Review on vibration analysis with digital image processing


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Review on vibration analysis with digital image processing

  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME62REVIEW ON VIBRATION ANALYSIS WITH DIGITAL IMAGEPROCESSINGMane Sameer S. 1, Dr. Gawade S.S. 21Student, M.E. (Mechanical-Design), 2Associate ProfessorRajarambapu Institute of Technology, Sakharale, Islampur, Sangli(MH),IndiaABSTRACTIn industry requires fine control and data acquisition system depending upon geographicdistribution of the plant instruments. Remote operation of the hazardous field needs quite a goodamount of instrumentation support for control as well as monitoring purpose. Digital camerasinstalled near the vibrating plate and forward the digital image signal to the computer at regularinterval. These images are compared with standard image stored in the computer with suitablealgorithm. When received image matches the standard image, control action takes place. Also givesreal time display of various field images super imposing on the animated mimic diagrams in computermonitor, which is not possible in the old environment with analog sensors. MATLAB is extensivelyused.Index Terms - Vibration, Digital Image Processing, MATLAB.I. INTRODUCTIONProtection of people, equipments, process and environment must be top priority against harshenvironment conditions in most industrial process plants and factories. Due to the development ofrecent technology in digital image processing (DIP) remote control and monitoring system is possible.Remote approaches are developed to allow monitoring process or system of hazardousenvironment from great distance to perform maintenance functions in hazardous environment withoutexposure to danger. A hazardous industrial unit is provided with several video cameras at variouslocations. Each camera is coupled to video capturing unit at a central control station. Control andmonitoring is an image processing based human in loop system since peoples uses a control panel tomonitor and remotely located system. The human operator is involved in the loop sends controlcommands according to the real time image. Approximately 80% of industrial accidents are attributedto the human errors such as omitting steps, improper control of the system and falling asleep duringnights etc. [3]The Image Processing based control and monitoring system gives solutions for reducingthe possibility of human errors by selecting the field images in accordance with field operations. Thisinformation can be used in decision making process and shared with other applications.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, April 2013, pp. 62-67© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME63II. NEED OF DIPThe problem of determining the resonant frequencies of vibrating structure of free vibratingplate (circular / rectangular) was firstly investigated by Poisson and Rayleigh. Then this was improvedby Ritz, which having an assumption of a set of admissible trial functions, i.e. great analytical andnumerical manipulation. [1]Also point-wise measurement techniques (accelerometer/vibrometer) are used in conjunctionwith spectrum analyzer and modal analysis software to characterize the vibration of plates. Thesepoint-wise techniques have suffered from irregular mode shape estimation as a result of the lengthydata acquisition period. [2]To limiting these limitations, a machine vision system is applicable. The advantage of usingDigital Image Processing method is that both resonant frequencies and the corresponding modeshapes can be obtained simultaneously, it includes real-time observation, submicron sensitivity, directdigital image output.[3]No any measuring equipments (transducer/ sensor) are attached to the plate inorder to record the vibrations.III. APPLICATIONSThis Image Processing based control and monitoring system performs the followingfunctions:1. Control and monitoring parameters i.e. vibrations, flow, pressure, temperature, displacement,speed, etc.2. Changing between different operations modes i.e. manual, automatic.3. In medical fields – Pathology.4. Inspecting of goods – A circuit board, packaged pills, bottles, cearls, etc.5. Also used in experimental stress analysis –stress, strain and displacement.Digital Image Processing on line control and monitoring for the system to select the image andprocess it. Control signal is generated automatically to avoid human interventions. [6]II .CURRENT RESEARCH WORKFollowing researchers have worked in the area of vibration analysis with non contact typeevaluation,Chi-hung Hang, [4]have worked with Electronics Speckel Pattern Interferometry(ESPI) as a fullfield, non contact technique for surface displacement of a structure of a static loading or to dynamicvibration. In this research, an optical system called amplitude fluctuation ESPI with out of plane andin plane measurements to analyze vibration of piezocermics plates. They use two types ofconfigurations i.e. rectangular and circular. The vibration of piezoelectric material is electro-elastic innature, it is necessary to include the coupled electrical field with behavior.They used holographic interferometery, combined effect of the film recording and opticalreconstruction. The clear fringe pattern is shown at resonant frequencies.Chien-Chang Ma, [5]have presented, a whole-field technique named as amplitude fluctuationelectronics speckle pattern interferometry optical system to analyze the vibration behavior of squareplates with different boundary conditions.They investigated two different boundary conditions, as free-free-free-free and clamped-clamped-clamped-clamped. The calculations by FEM are also performed, and results are comparedwith the experimental measurement.Stephan D. Holland [6]have presented, on construction and development of a broad-spectrumvibrothermography measurement. A broad-band actuator used instead of an ultrasonic welding togenerate vibration and induce heating of cracks.
