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Socio economic benefits of pilgrim tourism a case study of sabarimala pilgrimage

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  • 1. INTERNATIONAL September- December (2012) – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 09766510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012), pp. 51-61 IJM© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5420 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF PILGRIM TOURISM: A CASE STUDY OF SABARIMALA PILGRIMAGE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO PERUNADU * JOHN V. DANIEL ** DR. BABY M.D * RESEARCH SCHOLAR IN MANAGEMENT, NIMS UNIVERSITY JAIPUR RAJASTHAN ** RESEARCH GUIDE IN MANAGEMENT, NIMS UNIVERSITY AND H.O.D, COMMERCE, S.D .COLLEGE KANJIRAPPALLY ABSTRACT India is blessed with plenty of well-known pilgrim tourism locations. Due to the pilgrim tourism an enormous economic gains to local community .This study attempts to investigate how Sabarimala pilgrimage helps economic benefits as well as increase in standard of living of locals at Perunadu village. The study is designed as empirical one based on survey method. Two wards of Perunadu village have been identified as places where high & low level of economic activity is taking place during pilgrimage season .The survey reveals high positive effects of pilgrimage tourism on income , employment and standard of living of host community in Perunadu locality. Keywords: Benefits, Pilgrimage tourism , Sabarimala INTRODUCTION Kerala is located at the Southern extremity of the Indian sub continent hugging the Arabian sea, resplendent for her scenic splendour and cultural opulence’s(P .O.George,2006) Perunadu is a small town located in the banks of Pampa river and a main base station for Sabarimala pilgrimage. Perunadu is also famous for important crop , the rubber. One of the most important pilgrim centre in South India Sabarimala. Sree sastha temple is located in Perunadu village. Kakkatu koickal Sree Dharma Sastha Temple is situated in Perunadu.The processions of Thiruvabharanam and Thanka anki (The royal ornaments of lord ayyappa) halt here in pilgrim season.The ayyappa idol in the perunadu temple is used to get decorated with Thiruvabharanam for a day during its return trip from Sabarimala to pandalam palace. This gives an opportunity for women to witness ayyappa decorated with Thiruvabharanam as they cannot enter the sabarimala temple .Other religious places are Bethany Orthodox Ashram . Perunadu market, Mandathum mozhi, Koonamkara, kollamala, puthukkada, Lahai, Mampara, Poovathumoodu and madamon are major places in this locality 51
  • 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)REVIEW OF LITERATUREA substantial volume of literature both at the macro and micro levels can be seen on thesubject of tourism and its impacts. The literature survey helped to understand and appreciatethe earlier studies conducted in the field of tourism and it provided a broad framework of thisstudy. Douglas Pearce, with the help of cost benefit analysis, evaluated the economicimpacts of Tourism. He located employment generation as one of the major impacts ofTourism development ,particularly at the regional and local level. Krishnan K.Kamra(2001),(Economics of Tourism; Pricing impacts, Forecasting- Kanishka Publishers ,NewDelhi) in his book finds that there is no economic activity at present that can generate somuch income, employment and foreign exchange . There are so many studies on theeconomic impact of tourism industry and its benefit in the form of income and jobopportunities (expenditure by tourists, sale of raw materials and other inputs to the suppliersof tourism) in the host region increases. These benefits are often referred to as primary ordirect benefits of tourism. A study of Hisma Badia in Jordan by Samawi(1999) showed that75% of people in that area work in tourism. 