Solar arrays through power generation & tracking
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    Solar arrays through power generation & tracking Solar arrays through power generation & tracking Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology ENGINEERING – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) IJMETVolume 3, Issue 3, Septmebr - December (2012), pp. 203-213© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.htmlJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com SOLAR ARRAYS THROUGH POWER GENRATION & TRACKING Babu Suryawanshi1, Ibrahim Patel2, Dr. K. Prabhakar Rao3 (1) Prof and, HOD. of Mechanical Engg., Maharashtra Engg.college Nilanga (M.S) babu.suryawanshi@gmail.com (2) Assoc. Prof. Dept of ECE Dr. B.V. Raju Inst. of Technology Narsapur Medak (Dist) A. P. ptlibrahim@gmail.com (3) Prof. Dr. Colonel (Retd.) Principal Raja Mahendra college of Engg. Ibrahmpatanam RR (Dist) mailstokprao@yahoo.com ABSTRACT This paper explores the use of Mechatronics in the development of intermittent energy. The paper draws an idea from the fact that the sun bathers the earth with more energy per minute then the world consumes in one year. The paper effectively demonstrates and suggests the use of solar energy which is the most inexhaustible instead of going for short term & self exhaustive energy sources. The paper proposes a fuzzy algorithm to achieve optimal solar tracking with greater efficiency. The proposed system uses a dc motor and light sensor & fuzzy logic. KEYWORD: - Solar Cell, DC Motor, Solar Energy, fuzzy-logic, Light Sensor, Mechatronics System, I. INTRODUCTION Extraction of useable energy from the sun made possible by the invention of the Photovolatile device and successive growth of the solar cell. The cell is a semiconductor material that converts visible light into a direct current. By using solar arrays, a series of solar cells electrically connected, a DC voltage is generated which can be physically used on a load. Photovolatile arrays or panels are being used increasingly as efficiencies reach upper levels, and are particularly fashionable in remote areas where placement of electricity lines is not cost-effectively viable. As shown in fig. 1 203
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Fig.1: Solar arrays stationary setup This substitute power supply is always achieving greater popularity especially since therealization of fossil fuels shortcomings. Renewable energy in the form of electrical energy has been in useto some measure as long as 75 or 100 years ago. Sources such as Solar, Wind, Hydro and Geothermalhave all been utilized with varying levels of success. The most widely used are hydro and wind power,with solar power being moderately used worldwide. This can be attributed to the relatively high cost ofsolar cells and their low conversion efficiency. Solar power is being heavily researched, and solar energycosts have now reached within a few cents per kW/h of other forms of electricity generation, and willdrop further with new technologies such as titanium oxide cells. With a peak laboratory efficiency of 32%and average efficiency of 15-20%, it is necessary to recover as much energy as possible from a solarpower system. As shown in the fig. 2. Fig. 2: Block diagram of the solar systems. II. STATE –OF-ARTS The research surrounding solar energy has a brief history of rapid growth. Bell TelephoneLaboratories originally created Solar Cells during the 1970s (Nansen, 1995). Utilization of thisdeveloping technology may lead to long-term solutions to the growing energy crisis. With the continueddamage to the environment and growth of energy demands new sources of energy must be realized forcontinued prosperity. Experts can all agree that two basic criteria must be observed to be considered aviable option. Energy must be low cost and reliable (Meisen, 2002; Nanson, 1995). Other criteria to beconsidered are environmental effects (Meisen, 2002; Nanson, 1995) and usability of the type of energy(Aronson, 2009; Nanson, 1995). Aronson (2009) said: “Solar and wind energy, classified as intermittent 204
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMEpower, are potential sources of tremendous energy. But, the long-standing challenge is converting thatenergy into usable power. (p. 48)” Mechatronics Application to Solar Tracking Continuedexperimentation has driven the growth of this technology to levels of practical application. The advancesin manufacturing and growing markets demand has lowered the cost of solar cells to one-seventh of theproduction cost during 1980 (Wolcott, 2002). Nansen said, “worldwide output of solar cells has increasedfifty-fold since 1978 (p. 92).” Meisen said,” IIASA/UNDP have offered a radically different scenario thatshows renewable energy, especially solar, becoming a major market share by 2050 (p. 117).” Aronsonhas identified the following “categories of solar power systems.” As our current utility systems are based on the burning of carbon fuels environmentalists are studyingthe effects on the environment. Energy utilities Mechatronics Application to Solar Tracking producegreenhouse gasses. As energy demand rises, the production of greenhouse gasses will also rise. Nuclearpower is another alternative that is harmful to the environment. Nansen (1995) said: “Nuclear power usesa depletable resource and also leaves in its wake toxic nuclear waste.” “Hydroelectric power is generatedby a wonderful renewable source, but there are few rivers left in the world to dam and there is a growingconcern over the impact dams have on the fish population (p. 7).” From Nansen’s statement we see theimplications of hydroelectric power and how its effects the ecosystem in rivers. Rose and Pinkertonemphasize the pollution caused by coal and nuclear power. Rose and Pinkerton (1981): “Solar cells haveno known adverse environmental impacts during operation. Another study was conducted by Mohammed S. Al-Soud, Essam Abdallah, Ali Akayleh, SalahAbdallah, and Eyad S. Hrayshat developed a parabolic solar cooker that automatically tracked the sun. Thecooker consisted of a parabolic array of mirrors focusing on a black steel tube in the center. Two motorscontrolled the tilt and rotation of the cooker. Water was pumped into the black steel tube on one end andexited the other end. A PLC controlled the system and adjusted the cooker based on previously calculatedsolar angles. Incremental position adjustments were made in 10-20 minute increments on the horizontalaxis and 15-35 minute increments on the vertical axis (Al-Soud, et al., 2010). The parabolic solar cookerheated the tube water to temperatures of 90̊C in Amman, Jordan (Al-Soud, et al., 2010). Ibrahim Sefa, Mehmet Demirtas, and Ilhami Colak (2009) designed a single axis sun tracking system inTurkey. The sun tracking system developed by Sefa and others included a serial communication interfacebased on Rs 485 to monitor whole processes on a computer and record the data. Feedback data wasrecorded by two photoresistors. The solar cell was aligned at a fixed 41̊ facing south (Sefa, et al., 2009).A microcontroller observed and controlled the east-west rotation of the tracker by means of 24V 50W dcmotor (Sefa, et al., 2009). The results of the measured energy showed an increase up to 46.46% ofcollected solar energy (Sefa, et al., 2009). Yusuf Oner, Engin Cetin, Harun Kemal Ozturk, and AhmetYilanci (2009) developed a solar tracker utilizing the application of a spherical motor. The motor containsa rotor containing a four pole magnet surrounded by eight individually energized stator poles (Oner, et al.,2009). With the magnet in the middle direction is controlled by the surrounding stator poles (Oner, et al.,2009). This design allows for three degrees of freedom. The degrees of freedom being forward and backtilt, a left and right lateral tilt, and rotation along a z-axis. III. PHOTOVOLTAICS DESCRIPTION Photovoltaic (PV) cells utilize semiconductor technology to convert solar radiation directly intoan electric current which can be used immediately or stored for future use. PV cells are often grouped inthe form of “modules” to produce arrays which have the capability to produce power for orbiting satellitesand other spacecraft. Recently, with the continual decline of manufacturing costs (declining 3% to 5% peryear in recent years), uses of PV technology have grown to include home power generation, and grid-connected electricity generation. 205
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME On the other hand, the holes created in the n-material, which are positively charged, are pushed overinto the p-material. In fact, what is really happening here is that an electron from the p-material, whichwas also made mobile by the adsorption of a photon, is pushed by the electric field across the junction andinto the n-material to fill the newly created holes? This completes the circuit as the electrons flows in allthe way around the circuit, dropping the energy they acquired from photons at a load as shown in Figure3. The equivalent circuit of the solar cell is shown in Fig. 4. Figure 3: PV Cell Working Principle Fig. 4: Solar cell equivant circuit The current supply Iph represents the electric current generated from the sun beaming on the solarcell. Rj is the non-linear impedance of the P-N junction. Dj is a P-N junction diode, Rsh and Rs representthe equivalent lineup with the interior of the materials and connecting resistances in series. Usually ingeneral analysis, R sh is large, and the value of Rs is small. Therefore in order to simplify the process ofanalysis, one can ignore Rsh and Rs. The symbol o R represents the external load. I and V represent theoutput current and the voltage of the solar cell, respectively. From the equivalent circuit, and based on thecharacteristics of the P-N junction presents the connection between the output current I and the outputvoltage V;   q V   Where np represents the parallel integer of the solar I = n p I ph − n p I sat  exp   kTA n  − 1  , − − − (1 )    s  cell; ns represents the series connected integer of the solar cell; q represents the contained electricity in anelectro (1 . 6 × 10 − 19 Columbic ); k is Boltzmann constant (1 . 38 × 10 − 23 j / k ); Tis the temperature of thesolar cell (absolute temperature K °); and A is the ideal factor of the solar cell (A=1 ~ 5). The current Isatin (1) represents the reversion saturation current of the solar power. Further, Isat can be determined byusing the following formula: 3 T   qE Gap  1 1  Where Tr represents the reference temperature of theI sat = I rr   exp    T − T   ,− − − − ( 2 )   Tr   kA  r solar cell; Irr is the reversion saturation current at the time when the solar cell reaches its temperature Tr;and EGap is the energy needed for crossing the energy band gap for the semiconductor materials, (thecrystalline Ve EGap ≅). 206
