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Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement
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Root cause analysis of field failure concern for improvement

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  • 1. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME232ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS OF FIELD FAILURE CONCERN FORIMPROVEMENT IN DURABILITY OF VEHICLE SYSTEMA. D. Lagad1, Dr. K. H. Inamdar21Department of Mechanical Engineering,Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, Maharashtra, India,2Department of Mechanical Engineering,Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, Maharashtra, IndiaABSTRACTDurability and reliability of an automobile are equally important from industry as wellas customer point of view. Automotive industries are still riddled with significant warrantycosts that incur due to premature failure of their products in the customer hands. The key toreduce the design and development expenses and warranty expenses is to subject the productfor reliability and/or durability tests for failure modes investigation. Design of the vehiclecomponents must be adapted as accurately as possible to the operating conditions. In order toachieve these goals, durability tests are performed through a combination of physical testing,on road at a proving ground test track, and using a servo-hydraulic road test simulator inlaboratory. In this study, root cause analysis is carried out for bonnet cable failure in vehiclemodel of an automotive industry. Various possible causes are identified using fishbonediagram, why-why analysis is carried to find root cause and solution is proposed. Modifieddesign of hood latch reduced operating efforts for hood latch and avoided bonnet cablefailure.Keywords: Durability, Reliability, Root cause analysis, Fishbone diagram.1. INTRODUCTIONIn automotive industry, vehicle safety and product quality are prime factors on whichautomotive manufacturers give significant attention. During vehicle manufacturing, defectsINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGAND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 232-243© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJMET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME233arise during manufacturing, assembly and other processes. For continuous qualityimprovement and customer satisfaction, plant quality functions are planned, integrated andexecuted to detect these defects and make action plans, preventive measures to resolve them.Currently, automotive industries are dedicating a lot of attention to improve productquality, durability and reliability already in a virtual simulation environment. A major issuethat designers and manufacturers in this field have to face is to improve vehicle lifetime [1,2].Durability and reliability of a vehicle are equally important from a customer point of view.Automotive industries are still riddled with significant warranty costs that incur due topremature failure of their products in the customer hands [3]. Vehicle manufacturers discoverissues through their own vehicle tests, inspection procedures, or information gathering [2]. Inorder to achieve improved durability and reduced warranty costs, durability tests areperformed through a combination of physical testing, on road at a proving ground test track,and using a servo-hydraulic road test simulator in laboratory [4].Modern vehicles exhibit a variety of performance, safety and comfort features inwhich they fundamentally differ from previous models. Durability and reliability in vehiclecomponents are prime considerations for successful functioning of vehicles in all aspectsmentioned above [5, 6].In this study, root cause analysis is carried out for bonnet cable failure in vehiclemodel of an automotive industry and solution is implemented accordingly. Various finishedvehicle audits performed in automotive industry considered are ANOVA-C (Advanced NewOverall Vehicle Audit), GD (Global Demerit) test and Durability ANOVA-C. The purpose ofDurability ANOVA-C is to check and capture data on internal/known customer vehiclesperiodically to get early feedback on field failure and make action planning [7,8].2. CONCERN RESOLUTION- BONNET CABLE FAILUREConcern identified and considered for resolution is ‘High Operational Effort for HoodLatch Release Lever’ which results in bonnet cable failure. This concern is identified duringdurability ANOVA-C and GD audit. Effort readings taken on internal customers’ vehicle areshown in table 1. Specifications are 40-80 N. Table 2 shows hood latch release lever effortreadings for 60 Ready for Inspection (RFI) vehicles. Higher operational efforts are observedfor some vehicles.Table 1: Hood latch release lever efforts for internal customersCustomerLower Limit(N)Upper Limit(N)Phase 1(N)Phase 2(N)Phase 3(N)1 40 80 55 110 1222 40 80 55 110 853 40 80 69 72 754 40 80 76 98 1005 40 80 99 108 105
