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Soliton optical fibers supercontinuum generation near the zero dispersion
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Soliton optical fibers supercontinuum generation near the zero dispersion
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1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL ResearchJanuary - April (2013), © IAEME 0976 – International Journal of Industrial Engineering OF INDUSTRIAL(IJIERD), ISSN 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, and Development ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJIERD) ISSN 0976 – 6979 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6987 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013), pp. 52-58 IJIERD © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijierd.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.1283 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEME www.jifactor.com SOLITON OPTICAL FIBERS SUPERCONTINUUM GENERATION NEAR THE ZERO DISPERSION Elham Jasim Mohammad 1, Gaillan H. Abdullah 2 1 Physics Department, Collage of Sciences/Al-Mustansiriyah University, Iraq, 2 Physics Directorate, Technology Materials Chemistry/Ministry of Science, Iraq, ABSTRACT During the last decade, the development of supercontinua (SC) sources has emerged as an interesting and active research field. This is largely due to new technological developments, which have allowed more controlled and accessible generation of supercontinua. In this paper we study the dynamics of Raman soliton during supercontinuum process when the pulse experiences initially normal group velocity dispersion with a negative dispersion. In this situation, the blue components of the spectrum form a Raman soliton moves faster than the input pulse because of Raman induced frequency downshifting ceases to occur as the spectrum of Raman soliton approaches the zero dispersion point. From this study one can distinguish that the first order bright soliton pulse depends on two important bases: first depends on the contents of the optical fibers and building method, where it is accomplished by making a balance between the dispersion effect and the nonlinear effect. The second depends on the parameters for mode and the starting point of the pulse shape inside the fiber such as the pulse width, normalized propagation distance and the existence of any nonlinear external effect. Keywords : Group velocity dispersion, Optical fiber, Soliton, Supercontinuum.I. INTRODUCTION In optics, a supercontinuum (SC) is formed when a collection of nonlinear processes act together upon a pump beam in order to cause severe spectral broadening of the original pump beam. The result is a smooth spectral continuum (see figure 1 for a typical example) . 52
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013), © IAEMEFigure 1. A typical supercontinuum spectrum. The blue line shows the spectrum of the pumpsource launched into a photonic crystal fiber while the red line shows the resultingsupercontinuum spectrum generated after propagating through the fiber . There is no definitive explanation of how much broadening constitutes asupercontinuum; however researchers have published work claiming as little as 60 nm ofbroadening as a supercontinuum. Supercontinuum generation in photonics crystal fibers (PCF) has attractedconsiderable attention in recent years because of its wide applications ranging fromspectroscopy and metrology to telecommunications. Extensive studies reveal that severalphysical phenomena are involved in the process of SC generation when an ultrashort opticalpulse experiences anomalous dispersion and undergoes enormous spectral broadening duringits propagation inside a PCF. Self-phase modulation (SPM), intra-pulse Raman scattering(IPRS), four wave mixing, cross-phase modulation (XPM), modulation instability, anddispersive wave (DW) generation are the major nonlinear processes that take part activelyduring SC generation . The interplay between the dispersion and nonlinearity of the waveguide producesoptical solitons whose dynamics play a pivotal role in the process of SC generation when anultrashort optical pulse is launched in the anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD)domain. In particular, the ideal periodic evolution of a higher order soliton is perturbed bythird and higher order dispersions (HOD) to the extent that it breaks into its fundamentalcomponents, a phenomenon known as soliton fission. These fundamental solitons experienceinduced red shifts, and this shift is largest for the shortest soliton with the highest peak power,also called the Raman soliton. During the fission process, HOD terms lead to transfer ofenergy from the soliton to a narrowband resonant DW, also called non-solitonic radiation.This DW is emitted on the blue side of the original pulse spectrum for positive values of thirdorder dispersion and is of considerable practical importance for generating blue shiftedradiation [2-4]. The interaction between the soliton and the DW turns out to be quiteinteresting and it has been studied extensively in recent years with an analogy to gravity likepotential. Though nonlinear propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in dispersive single modeoptical fibers has steadily been investigated over the last three decades, studies on continuouswave (CW) partially coherent light have been scarce. It is well known that dispersiveproperties of the PCF play a governing role in producing the DW and controlling the SCgeneration. Recent developments in PCF technology have made it possible to observe newregimes of nonlinear pulse propagation because such fibers exhibit fascinating dispersion 53