95% of those who work in the industry are infavour of tourism and 86% have a positive perception of it.IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDYThis study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of tourism development in Perunadu village ,Kerala.1.The study access the impact on socio-economic development and shifting of people fromone to another profession in host region2.Tourism is highly labour intensive with high rate of employment potential in micro andmacro level.3.Tourism also helps promotion of traditional culture and preservation of heritage4.Occupation has significant association with the area .RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThe study is empirical in nature and primary data was considered for analysis. The Data werecollected using interview schedule and open discussion with the respondents. Therespondents were selected by convenient sampling( non-probability sampling methoddepending on availability .This interview schedule has been finalized after conducting a pilotstudy of 50 respondents.Sample sizeWithin the State, Perunadu village is identified for collecting data in such a way that 257respondents were selected .At the first stage ,the respondents were divided into twocategories viz ,those who are continuing in tourism field more than 10 years and those whochanged their occupation to tourism related activities within 10 years.184 respondents hailsfrom the first category and 73 from the second category .Data Collection and ToolsA structural interview schedule has been used for collecting responses from the persons .Thecollected data was tabulated and frequency distribution tables were framed. Percentageanalysis, Chi- square tests & binomial test were used for the analysis. 52
  • 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) ANALYSIS OF DATA 1. Awareness about the past and present occupation ( by assessing opinions from respondents who changed their occupation to tourism related activities ) 2. Comparing the average monthly income of respondents in impact & non-impact area 3. Comparing the household facilities of respondents in both area 3. Analise negative impacts of pilgrim tourism Table I : Classification of respondents who shifted to tourism related work No. of respondents who are No. of respondents whoType of economic activity having experience in entered into tourism Total tourism activities for more activities within ten years than ten yearsRestaurants, tea shop and 120(75%) 40(25%) 160 (100%)accommodationTransportation(Autorickshaw/Taxi) 37(74%) 13 (26%) 50 (100%)petty Trading 27(57.5%) 20 (42.5%) 47 (100%)Total 184(71.6%) 73(28.4%) 257 (100%) Source; Primary Data The above table shows that out of 257 respondents 73 (28.4%) have changed their occupation to tourism related activities within 10 years period 53
  • 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) Table II: Classification of respondents who have changed their occupation from other areas to tourism business within ten years periodType of economic Agriculture Retired employees Others TotalactivityRestaurants& tea 20(50%) 13(32.5%) 7(17.5%) 40 (100%)shopsTransportation 13(100%) 11(84.6%) 1(7.7%) 1(7.7%)(Auto rickshaw/Taxi 20 (100%)Petty Trading 12(60%) 4(20%) 4 (20%) 73(100%)Total 43(58.9%) 18(24.7%) 12(16.4%) Source; Primary Data Out of the 73 respondents, 43(58.9%) have changed their occupation from agricultural field, 18(24.7%) from retired employees Table III : Classification of respondents on the basis of reasons of change Type of More Profitable More Convenient Other reasons Totaleconomicactivity Restaurants& 26(65%) 4(10%) 10(25%) 40(100%)tea shopsTransportation 13(100) 10(76.9%) 1((7.7%) 2(15.4%)(Autorickshaw/Taxi) 20(100)Petty Trading 14(70%) 2(10%) 4(20%) 73(100)Total 50(68.5%) 7(9.6%) 16(21.9%) Source; Primary Data Out of 13 respondents, 10 Nos (76.9%) opined that the transportation is profitable business and out of 73 respondents, majority( 68.5%) reveals that all economic activities are profitable. 54