  • 3. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME234Table 2: Hood latch release lever effort readings for 60 vehiclesSr. NoEffort(N)Sr. NoEffort(N)Sr. NoEffort(N)Sr. NoEffort(N)1 73 16 64.9 31 71.3 46 702 67.8 17 69.7 32 69.3 47 74.33 56.8 18 54.6 33 58.4 48 71.94 59.3 19 64.4 34 66.7 49 76.55 78.1 20 86.1 35 77.8 50 62.86 76.1 21 61.4 36 74.3 51 64.17 78 22 78 37 55.4 52 64.48 66.9 23 64 38 67.3 53 71.39 63.3 24 80.6 39 67.8 54 69.110 70.8 25 71.2 40 66.1 55 64.611 69.4 26 65.2 41 77.5 56 66.112 77.3 27 59.3 42 70.6 57 72.713 74.2 28 63.2 43 62 58 71.414 66.1 29 73.1 44 72.2 59 10015 77.4 30 76.1 45 77.5 60 69.2Bonnet cable failure is third in the list of significant field failure concerns as shownin pareto diagram in fig. 1. Analysis is already carried out for first two concerns.2.1 Process Flow for Bonnet Cable and Lock assemblyBonnet cable and bonnet lock are fitted and assembled on assembly line in TCF. Stepsinvolved in this process are mentioned below,1.Bonnet cable fitment is done on body with grommet and plugs (Trim Line).2.Bonnet cable bracket is fitted on cockpit (Trim Line).3.Hook of bonnet cable is assembled with bottom side hood latch (Underbody Line)4.Bottom side hood latch is fitted on front grill upper body panel with 3 bolts by giving fulltorque (Underbody line)5.Loose mounting of top side hood latch on bonnet bottom side with 2 bolts by pre torque.(Final line)6.Alignment of bonnet as well as both hood latch parts. Tightening of top side hood latch bygiving full torque to bolts (Final line)
  • 4. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, MayFig. 1 Pareto diagram for significant field failure concernsAlignment process is done in following steps,1.Alignment of hood by retightening hinges (both locks are in loose condition).2.Gap & Flushness corrected by giving jerk to the hood.3.Bonnet is locked first time.4.Opening of bonnet by giving slight stroke to hood with mallet firstdue to stuck. Top side lock assembly is again aligned with respect to bottom side lockassembly.5.Full tightening of the both hood lock assemblies (body side & bonnet side)6.Again bonnet is locked & opened 2 to 3 times.Fig. 2 shows hood latch assembly on vehicle(b)Fig. 2 (a) Hood latch assembly on vehicleInternational Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME235Pareto diagram for significant field failure concernsAlignment process is done in following steps,ent of hood by retightening hinges (both locks are in loose condition).Gap & Flushness corrected by giving jerk to the hood.Opening of bonnet by giving slight stroke to hood with mallet first time if it is not openedstuck. Top side lock assembly is again aligned with respect to bottom side lockFull tightening of the both hood lock assemblies (body side & bonnet side)Again bonnet is locked & opened 2 to 3 times.shows hood latch assembly on vehicle as well as top and bottom hood latch.(a)(b) (C)Hood latch assembly on vehicle (b) Top side hood latch (c) Bottom sihood latchInternational Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –June (2013) © IAEMEit is not openedstuck. Top side lock assembly is again aligned with respect to bottom side locks well as top and bottom hood latch.Bottom side
  • 5. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME2363. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSISAfter brainstorming, various possible causes contributing to bonnet cable failure areenlisted. Cause and effect diagram (Fishbone diagram) by using relevant possible causesidentified in brainstorming is shown in fig. 3. Probable causes for bonnet cable failure arehighlighted in figure.Fig. 3 Cause and effect diagram for bonnet cable failure3.1 Verification of probable causes1. Damage to cable while fitment:i. Fitment process is observed on assembly line.ii. No damage is observed to cable while fitmentiii. Remark: Invalid2. Improper cable assembly:i. Standard operation procedure is followed during cable assembly.ii. No abnormalities found during cable fitment on body as well as cable assembly withcockpit and hood latch.iii. Remark: Invalid3. Improper cable routine:i. Bonnet cable routine is observed from release lever end to cable hook end duringfitment, also on finished vehiclesii. Cable routine was found ok in vehicles. All clips were found on position.