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013), © IAEME profiles with enhanced nonlinearities. An appropriate design of a PCF not only shifts the zero dispersion wavelengths (ZDW) toward shorter wavelengths but also produces dispersion profiles with multiple ZD points, features unattainable with conventional fibers . Unusual soliton dynamics are expected when an ultrashort optical pulse is launched in the vicinity of a ZD point since the broadened pulse spectrum experiences opposite types of dispersion across the ZD point.II. WAVE PROPAGATION IN FIBERS No presentation of nonlinear phenomena in fibers can be done without considering the implications of the polarization, on the propagation. The wave equation for the field is : 1 ∂2E ∂ 2 PL ∂ 2 PNL (1) ∇ 2E − 2 2 = −µ0 2 − µ0 c ∂t ∂t ∂t 2 Where: t is the time with the polarization terms from: P = ε 0 (χ (1 ) .E + χ (2) . EE + χ separated into the linear part, PL and the nonlinear (3) . EEE + ...) part, PNL . Tackling (1) for a general system in the vector form is a formidable task. However, we can still express a wealth of phenomena with some simplifying assumptions. Assume the polarization remains the same throughout propagation, temporal retarded effects (such as stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering) represent only a perturbation and are introduced to (1). Neglecting polarization changes allows a simple scalar treatment to be used. It also simplifies the treatment of the susceptibility χ . The nonlinear polarization becomes : PNL = χ ( 3 ) . E . E . E . Assuming the spectrum of the electric field is centered around the frequency ω 0 , β ( ω ) can be expanded in a taylor series : ω 1 (2) β (ω ) = n (ω ) = β 0 + β 1 (ω − ω 0 ) + β 2 (ω − ω 0 ) 2 + ... c 2 where β m represents the mth derivative of the propagation constant with respect to ω : d mβ (3) β (ω ) = dω m The first order term, β 1 , describes the motion of the pulse envelope, and is related to the group velocity by β 1 = ν g− 1 . All higher order terms describe the dispersion of the medium. The dominant contributions come from the second order term β 2 also called GVD and the third order term β 3 , also called simply third order dispersion. For completeness, β 2 is related to the dispersion coefficient defined as : D = − 2 π2c β 2 . λ 54
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013), © IAEMEIII. SOLITON FISSION REGIME In the soliton fission regime a short, high power, femtosecond pulse is launched into the photonic crystal fiber or other highly nonlinear fiber. The femtosecond pulse may be considered as a high order soliton, consequently it rapidly broadens and then fissions into fundamental solitons. During the fission process excess energy is shed as dispersive waves on the short wavelength side. Generally these dispersive waves will undergo no further shifting and thus the extension short of the pump is dependent on how broadly the soliton expands as it breathes [6,7]. The fundamental solitons then undergo intra-pulse Raman scattering and shift to longer wavelengths (also known as the soliton self-frequency shift), generating the long wavelength side of the continuum. It is possible for the soliton Raman continuum to interact with the dispersive radiation via four wave mixing and cross-phase modulation. Under certain circumstances, it is possible for these dispersive waves to be coupled with the solitons via the soliton trapping effect. This effect means that as the soliton self-frequency shifts to longer wavelengths, the coupled dispersive wave is shifted to shorter wavelengths as dictated by the group velocity matching conditions. Generally, this soliton trapping mechanism allows for the continuum to extend to shorter wavelengths than is possible via any other mechanism [6-9]. We can define a soliton fission length, L fiss , to estimate the length at which the highest soliton compression is achieved, such that : L fiss = L D = τ 02 . N β 2 γ P0 where L D is the characteristic dispersion length , N is the soliton order and τ is the minimum pulse width. As fission tends to occur at this length then provided that L fiss is shorter than the length of the fiber and other characteristic length scales such as the modulation instability length, fission will dominate .IV. SIMULATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION We proceed with the supercontinuum generation near the zero dispersion using MATLAB which is a great and easy tool to use to simulate optical electronics. Supercontinuum sources based on the extreme broadening of laser pulses in nonlinear photonic crystal fibers have been predicted to be a very interesting technology in the scientific as well as the industrial communities.The first supercontinuum generated in PCF operated in this regime and many of the subsequent experiments also made use of ultrashort pulsed femtosecond systems as a pump source. One of the main advantages of this regime is that the continuum often exhibits a high degree of temporal coherence; in addition it is possible to generate broad supercontinua in very short lengths of PCF. All the results below are got after following these steps: 1- Generalized the Nonlinear SchrÖdinger Equation NLSE. 2- Calculate the attenuation coefficient. 3- Applied the Taylor expansion. 4- Found the time domain field and time domain intensity. 5- Implementation of group velocity dispersion relation. 55