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME64A high resolution infrared camera captures the signatures of a crack, and reconfigurable dataacquisition software system acquires and processes the image and vibrometry waveforms in real time.Chi-hung Hang, [7]have described, the behavior of plate with cracks due to dynamic conditionof plates for both resonant frequencies and mode shapes.It arises a complication due to the field of vibration analysis and fracture mechanics. Theresonant characteristic of free vibration circular plates with radial cracks is used. The boundaryconditions along the circular edges are free. They use AF-ESPI method for both resonant frequencyand corresponding mode shapes can be obtained simultaneously.Hsien-Yang, [8]have presented, 3-Dimensional vibrations for piezocermics, which couple theout of plane and in plane vibrations are investigated. Piezocermics material which is widely used inelectromechanical sensors, actuators, and non destructive testing.Optical interferometry method is used; the disadvantage of this is, the interferometry fringesrepresent only the amplitude but not the phase of vibration.Dennise H. Shreve [9]have focused on the vibration sensor out put through various stages in thesignal processing path in typical vibration measurement instrument by using digital technology i.e.series of high-pass and low-pass filters.The researchers use Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT), which taking the overall time varyinginput sample and splitting it into individual frequency components.X. Kang, [10]have presented, a non-contact method for investigating the resonant frequency of amicrostructure. The amplitude of the microstructure is determined by image edge detection usingMexican hat wavelet transform on vibrating images of microstructure. These images are captured by acharge coupled device camera.The amplitudes at various excitation frequencies are obtained and an amplitude-frequencyspectrum is obtained from which the resonant frequency evaluated.Cristina Trillo, [11]have presented, the combination of high speed TV holography system and3D Fourier Transformer data processing for investigating multimode vibration in plates. The out ofplane displacement of plate under vibration excitation is resolved in time by the fast acquisition rateof high speed camera.They found that the individual vibration mode is separated in the 3D frequency space due todifferent vibration frequencies, to the different frequencies of the mode shapes. They found thecontribution of each individual mode to the dynamic behavior of object can be separated by band passfilter. They get final output which is a sequence of complex-valued maps that contain the fulfilledtemporal history of the selected modes in terms of its mechanical amplitude and phase.F. Gungor, [12]have presented, a large flexible beam with a tip mass-pendulum system. The DIPis used to demonstrate high performance data acquisition with high speed cameras. An experimentalresults obtained from image processing were used as input to inverse problem. These inverse problemalgorithms based on Levenberg-Marquardd formula system parameters like pendulum mass, lengthviscous damping are determinedP. Samdoz, [13]have presented, measuring vibration amplitude tuning fork with sub pixelaccuracy they used stroboscopic illumination which allows standard video rate camera forinvestigation of resonant frequency.IV. CASE STUDY[13]Frequency domain characterization of tuning-fork mechanical vibrations by vision anddigital image processing - P. SamdozA. IntroductionIn this research an experimental setup is associated with the associated digital imageprocessing software for measuring the vibration amplitude of a tuning fork with sub-pixel accuracy.No preliminary surface patterning is required since the image processing is based on the natural
