Signature seeking drive for incentive based ad dissemination


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Signature seeking drive for incentive based ad dissemination

  1. 1. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME23SIGNATURE SEEKING DRIVE FOR INCENTIVE BASED ADDISSEMINATION IN VEHICULAR NETWORKSDr.S.Rajalakshmi1, S.T.Tharani21Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jay Shriram Groupof Institutions2Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jay Shriram Groupof InstitutionsABSTRACTThis paper explores the concept of vehicular adhoc network (VANET).Here, thecommunication nodes are vehicles. Each and every vehicle can communicate with each otherand also can communicate with infrastructure for some service. This infrastructure isimagined to be presented along the roads. By using this vehicular adhoc network, the userscan have more benefits and services. A promising application over vehicular adhoc networkis, an advertiser can use this VANET to distribute their ads through vehicle to vehiclecommunication. Due to the non-cooperative node (Selfish and malicious nodes), this adsystem cannot be realized until the correct incentives and security process are in place. Thework describes the Signature Seeking Drive which is the secure framework, which performsthe cooperative distribution of ad message between vehicular users in secure manner. ThePublic Key Infrastructure provided incentive to cooperative nodes. Our proposed work alsosearch to develop an incentive system in which an ad provider can provides the rewardsdirectly to the users and pedestrians also distribute their ads through their smart PDAs.Keywords - Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET), Ad Dissemination, Incentive, Public KeyInfrastructure (PKI).I. INTRODUCTIONThis work introduced the vehicular ad hoc network, which performs on the roadthrough the smart vehicle consists of computing resources, sensing devices and short rangeradios for communicating with other vehicles and also roadside infrastructure.Here,the mainthing is networks on the road and it gives some services. An ad distribution through vehicleINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING& TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May-June (2013), pp. 23-31© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME24to vehicle communication is the most truthful application over the networks. By using thissystem an ads can be distributed through vehicle to roadside communication by ad provider.Then other vehicles start to distribute those ads by forwarding them to another vehicle whilemoving when it received the information. Similarly each vehicle can forward those adscontinuously for a particular time period. In this, the selfish users don’t want to forward theads whenever it received the ads. The network by sending out dummy ads, without correctsecurity, that’s why the incentive and security process has been taken.In such system, Public Key Infrastructure is the best way to satisfy the securityrequirements in vehicle communication by digital signature. It gives its certified identity andsecure location verify scheme. By this authentication, security in VANETs becomes strong.This paper presented one secure incentive framework for ad distribution in VANET which isnamed as Signature Seeking Drive (SSD). It provides incentive to the users based on their adservices. It just likes a reward which is provided by micropayment charging/rewardingscheme. During the driving, it may collect many receipts. By using this receipt, user canexchange the receipt to virtual cashier and get some cash from receipt-providing nodes. Byusing this virtual cash, users can fill the gas for their vehicles in gas station.Goal of the paperAdvertisers in all those types probably want to spread their ads in securemanner.However,from a viewpoint of vehicle users, those commercial ads are only give thebenefit to the business companies and they are exploiting vehicle user’s resources for theirown profit. Users probably want some type of incentive to stimulate cooperation. Thus thegraceful compromise between these two sides is that advertisers pay charges for networkresources or advertising charges. Vehicular ad system projected secure incentive frameworkfor commercial ad spread in VANETs which is named as Signature Seeking Drive(SSD).This framework stimulates cooperative distribution of ad messages among vehicularusers in a secure way and it also provided the secure ad distribution between the vehicles andpedestrians PDAs.II. SYSTEM MODELIn this section to described our vehicular network module.A.VANET Network moduleWe used SWANS (Scalable Wireless Ad hoc Network Simulation) vehicular networksimulator. SWANS have been shown to be scalable and efficient; it supported the largenumber of mobile nodes. SWANS fully implemented the IEEE 802.11a protocol. All vehiclesin our simulations have a transmission range of 300m. The roadway is a four-lane dividedhighway of length 100 km. Vehicles are entered into that highway according to the Poissondistribution and travel at a maximum speed of 30 m/s. The simulation is run for 360 secondsand generated the 500 vehicles. In the 360-second simulation runtime, the maximum distancetraveled by any vehicle is 10 km. In the high density case there are averages of 90 vehicles /km. In medium density traffic, there is an average of 66 vehicles / km and in low densitythere is an average of 53 vehicles / km.