  • 6. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME237iii. Cable routine found ok in vehicles for which higher efforts reported to operate hoodlatch release leveriv. Remark: Invalid4. Improper alignment of bonnet as well as latch-striker:i. Alignment is done as per standard operation procedure.ii. Gaps are measured for bonnet on finished vehicles and alignment found ok.iii. However, during first locking-unlocking operation in alignment process, cable failureincidences were observed on final lineiv. As alignment is done in 2-3 attempts by operator judgment- chances that striker getsstuck in latch in first cycle.v. Remark: Valid5. Nut runner not applying required torque/ bolt looseness:i. Nut runner calibration done as per scheduled frequencyii. Bolts used for tightening of both latch and striker were checked on finished vehicles forlooseness- Found okiii. Torque is measured on finished vehicles, also on vehicles for which higher effortsreported- torque found as per specification.iv. Remark: Invalid6. Deviation of cable length from required length:i. Bonnet cable length is measured for cables in storage area at side of assembly lineii. No variation in cable length, length found as per specificationsiii. Remark: Invalid7. Cracks on cable flap or bracket:i. Bonnet cables were examined visually for any cracks or damages to cable flap orbracketii. No cracks or damage observediii. Remark: Invalid8. Less thickness for cable flap or bracket:i. Previous actions: Bracket wall thickness increased by 1.2 mm, Reinforcement added toflapii. Cable flap and bracket thickness measured- Found ok as per modified dimensionsiii. Remark: Invalid9. Bottom hood latch spring has more stiffness:i. Parameters such as free length, number of turns, coil diameter contributing springstiffness were checked for bottom hood latch spring.ii. No variation in stiffness- Found okiii. Remark: Invalid10. Cable routine disturbed:i. Cable routine observed in RFI area, also on customer vehicles during dealer visit.ii. Cable clips were ensured for position (not fallen)
  • 7. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, Mayiii. No abnormalities foundiv. Remark: Invalid11. Bonnet as well as latch-striker alignment getting disturbed over usage of vei. Bonnet alignment observed, gap measurements done and bonnet efforts were taken oncustomer vehicles during dealer visitii. Gap variation is observed on right and left side (misalignment) also higher efforts werenotediii. In some vehicles (at dealer andjerk from side (because striker get stuck in latch )iv. Remark: Valid3.2 Valid causesBonnet cable failure occursi. Bonnet as well as latch-striker alignment getii. During first locking-unlocking operation in alignment process, chances that striker getstuck in latch.Stack up analysis of top hood latch and bottom hood latch shows that only 2 mmclearance given between the top andnot getting maintained due to contribution of hingesOn a vehicle which had run 7000 kilometers, front grill is removed; bonnet isslammed few times and observed that bonnet is notlever. Refer fig. 5 for explanation.Fig. 4 Stack up analysis of top hood latch andbottom hood latchInternational Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME238striker alignment getting disturbed over usage of vehicle:Bonnet alignment observed, gap measurements done and bonnet efforts were taken oncustomer vehicles during dealer visitGap variation is observed on right and left side (misalignment) also higher efforts wereIn some vehicles (at dealer and production shop) bonnet got opened after giving slightjerk from side (because striker get stuck in latch )occurs because striker gets stuck into bottom latch.striker alignment getting disturbed over usage of vehicleunlocking operation in alignment process, chances that striker getStack up analysis of top hood latch and bottom hood latch shows that only 2 mmclearance given between the top and bottom hood latch for alignment as shown in fignot getting maintained due to contribution of hinges and in process.On a vehicle which had run 7000 kilometers, front grill is removed; bonnet isslammed few times and observed that bonnet is not opening by operating hood latch releasefor explanation.Stack up analysis of top hood latch andbottom hood latch(a)(b)Fig. 5 (a) Bonnet is not openedstriker got stuck into latch (b)marks on bottom latchInternational Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –June (2013) © IAEMEhicle:Bonnet alignment observed, gap measurements done and bonnet efforts were taken onGap variation is observed on right and left side (misalignment) also higher efforts were) bonnet got opened after giving slightting disturbed over usage of vehicle.unlocking operation in alignment process, chances that striker getStack up analysis of top hood latch and bottom hood latch shows that only 2 mmbottom hood latch for alignment as shown in fig. 4. It isOn a vehicle which had run 7000 kilometers, front grill is removed; bonnet isopening by operating hood latch release(a) Bonnet is not opened becausestriker got stuck into latch (b) Stuck uplatch