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME From the study we are able to know when the temperature is fixed, the stronger the sunlight is,the higher the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current are. Here we can see the obvious effects ofthe short-circuit current by the illumination rather than the open-circuit current. Therefore the solar cellcan provide higher output rate as the sunlight becomes stronger, i.e. solar cell facing the sun. IV. SYSTEM BLOCK DIAGRAM The system architecture of the proposed solar tracking control system using microcontrollerMSB430F6438 is shown in Fig. 5. The sun light fed to the solar panel will feed the boost converterdirectly which stores the electrical energy temporarily in an inductor and then charges thebattery. The battery then feeds the load during sunlight hours as well as nighttime. The boostconverter is to be operated by a digital controller. The digital controller will be based upon amicrocontroller that monitors the voltage and current levels coming from the solar cell andcontrols the boost converter accordingly. Finally, the charge sensor will keep track of the chargeof the battery in order to not overcharge the battery, which may damage some types ofbatteries. While not shown, all active components such as the digital controller will be getting itspower from the solar cell. Fig. 5: System architecture of the solar tracking system. The array solar tracking system architecture contains two motors to drive the platform,conducting an approximate hemispheroidal three-dimensional rotation on the array solar generatingpower system as shown in Fig. 6. The two motors are decoupled, i.e., the rotation angle of one motor doesnot influence that of the other motor, reducing control problems. This implementation minimizes thesystem’s power consumption during operation and increases efficiency and the total amount of electricitygenerated. The flow chart of the tracking is shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 6: Sketch of the two-axis array solar cells. There are two important advantages in the array type mechanism as follows:(1) High efficiency of light-electricity transformation. 207
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEMESince the array solar tracking mechanism has a function of rotating like three-dimensional, the array solartracking mechanism can track the sun in real time. Therefore, the system has high efficiency of light-electricity transformation and has an advantage of large production.(2) The mechanism is simple and saving power. Fig. 7: Flow diagram of the solar tracking controller. The two rotating dimensions of the array solar tracking mechanism are controlled by the twoindependent driving sources, which do not have the coupling problem and bear the weight of the otherdriving source. At the same time, the rotating inertia of the rotating panels can be reduced. As shown inthe fig. 7. Flow diagram of the solar tracking controller. The tracking device is composed of two same LDR (Light dependent resistor) light sensitiveresistors, which detect light intensity from eastern, western, southern, and northern directions,respectively. In every direction, there is a LDR light sensitive resistor with an elevating angle 900 to face alight source. The two sensors are separated each one. One is using LDR light sensitive resistors to be aneastward- eastward direction sensor for comparing the light intensity of eastward and westwarddirections. When the eastward-westward direction sensor receives different light intensity, the system willobtain the signal according to the output voltages of the eastward-westward direction sensors. As shownin the fig. 8. Fig.8: Motor driver circuit for solar altitude direction A voltage type analog/digital converter (ADC0804) can read different output voltages of thesensor and decide which direction has larger light intensity than the other direction. Then, the system willdrive the stepping motors to make the solar panel turn to the decided direction. When the output voltagesof the eastward-westward direction sensor are equal, i.e., the difference between the outputs of theeastward-westward direction sensors is zero. Then, the motor voltage is also zero. This means that thetracking process is completed in the eastward-westward direction. Similarly for another southern-northerndirection sensor, it can be analyzed by the same methodology to track the sun in the Southern-northerndirection. 208