  3. 3. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME25In this module we develop a VANET Network model. In that each node (vehicle) cancommunicate with other nearby nodes (vehicles) to perform some useful applications. Ourvehicular network module assumes that, each registered node keeps its own certificate [i.e.,public/private key pair issued by a certificate authority (CA)]Certificate authority (CA)The certificate authority has two roles:1) Government Authority2) Vehicle ManufacturerIn this the first one has many administrative problems, the vehicle manufacturer alsotrustworthy one. So we need to give proper security to our VANET.Vehicular Authority (VA)The vehicular authority (VA) is the authority provider; it is given the authority to all thevehicles to disseminate their ad in the VANET. The vehicle that get the permission fromVANET only disseminate ad in the network.VA also maintain the all ad payment transaction.Utilize SWANS (Scalable Wireless Ad hocNetwork Simulation) vehicular networksimulator fully implements the IEEE802.11a protocolVehicles are with transmission range of300m and the roadway used is a four-lanedivided highway of length 100 km with totalsimulation time 360 seconds.A vehicle enters the highway according to aPoisson distribution and travel at amaximum speed of 30 m/s and themaximum distance traveled by any vehicleis 10 km.Each node (vehicle) can communicate withother nearby nodes (vehicles) or with fixedroadside (fixed node) infrastructureregarding safety-related warning functions,traffic management, infotainment, paymentservices, etc..,Fig.1. Vehicular network module
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME26B. One Level AdvertisementIn one level advertisement the only one vehicle has the authority to disseminate the adin the VANET. Other vehicles are not having the authority to reuse the ad and this moduleonly suitable for local area communication.NotationsAgreement with ADPAdvertisement disseminationApproval for advertisementReceipt redemptionOneleveladvertisementFig. 2. One level advertisement
  5. 5. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME27C. Multi Level AdvertisementIn Multi level advertisement each every vehicles have the authority to disseminate thead in the VANET. The ad get by the one vehicle, it is nearer to the ad distribution point(ADP).That ad should be reused by all the vehicles that have the vehicular authority over thenetwork. It is suitable for wide area communication.I→VA: Commercial advertiser (I) getpermission from Vehicle authority (VA)to disseminate ad for a certain period oftime and certain locationVA→I: After approval from VA, Idistribute its adI →u: Vehicle (u) agrees toforward the ad of I at Adu → v: “u” continues toadvertise it to any newlyencountered vehicle or PDAof pedestrian ”v” for a certainReceiving vehicles returns digitallysigned reception for sending vehicleThese receipts are exchangeable atVirtual Cashier (VC)VC → VA: Virtual Cashier (VC)sends the record to VAVA → I: VA charges I for addissemination of u as well as vSimilarly v → w, w → x, x→ y, y → zMultilevelAdvertisementFig. 3 Multilevel Advertisement
  6. 6. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME28Fig 4. Localized AdvertisementLocalized advertisementProvider S can specify/include its targetadvertising area along with the ad, and S’sADP contacts with each approachingvehicle uLOCS is the center (location coordinates) ofS’ target advertising area, and RNS is theintended adverting radius (from LOCS).u is not able to obtain a valid receipt outsidethe target area (as described below) itforwards ADS only within the specifiedtarget area.Locating informationAfter the proper message exchange withADP (depending on the ad-model used), u isready to advertise ADSGPS-Based Approach:While in the target area(by checking if d (LOCu,LOCS) ≤ RNS, where d(i,j) is the distance betweentwo locations i and j, andLOCu is u’s locationcoordinate available byGPS), adverting vehicleu may advertise ADS toany newly approachingvehicle vInfrastructure Based Approach Vehiclescan obtain their location information fromthe infrastructure that broadcasts beaconsignals. the existing cellular base stationsperiodically broadcast one beacon signalper second, and the signals carryinformation such as a cellular networkidentifier, location, timestamp, signature,gateway address, paging area ID, and otherbase station parameters. Using suchinformation, ad-receiving node v can reactto ADS forwarded from u
  7. 7. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME29StartInitial registrationof vehicles for VAand CA publickey that becomesAdvertiser (I) whoneeds to disseminatetheir ad requestpermission fromAfter approval Advertiser distributetheir ad for certain period andcertain areaA vehicle (u) agreesto forward I’s ad atAd Distribution Point(ADP)Vehicle (u) continuesto advertise it to anyencountered vehicle orroad side pedestrian’sPDA or smart phoneusing localizationinformationReceiving vehicle v,returns digitally signedreceipt for u. This iscalled single level adIf then v transmits tomore nodes/vehiclesand digitally signedreceipt returned forsender nodes. This iscalled multilevel adThese receipts are exchangeable at VC whereVC sends record to VA and it in turn chargesadvertiser (I)StopInitial registration ofpedestrian’s devicefor PA and CApublic key thatbecomes preloadedAdvertiser(I)requestpermissionfrom PedestrianAuthority (PA)The pedestriandevice (u) agrees toforward I’s ad at AdDistribution Point(ADP)Pedestrian (u)continues toadvertise it to anyencounteredvehicle or roadside pedestrian’sPDA or smartphone usinglocalizationReceiver,returnsdigitallysigned receiptfor u. This iscalled singlelevel addisseminationFig. 5. Vanet with PDA