  • 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) Table IV : Classification of respondents on the basis of average monthly income in various economic activities during pilgrimage seasonEconomic Area Less than Rs2000- Rs4001- Rs8001- Rs15001- Above Totalactivity Rs2000 4000 8000 15000 25000 25000Restaurants, tea A 10(8.5%) 40(34.2%) 67(57.3%) 117shop andaccommodation B 2(5.6%) 14(38.9%) 6(16.7%) 4% 36 10(27.8%)Transportation A 4(40%) 3(30%) 3(30%) 10(Autorickshaw/Taxi) B 4(10.8%) 15(40.5%) 12(32.4% 4(10.8%) 2(5.4%) 37Petty Trading A 2(6.5%) 3(9.7%) 7(22.5%) 11(3.55% 5(16.1%) 3(9.7%) 31 B 3(11.5% 10(38.5%) 2(7.7%) 11(42.3% 26Total 5(1.9%) 19(7.4%) 34(13.2%) 62(24.1% 58(22.6% 79(30.7%) 257 Source; Primary Data Note; A- Impact Area, B-Non Impact Area Above table shows that majority of respondents in impact area , ie 57.%& 30% respectively working in hotel& transport field are earning more than Rs25000/ month Value DF Asymp. significance(2 sided) Pearson ‘s chi-square 96.439a 5 .000 Likelihood ratio 105.331 5 .000 No: of valid cases 257 The chi-square value is significant at 5% level of significance (p=.000 < 0.05), so it may be concluded that there is statistical dependence between impact &non impact area 55
  • 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) By comparing the following facilities in region A&B by binomial test we can determinethe actual improvement in standard of living a) Colour Television - 1 .Yes/ 2 .No b) Computer/Internet - Yes / No c) Water pump - Yes/ No d) Land Phone - Yes / No e) Mobile Phone - Yes/ No f) Mattress - Yes/ No g) Refrigerator - Yes/ No h) Washing Machine - Yes/ No i) Pressurcooker - Yes/ No j) Mixie/grinder - Yes/No k) Black and white t.v - Yes/No l) VCP - Yes/No m) Electric Iron - Yes/No n) Fan - Yes/No o) Two Wheeler /Four Wheeler - Yes/NoTable V : Binomial Test for assessing economic impact of pilgrim tourism Category N Observed Test Prop Asymp.sig.(2Tailed) PropaGroup1 1 190 .74 .50 .000aGroup 2 2 67 .26Total 257 1.00BGroup 1 2 141 .55 .50 .134aGroup 2 1 116 .45Total 257 1.00CGroup 1 1 190 .74 .50 .000aGroup 2 2 67 .26Total 257 1.00 56
  • 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)DGroup 1 2 36 .14 .50 .000aGroup 2 1 221 .86Total 257 1.00EGroup 1 1 242 .94 .50 .000aGroup 2 2 15 .06Total 257 1.00FGroup 1 2 8 .03 .50 .000aGroup 2 1 249 .97Total 257 1.00GGroup 1 1 213 .83 .50 .000aGroup 2 2 44 .17Total 257 1.00HGroup 1 1 112 .44 .50 .046aGroup 2 2 45 .56Total 257 1.00IGroup 1 1 234 .91 .50 .000aGroup 2 2 23 .09Total 257 1.00JGroup 1 1 112 .82 .50 .000aGroup 2 2 45 .18Total 257 1.00KGroup 1 2 183 .71 .50 .000aGroup 2 1 74 .29Total 257 1.00LGroup 1 2 114 .44 .50 .081aGroup 2 1 143 .56Total 257 1.00MGroup 1 2 126 .49 .50 .803aGroup 2 1 131 .51Total 257 1.00NGroup 1 2 158 .61 .50 .000aGroup 2 1 91 .39Total 257 1.00oGroup1 1 190 .74 .50 .000aGroup 2 2 67 .26Total 257 1.00 57
  • 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)As the p-value pertaining Qn .Nos a,c,d,e,f,g,i,j,k,n&o is less than .05, the facilities likecolour T.V ,water pump, mobile phone,land phone,refrigerater,pressure cooker,mixie,B&WT.V, fan and automobiles are statistically significant in impact area where as facilities likecomputer/internet, washing machine, electric iron and VCP are not statistically significant inimpact areaTable VI : Chi-Square Tests for assessing significance of occupation in tourism impact area present occupation - A B C D E F Totalarea A Count 1 22 93 14 12 14 2 158 % within .6% 13.9% 58.9% 8.9% 7.6% 8.9% 1.3% 100.0% area B Count 0 28 16 27 6 18 4 99 % within .0% 28.3% 16.2% 27.3% 6.1% 18.2% 4.0% 100.0% areaTotal Count 1 50 109 41 18 32 6 257 % within .4% 19.5% 42.4% 16.0% 7.0% 12.5% 2.3% 100.0% areaAs per above table majority of respondents (58.9%) are working tourism related activities inimpact area and majority in non-impact area are inl Busines/Agri; field . Note; A-Business, B-Tourism related work,C- C-Agriculture ,D- Govt; job, E-,Pvt job, F-Others. Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 52.632a 6 .000 Likelihood Ratio 56.034 6 .000 N of Valid Cases 257 58