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Fig. 9: Print circuit board of motor driver circuit Motor driver circuit: This experiment is conducted by the main source of power or motor whichfunctions both altitude and azimuth directions. Two 12 volt direct circuit motors are employed in thedevice. The motor test from head gear indicates that the motor speed is at 8 rpm. This part is split into twosignificant parts which are the altitude part and azimuth part. The motor structure is as displayed in theFig. 9. V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The experimental solar cell panels are shown in the fig.10 (a), (b), (c) and (d) & fig.11. Solarintensity of the light reaching the Earth is dependent on the sun’s angle of altitude. Solar radiation isalways at highest on a plane that is perpendicular to the sun’s ray. As the horizontal and the altitude anglechange throughout the day and the year, the incidence angle of the solar radiation varies constantly ongiven areas. Orienting panels to keep them facing the sun can achieve significant energy gains incomparison of any fixed position. Gains of 50% during summer and 300% during winter have beenmentioned for a comparison between tracked and horizontal planes. It is interesting to realize that rarelypanels will be installed on horizontal plane. An altitude angle near 30o is normally used in south Indianarea. Despite the fact that percentage gains appear lower during summer than winter, the yield increase ispredominant during the summer period of the year as shown in Fig.10 (b). Solar trackers may be solo axis or double axis. Solo axis trackers usually use a polar mount formaximum solar efficiency. Single axis trackers will usually have a manual altitude (axis tilt) adjustmenton a second axis which is adjusted on regular intervals throughout the year. Compared to a fixed amount,a single axis tracker increases annual output by approximately 30% and a double axis tracker an extra 6%shown in the fig.12. A tracking device is more expensive than a fixed mounting rack. It requires amodifiable vertical that can withhold larger wind pressure during storms. It can either be equipped withan electric drive. The produce desired output DC voltage and current. Since solar cells are difficult to be produced,every solar cell panel has its own characteristics. In addition, environmental factors such as dust, clouds,etc., may cause different voltages and currents in different sets. Another problem is that some sets may beloads for other sets. In this case, the temperature of set will be risen because of power consumption. Whenthe internal temperature of a solar cell panel is over 85 C ° ~100 C °, the set will be broken. Furthermore,all voltage will be applied in the set, when there are some broken sets in the solar cell array. Therefore, abypass diode is in a parallel connection to a set for solving the above problem. Thus, a low impedancepath of energy dissipation can be provided for each set to overcome a problem of many sets connection. 209
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Fig.10: (a) Completed Solar Tracker Prototypes Fig.10: (b) and (c) Propose solar tracking set Fig. 10(d): Difference in irradiance on straight & tracked for sunny days Fig.11: Solar arrays stationary setup Fig. 12: The power generation comparison of fixed angle type and tracking systems VI. FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER OF SOLAR ARRAYS The fuzzy sets concept was proposed by Zadeh in 1965. The fuzzy algorithm can make humanknowledge into the rule base to control a plant with linguistic descriptions. It relies on expert experienceinstead of mathematical models. The advantages of fuzzy control include good popularization, high faultstolerance, and suitable for nonlinear control systems. A fuzzy controller design has four parts, fuzzification, control rule base, fuzzy inference, anddefuzzification. The block diagram of the fuzzy control system is shown in fig. 13. 210
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Fig. 13: Block diagram of the fuzzy control. At first, the sun light illuminates on a LDR light sensitive resistor of the solar tracking device.Then a feedback analog signal will be produced and transformed into a digital signal through ananalog/digital converter. When the voltage on the eastward-westward direction or the southward-northward direction is different; the differences will be delivered into the fuzzy controller. Then, thefuzzy controller produces pulses to motor drivers and the motor drivers produce PWM signals to controlstep motors for tuning desired angles. Note that if the differences of sensors are zero, i.e., the sun isvertical to the solar panel, so the fuzzy controller does not work. Since the sun moves very slow, the fastrotating speed of the solar tacking device is with high speed rotation not necessary. By fuzzy control,some advantages such as reducing consumption power of step motors and fast and smooth fixed positioncan be achieved. Therefore, the fuzzy control algorithm has enough ability to complete this goal. Since the corresponding LDR light sensitive resistors can operate independently, it can be seen asindependent control. For one motor control, the error of output voltages of corresponding sensors can beset as input variables. The rotation time of the stepping motors for clockwise and counterclockwise areoutput variables. The membership functions are shown in Figs. 14 (a) and (b). Five fuzzy control rules areused, as shown in the following. Fig. 16 shows velocity up after the first movement of the motor on a vertical and horizontaldirections Fig. 17 shows that the variation at motor torque for the period of steady operation on an unevenroad. It can be seen that Fig. 15 and 16 while the vehicle running on uneven rood motor torque is high-quality adaptive to rood indirectly speed is constant. Fig.14: (a) & (b) Membership functions of linguistic variables Fig.15; Motor phase currents after the first movement of the motor on a vertical and horizontal direction. 211