  • 8. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME239During dealer visit, customer vehicles were observed for bonnet alignment. Hoodlatch release lever efforts were taken and bonnet gaps were measured. Table 3 shows effortand gap measurement readings. Higher operational efforts were seen in customer vehicles.Table 3: Effort and gap measurement readings on customer vehiclesSr.No.Hood latchlever effort(N)Gaps (mm)RH Side LH Side1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 61 83.9 5 4.9 4.6 5.5 5.2 5.2 4.1 4 4.8 3 3.1 4.12 77.1 5.1 2.5 2.1 4.2 4.6 6 6.3 6.3 6.5 4.1 4.7 4.83 95.6 5 2.1 1 2.9 3.7 4.4 5.6 5.9 5 3.8 4 5.84 114.5 5.8 5 4.7 7.5 4.8 4.9 5.2 3.8 6 2.3 2.8 65 103 5 4.8 4.1 5 4.5 4.7 6.1 3.6 4.5 2.8 3.5 4.66 80.3 3.8 2.9 1.3 4.1 3.9 6 5.9 5.4 5.2 2.6 3.4 57 78.1 6.3 4.9 3.8 5.7 5.7 6.1 6.1 4.8 6.2 2.5 3.9 48 82.7 6 4.8 4.2 6.2 5.8 6 6 4.7 5.1 2.8 3 4.69 87.5 5.2 4.4 3.8 5.3 5.1 5.1 6 5.1 6.1 3.2 3.2 4.110 91.4 5.5 3.2 2.2 4.6 2.8 5.3 5.6 4.9 5.9 4 4.1 5.13.3 Why-Why analysisCause for bonnet cable failure is explained below,i. Why: Higher operational efforts for hood latch release leverii. Why: Striker get stuck into bottom latchiii. Why: Striker and bottom latch not remain inlineiv. Why: Latch-striker alignment getting disturbed over usage of vehicle or during first cycleof alignmentv. Why: This factor is not considered during design4. PROPOSED SOLUTIONAs there is problem that striker of top hood latch assembly getting stuck into bottomlatch due to misalignment, there is a need of keeping striker and bottom latch in one line i.e.to avoid misalignment (oblique travel of striker in latch).After observation and study of structural design of hood latch parts of vehicle,proposal is given to implement a groove in the striker of top hood latch and guide on bottomhood to avoid misalignment and stuck up issue because of which bonnet cable failure occurs.For this, structural benchmarking was done with hood latch of another vehicle asshown in fig. 6 and 7.
  • 9. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May(a)Fig. 6 (a) Provision of groove in striker with proper cap to control the height after alignment(b) No provision of groove and simple cap(a) (Fig. 7 (a) Provision of guide cup on bottom hood latchAccording to proposal, design changesvehicle. Following are the modifications in the design of hood latch bottom part, (Figi. Base plate center hole diameter is chaii. Flange is added in support plateiii. Cable slot in cable holding bracket is changediv. Locking bracket (guide cup) is addedFor hood latch top part, outer diameter of washer is reduced from 32 mm to 25 mm asshown in fig. 9.(a)Fig. 8 Change in bottom hood latchInternational Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME240(b)groove in striker with proper cap to control the height after alignment(b) No provision of groove and simple cap(a) (b)Provision of guide cup on bottom hood latch (b) No provision of guide cup onbottom hood latchAccording to proposal, design changes were made in striker and bottom hood latch of. Following are the modifications in the design of hood latch bottom part, (FigBase plate center hole diameter is changedFlange is added in support plateCable slot in cable holding bracket is changedLocking bracket (guide cup) is addedFor hood latch top part, outer diameter of washer is reduced from 32 mm to 25 mm as(a) (b)Change in bottom hood latch (a) Existing (b) ProposedInternational Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –June (2013) © IAEMEgroove in striker with proper cap to control the height after alignmentovision of guide cup onmade in striker and bottom hood latch of. Following are the modifications in the design of hood latch bottom part, (Fig. 8)For hood latch top part, outer diameter of washer is reduced from 32 mm to 25 mm as
  • 10. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME241(a) (b)Fig. 9 Change in top hood latch (a) Existing (b) Proposed5. IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTSSample hood latches were received from supplier with said design modifications ingiven proposal.5.1 Concept trialConcept trial was conducted on three vehicles with new hood latch samples. Table 4shows comparison of hood latch release lever operational efforts for three vehicles withexisting and modified hood latch parts.Table 4: Hood latch release lever operational efforts during concept trialVehicleNo.Specification(N)Readings with existinghood latch (N)Readings with modifiedhood latch (N)1 2 3 1 2 31 40-80 78.4 76.1 76.3 53.7 53.2 53.22 40-80 79.1 78.4 78 56 56.2 55.53 40-80 76.8 76.5 75.9 50.2 49.8 49.1i. During concept trial, fitment was observed for any difficulties in fitment process as wellas alignment.ii. No issue regarding fitment or alignment was noticed.iii. After operating hood latch release lever and primary lock getting released, secondary lock(to be released by operating lever of top side hood latch) was found ok in all threevehicles.iv. Bonnet opening-closing cycle was performed for 500 times on three vehicles withmodified hood latch parts to check whether there is bonnet cable failure. Bonnet cablefailure incidence was not observed and cable found ok.5.2 Fitment trialAfter receiving modified hood latch samples, fitment trial was conducted andcompleted for five numbers of vehicles.