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013), © IAEME Figure 2 (a) time and (b) input filed spectra versus the wavelength respectively. In thecase of (a), mean= -3.073E-016, mode= -6.25 and the slandered deviation (STD) = 3.609.While in (b) mean= 0.7137, mode= 5.317E-094 and the STD= 6.703. 8 100 6 90 80 4 70 2 Time Grid (ps) 60 Input Field 0 50 40 -2 30 -4 20 -6 10 -8 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm)Figure 2 (a) Time versus the wavelength. (b) The input filed spectra versus the wavelength. Supercontinuum generation is a process in which multiple colors are generatedthrough the nonlinear interaction of the laser pulse with the material. The longer theinteraction length, the larger amount of nonlinear interaction. We will see that the lengthscale over which nonlinear effects are manifested is not typically limited by the fiber length,but by other effects such as dispersion. Figure 3 (a) time domino intensity versus thewavelength, (b) the spectral intensity versus the wavelength for deferent soliton order. 50 100 0 50 0 -50 Time Domain Intensity (ps) -50 -100 Spectral Intensity -100 -150 -150 -200 -200 -250 -250 -300 -300 -350 -350 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 Wavelength (nm) Wavelength (nm)Figure 3 (a) Time domino intensity versus the (b) The spectral intensity versus the wavelength. wavelength. Figure 4 show the distance versus wavelength. It explains the temporal evolution ofan optical pulse launched in the normal dispersion domain close to the ZD wavelength.Although SC generation in the case of anomalous GVD has been studied extensively, muchless attention has been paid to the case of normal GVD. In soliton fission fundamentalsolitons experience intra-pulse Raman scattering induced red shifts, and this shift is largestfor the shortest soliton with the highest peak power, also called the Raman soliton. During thefission process, high order dispersion terms lead to transfer of energy from the soliton to anarrowband resonant DW, also called non-solitonic radiation. This DW is emitted on the blueside of the original pulse. 56
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013), © IAEME Figure 4 Distance versus the wavelength for deferent numbers of soliton order. Figure 5 explain the relationship between the distance and delay. It show the spectral evolution of an optical pulse launched in the normal dispersion domain close to the ZD wavelength. Numerical simulations shown in Fig. 6 reveal that bending of the temporal trajectory occurs earlier and quicker with increasing values of N soliton order. This is expected because IPRS increases with the soliton order, producing larger red shifts. The DW on the other hand accelerates rapidly with increasing soliton order. Since DW never overlaps with the Raman soliton, it is not trapped by this soliton. These features are clearly seen in Fig. 6 where we show temporal evolution for deferent values of N. Figure 5 Distances versus the Delay for deferent numbers of soliton order.V. CONCLUSION From the results above, numerical features are revealed when a picosecond pulse is launched in the normal GVD region with a monotonous dispersion slope. The nonlinear pulse broadening phenomenon of supercontinuum generation in fibers has been the subject of much recent research. In this paper we have focused on the supercontinuum process taking place when a picosecond pulse is launched close to the ZD wavelength of a fiber. We discuss soliton dynamics in the light of group delay curve when input pulse is launched exactly at the ZD. For a negative value of third order dispersion (TOD), the Raman soliton is formed by the blue components of the pulse falling in the anomalous GVD regime and it exhibits unusual dynamics by pulling its counterpart in the red region of the spectrum. In the case of a positive 57
International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 –6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January - April (2013), © IAEMETOD, optical soliton is formed by the red components of the pulse and is found to interactwith its counterpart via cross-phase modulation during propagation inside the PCF, resultingin a spectral pushing. Unusual dynamics of the Raman soliton is observed when the pulse islaunched in the normal dispersion domain with a negative TOD. In this situation, the bluecomponents of the pulse form a Raman soliton that moves faster than the signal pulse.However, as it is red shifted through IPRS, it gradually begins to decelerate. Thisdeceleration stops when the soliton spectrum approaches the ZD point because of acancellation of the Raman induced spectral shift.REFERENCES H. Takara, T. Ohara, T. Yamamoto, H. Masuda, M. Abe, H. Takahashi, and T. Morioka, Field demonstration of over 1000-channel DWDM transmission with supercontinuum multi-carrier source, Elect. Lett. 41, 2005, 270–271. S. Roy, S. K. Bhadra, K. Saitoh,M. Koshiba and G. P. Agrawal, Dynamics of Raman soliton during supercontinuum generation near the zero-dispersion wavelength of optical fibers, OSA, 19(11), 2011. A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 2001, 203901. J. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. Windeler, Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating of the broadband continuum generation in photonics crystal fibers: simulations and experiments, Opt. Express 10(21), 2002, 1215–1221. Rafael R. Gattass, Femtosecond-laser interactions with transparent materials: applications in micromachining and supercontinuum generation, doctoral diss., Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2006. J. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber, Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 2006, 1135. Tr. X. Tran and F. Biancalana, Dynamics and control of the early stage of supercontinuum generation in submicron-core optical fibers, Phys. Rev. A79, 2009, 065802. I. Cristiani, R. Tediosi, L. Tartara, and V. Degiorgio, Dispersive wave generation by solitons in microstructured optical fibers, Opt. Express 12, 2004, 124–135. G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, and H. Ludvigsen, Effect of cross-phase modulation on supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers with sub-30 fs pulses, Opt. Express 12, 2004, 4614–4624. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm, Opt. Lett. 25, 2000, 25–27. 58