clay Subgrades”, International Journalof Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 393 - 401,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.24. P.A. Ganeshwaran, Suji and S. Deepashri, “Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of SelfCompacting Concrete with Manufactured Sand and Fly Ash”, International Journal ofCivil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 60 - 69, ISSNPrint: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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