  • 11. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME242Table 5: Hood latch release lever operational efforts during fitment trialVehicleNo.Specification(N)Readings with modified hoodlatch (N)1 2 31 40-80 56.5 56.2 55.92 40-80 59.3 58.4 58.63 40-80 50.2 50.2 50.14 40-80 53.8 53.5 53.15 40-80 60.4 60.9 60.7No fitment related issue was observed during trial. Bonnet opening-closing cycle wasrepeated for five vehicles and no abnormality was observed (No higher efforts, secondarylocking ok). Hood latch release lever operating efforts were measured on five vehicles andfound within specifications. Readings are shown in table 5.5.3 Validation and part trialValidation process is conducted for modified hood latch samples. In validation,bonnet cable withstands and passed target of 5000 cycles of bonnet opening and closing forall samples. Part trial is conducted on 200 vehicles and readings were taken. All vehicleshave shown effort readings within specification. No bonnet cable failure incidence wasoccurred. Range of effort readings was found between 45 to 62 N (Specification is 40-80 N).This shows significant operational effort reduction for hood latch release lever.6. CONCLUSION1. Root cause analysis is carried out for the concern “Higher operational efforts for hood latchrelease lever which results in bonnet cable failure.”i. Bonnet cable failure occurs due to disturbance in alignment of striker-latch which resultsin stuck up condition of striker in latch.ii. To avoid stuck up condition, design modifications are suggested in hood latch withprovision of locking bracket (guide cup).2. Trials with modified hood latch samples showed reduction in hood latch release leveroperational effort than that in case of customer vehicles as well as new vehicles with existingdesign.3. In validation, bonnet cable withstand for 5000 cycles of bonnet opening and closing.During trials as well as implementation for 200 vehicles, no bonnet cable failure incidenceoccurred with modified hood latch.7. REFERENCES[1] R.dIppolito, M. Hack, S. Donders, L. Hermans, N. Tzannetakis, D. Vandepitte,Improving the fatigue life of a vehicle knuckle with a reliability-based designoptimization approach, Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 139, 2009, pp.1619-1632
  • 12. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME243[2] Alan S. Abrahamas, Jian Jiao, G. Alan Wang, Weiguo Fan, Vehicle defect discoveryfrom social media, Decision Support Systems, 2012, pp. 1-11.[3] Senthilnathan Subbiah, O. P. Singh, Srikanth K. Mohan, Arockia P. Jeyaraj, Effect ofmuffler mounting bracket designs on durability, Engineering Failure Analysis, 18,2011, pp. 1094–1107.[4] V. Veloso , H.S. Magalhaes , G.I. Bicalho , E.S. Palma , Failure investigation andstress analysis of a longitudinal stringer of an automobile chassis, Engineering FailureAnalysis, 16, 2009, pp. 1696–1702.[5] Roland Meuller-Fiedler, Volker Knoblauch, Reliability aspects of microsensors andmicromechatronic actuators for automotive applications, Microelectronics Reliability,43, 2003, pp. 1085–1097.[6] D. G. Yang, F. F. Wan, Z. Y. Shou, W. D. van Driel, H. Scholten, L. Goumans, R.Faria, Effect of high temperature aging on reliability of automotive electronics,Microelectronics Reliability, 51, 2011, pp. 1938–1942.[7] ANOVA-C Guidelines in automotive industry.[8] GD Guidelines in automotive industry.[9] P.Vishnu, R.Ajaykrishna, Dr.S.Thirumalini, “Recent Advancements and Challengesin Plug-In Diesel Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology” International Journal ofElectrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3 Issue 1, 2012, pp. 316 - 325,ISSN Print: 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553[10] Ilir Doçi and Musli Bajraktari, “Regulation of Vehicle‘S Left Turn in UrbanIntersections Using Traffic Simulations: A Case Study of Prishtina Main Intersection”International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET)Volume 4 Issue 2, 2012, pp. 134 - 143, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online:0976-6499.

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