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME Fig.16: Velocity up curves against to time of the vertical and horizontal direction. Fig.17: The variation at motor torque for the period of stable operation on a vertical and horizontal direction. VII. CONCLUSION The paper presents a solar tracking power generation system. The tracking controller based on thefuzzy algorithms uses a MSB430F6438 microcontroller. A solar tracker is designed by employing thenew principle of using small solar cells which functions as self-adjusting light sensors and provides avariable indication of their relative angle to the sun by detecting their voltage output. The said principlehelps the solar tracker in maintaining a solar array at a sufficiently perpendicular angle to the sun. Theincreased power gain over a fixed horizontal array was found to be in excess of 30 to 35%.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We sincerely thank our principal Col Dr. Surendra for his continuous support in PV technologyand for guidance to prepare this paper. We also thank the team of INDNOR Solar project for technicalinputs to complete the content of this research topic. VIII. REFERENCES[1] Fahrenburch, A. and Bube, R. 1983, Fundamentals of solar cells, Academic Press, New York.[2] Partain, L.D. 1995, Sollar Cells and their applications, John Wiley & Sons. New York.[3] E Weise, R Klockner, R Kniel, Ma Sheng Hong, Qin Jian Ping, “Remote Power Supply Using Windand Solar energy – a Sino-German Technical Cooperation Project”, Beijing International Conference onWind Energy, Beijing, 1995[4] Wichert B, Lawrance W, Friese T, First Experiences with a Novel Predictive Control Strategy for PV-Diesel Hybrid Energy Systems, Solar’99[5] Duryea S, Syed I, Lawrence W, An Automated Battery Management System for PhotovoltaicSystems, International Journal of Renewable Energy Engineering, Vol 1, No 2, Aug 1999[6] Twidell J, Weir J, Renewable Energy Systems, Chapman and Hall, 1994[7] Centre for Resources and Environmental Studies, ANU, Sustainable Energy Systems – Pathways forAustralian Energy Reforms, Cambridge University Press, 1994[8] Damm, J. Issue #17, June/July 1990. An active solar tracking system, HomeBrew Magazine.[9] J. Wen, and T. F. Smith, “Absorption of Solar Energy in a Room,” Sol.Energy, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 283-297, 2002.[10] Terasic, http://www.terasic.com.tw[11] Altera, http://www.altera.com. 212
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME[12] L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy sets,” Inform. And contr., vol. 8, pp. 338-353,1965.[13] L. A. Zadeh, “Fuzzy Algorithms,” Inform. And contr., vol. 12, pp.94-102, 1968.[14] E. H. Mamdani, “Application of fuzzy algorithms for control of a simple dynamic plant,” in Proc.Inst. Elect. Eng., vol. 121, pp. 1585-1588, 1974. IX. ABOUT AUTHORS 1). Babu N. Suraywanshi Working as Associate Professor in Mechanical dept. in Maharashtra Engg. College Nilanga Latur, (Dist), (M.S) India. He has received B. Tech, M.Tech. in Thermal Engg. from G.U.G and currently pursuing Ph.D at Rayalseema University. He is having 16 years of teaching and research experience and published 05 research papers in the International conference & journals. 2). Ibrahim Patel Working as Associate Professor in ECE department, Dr. B.V.Raju Institute of Technology. Narsapur, Medak, (Dist), Andhra Pradesh India. He has received B. Tech. (ECE) M. Tech Degree in Biomedical Instrumentation and currently pursuing Ph.D at Andhra University. He is having 17 years of teaching and research experience and published 30 research papers in the International conference & journals and His main research interest includes Voice to sign language. He had received “Best Paper Award” inICSCI –International Conference in 2011, & year of the best achievement“Speech processing andSynthesis” has been accepted for inclusion as one chapter for publication in the book "SpeechTechnologies/Book 1" publishing in Dec. 2011 from Vienna, Austria European Union. 3). Prof. Dr. Colonel (Retd.) K. Prabhakar Rao is the Principal of the Institution and he has vast Administration, Academic and Technical experience spanning 44 years. He is B.E (Mech.) with 1st Class from Osmania University and Post-Graduation M.E (Machine Design) with distinction from IISc, Bangalore. He obtained his Doctorate Ph. D (Mech. Engg) from Dr. Ram Mahonar Lohia Avadh University. He is also the recipient ofDoctorates in Political Science, Strategic Studies, Religious Studies, Mechanical Engineering andElectrical Engineering from other Universities. He has published 34 Technical Papers and 85 GeneralPapers in Political Science, Library, Current Affairs and Education. He has published online 720 GeneralPapers on National & International Affairs, Comparative Religious Studies, Education, History andTerrorism in US based Websites. He has been the Principal of various Engineering Colleges affiliated toJNTU for the last 14 years and some of which were developed from inception. He is the recipient of threeNational Awards for academic excellence and achievements: 213