  • 9. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)Table VI : Chi-Square Tests for assessing significance of occupation in tourism impact area present occupation - A B C D E F Totalarea A Count 1 22 93 14 12 14 2 158 % within .6% 13.9% 58.9% 8.9% 7.6% 8.9% 1.3% 100.0% area B Count 0 28 16 27 6 18 4 99 % within .0% 28.3% 16.2% 27.3% 6.1% 18.2% 4.0% 100.0% areaTotal Count 1 50 109 41 18 32 6 257 % within .4% 19.5% 42.4% 16.0% 7.0% 12.5% 2.3% 100.0% areaAs per above table majority of respondents (58.9%) are working tourism related activities inimpact area and majority in non-impact area are inl Busines/Agri; field . Note; A-Business, B-Tourism related work,C- C-Agriculture ,D- Govt; job, E-,Pvt job, F-Others. Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Pearson Chi-Square 52.632a 6 .000 Likelihood Ratio 56.034 6 .000 N of Valid Cases 257The Chi-square value is significant 5% below the significance(.005< .05) .So it may beconcluded that there is statistical dependence between area & occupation 59
  • 10. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012) Table VII: Opinions of respondents regarding negative impacts of tourism Opinion about the respondents Significan Decrease No opinion Increased Significantly tly somewhat somewhat increased decreased Crimes 7 93 117(45.5%) 40 156(60.7%) Alcoholism 4 97 60 Deforestation 89 108(42%) 25 Drug abuse 9 188(45.9%) 35 Pollution( Air, 7 31 92 127(49.4%) water & Sound ) Children dropping 7 8 48 68 126(49%) primary educationOut of 257 respondents majority of them opined that crime has increased somewhat,alcoholism increased significantly, deforestation has increased somewhat , no opinion fordrug abuse , pollution has increased significantly and children dropping primary educationwere increased significantlyFINDINGSTable I-: Out of 257 respondents interviewed 73 nos(28.4%) of respondents entered into tourism related work within last 10 years.Table II-: Out of 73 respondents interviewed 58.9 % of respondents were entered fromagriculture field to tourism related economic activities mainly hotel &tea shopsTable III-: Out of 73 respondents interviewed 68.5% of them opined that tourismrelated work is more profitable. The major reason for change of occupation is profit motive.Table IV-: The average monthly income has significant association with the area. Theaverage monthly income is very high in impact area in comparison with non-impact areaTable V-:, The facilities like colour T.V ,water pump, mobile phone,landphone,refrigerater,pressure cooker,mixie,B&W T.V, ,fan&automobiles is statisticallysignificant in impact area and the facilities like computer/internet,washing machine,electric 60
  • 11. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 –6510(Online), Volume 3, Issue 3, September- December (2012)iron&VCP,are not stastistically significant in impact area .Majority of house hold facilitiesare higher in tourism potential area .Table VI-: This table shows that occupation has significant association with the area wherethe respondents residing .Table VII ; Out of 257 respondents majority of them opined that crime&deforestation hasincreased somewhat, alcoholism, pollution and children dropping primary education wereincreased significantly.SUGGESSTIONS 1. Suitable measures to control various negative factors which affect the host community 2. Awareness classes and training programs should be conducted for attracting more persons in tourism related work. 3. More care should be taken for providing primary education for children in this locality.CONCLUSIONThe present study and its analysis helps the policy makers to think over the various aspectsand to resist the negative implications of different types of tourism development schemes andto suggest where public intervention helps its development process. The majority ofrespondents opined that the tourism business is profitable and satisfy able. Negative impactsare increased and this is a very serious issue to be taken care of.REFERENCES1) Douglas Pearce,tourism research A 20-20 Vision , Goodfellow Publishers LimitedWoodeaton ,Oxford.2) Krishan K.Kamra.2001,Economics of Tourism:Pricing,Impacts,Forecasting,KanishkaPublishers, New Delhi. 3) Samawi, H. (1999) ‘Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Desert Tourism atHisma Badia in Jordan.’ Studies 26, (1) 175-1954) P.O George (2006),”Prospects of Village tourism”, Kerala Calling Government ofKerala Publications, Trivandrum 61

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