  8. 8. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME30D. Localized AdvertisementIn localized advertisement some advisers want to disseminate their ad in particulargeographic area, for that purpose we used the localized model. Here we used the Locationcoordinates (LOCs), S is the ad distributor and RNs is the adverting radius. In this we usedtwo approaches1) GPS based Approach2) Infrastructure based ApproachIn the GPS based approach to estimated the distance between the two locations, if that valueis less than or equal to the RNs, after that only it disseminate the ad otherwise ad is notdisseminated in the network. But in GPS based approach we have one disadvantage; in thisnot verify the receipt providing node authority. It should be satisfied in Infrastructure basedapproach; in this we verified the receipt providing node authority by using the beacon signalfrom base station, it should be nearer to the receipt providing node.E.VANET with PDAIn this implemented the vehicular network with pedestrians Smart PDAs. Wheneverthe vehicle to vehicle communication (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure communication(V2I) is not possible that time the advertiser send their ads to the nearby pedestrians SmartPDAs. Through those PDAs, that ad should be disseminating to the nearby vehicle. By usingthis approach the ad dissemination speed will be increased. In this work also the securityoverhead may be occurred and it should be managed by our Signature Seeking Driveframework.III CONCLUSIONThe dissemination of commercial advertisements in VANETs is based on practicalaspects such as advertising intensity and dissemination locality. With both selfish users(incentives) and malicious users (security) the developed SSD secure incentive frameworkstimulates cooperative dissemination of ad messages among vehicular users in a secure way.The SSD employs the concept of virtual cash to charge and reward the provision ofadvertising service as an incentive for users in the network. The performance evaluationresults of SSD through analysis and simulation experiments reveal its robustness in bothincentive and security perspectives against various types of attacks and it showed theeffectiveness of our advertisement models.REFERENCES1. N. Ben Salem, L. Buttyan, J.-P. Hubaux, and M. Jakobsson, (2003), A Charging andRewarding Scheme for Packet Forwarding, in Proc. ACMMobiHoc, pp. 13–24.2. L. Buttyan and J. P. Hubaux, (2003), Stimulating cooperation in self organizing Mobile Adhoc Networks, ACM J. Mobile Netw., Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 579–592.
  9. 9. International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May – June (2013), © IAEME313. S. Buchegger and J.-Y. L. Boudec, (2002), Nodes bearing grudges: Towards Routingsecurity, fairness, and robustness in mobile ad hoc networks, in Proc. Eur. Workshop Parallel,Distrib. Netw.-Based Process, pp. 403–410.4. S. Eapkun, L. Buttyan, and J.-P. Hubaux, (2003), SECTOR: Secure tracking of Nodeencounters in multi-hop Wireless Network”, in Proc. ACMWorkshop SASN, pp. 21–32.5. S. Eapkun and J.-P. Hubaux, (2005) “Secure positioning of wireless devices withApplication to Sensor Networks”, in Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Miami, FL, pp. 1917–1928.6. J. Deng, R. Han, and S. Mishra, (2005), Defending against path-based DoS Attacks inWireless Sensor Networks”, in Proc. ACM Workshop SASN, pp. 89–96.7. A.Garyfalos and K. C. Almeroth, (2008), Coupons: A Multilevel Incentive Scheme forInformation Dissemination in Mobile Networks”, IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput. Vol. 7, No. 6,pp. 792–804.8. M. Felegyhazi, J.-P. Hubaux, and L. Buttyan, (2006), Nash equilibria of PacketForwarding strategies in Wireless Ad hoc Networks”, IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., Vol. 5,No. 5, pp. 463–476.9. W. R. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, (1999), Adaptive Protocols forInformation Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks”, in Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp.174–185.10. Mohd Umar Farooq and Dr .Khaleel Ur Rahman Khan, “The Novel Techniques for DataDissemination in Vehicular Networks to Triumph Over Broadcast Storm Problem”,International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET),Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 264 - 272, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.11. Thaker Minesh, S B Sharma and Yogesh Kosta, “A Survey: Variants of EnergyConstrained Reactive Routing Protocols of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, International Journalof Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2,2012, pp. 248 - 257, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472