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME65features present in the object structure. The amplitude response of the tuning fork is explored in thefrequency domain and the resonance is characterized. The results presented here can be generalized tothe measurement of 2D in-plane lateral displacements of any structure.B. PrincipalMeasuring the displacement of vibrating mechanical structures is a recurring problem forcharacterizing the material properties or the eigenmodes of an object. Out-of-plane displacements areusually characterized with holographic or interferometric methods leading to sub wavelengthaccuracies. In-plane displacement characterization presents a challenge which can be mostlyaddressed by digital image processing methods. Measuring the vibration amplitude of oscillatingresonators with sub-pixel accuracy requires a stroboscopic illumination coupled with efficient imageprocessing methods.They demonstrate this kind of experimental analysis deals with following purposes:• Characterize the fundamental properties of the vibrating object under investigation andidentification of its Eigen-mode frequency, vibration amplitude.• Demonstrate how commonly available equipment can be used for precise measurements of avibrating structure with digital image processing.• Illustrate with Fourier energy distribution characteristics of classical waveforms on a physicalsystem.C. Experimentation1. Experimental MethodThey concentrate on the visualizing the tuning fork vibration continuously and measuringaccurately while the excitation frequency is swept. Then the tuning fork can be fully characterized inthe frequency domain. The tuning fork motion has to be observed at standard video rate with acommonly used camera. They chose a CMOS camera connected to the USB port of the personalcomputer and a zoom lens (10x) to form the image of the prong-end surface on the image sensor. Theobservation of vibrations up to the kHz range at video-rate assumes a stroboscopic illumination with aphase control with respect to the tuning fork excitationFig.1 represents the experimental setup. A further two-channel audio amplifier (Sony XM-SD12X 250 W) can be recognized that amplifies the sound card outputs to the levels required fordriving both the LED and the speaker. A 2Hz frequency shift is systematically applied betweenspeaker excitation and LED triggering. This choice produces a linear phase shift between tuning forkexcitation and illumination. Therefore the prong motion is observed with an apparent frequency of2Hz; compatible with the standard video rate.
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME66Thus video sequences of the prong motion are recorded and the vibration amplitude is retrieved bydigital processing of these image sequences.2. Image Processing MethodsThe aim of image processing is to retrieve the lateral displacement values from the imagesequences recorded. The image cross-correlation method is used. The location of the correlation peakgives directly the displacement value. Sub-pixel accuracy can be obtained by over-sampling digitallythe initial images. Fourier transform is used as another approach, they firstly present the pure phaseshift produced in the Fourier spectrum by a lateral shift of the object in the spatial domain. Theyintroduce the working principle of an iterative algorithm retrieving the spatial displacement byprocessing the spectral phase. Finally they discuss results obtained with this approach as well as sideeffect considerations. One may notice the following points with respect to this technical issue ofimage processing:• The phase approach used is an opportunity to emphasize on the useful relationship betweenspectral phase and relative displacement in the spatial domain. Fourier transform is primarilyknown as an efficient tool for spectral component extraction or rejection through suitablefiltering of the Fourier spectrum and inverse Fourier transform.• Mat-Lab code sources can be generated for implementation of the required image processing.D. ResultThe image processing software allows complete exploration of the tuning fork’s behavior, acharacterization of the tuning-fork.Tuning fork excitation and resonance curve: - The description of the resonance curve of the tuning-fork is the result expected primarily from a frequency domain analysis. This study was carried out bymeasuring the prong vibration amplitude versus the frequency of the sine wave applied to the speaker.Fig.2 plots the curve obtained. The resonance frequency is close to 439.9Hz and the quality factor wasestimated to be equal to Q = 2500 ± 200.Fig.2 Resonance curve - tuning fork
  6. 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME67IV CONCLUSIONSThe Digital Image Processing for measurement of vibration amplitude contains certainfeatures from the above discussion which are as follows:• Continuous recording of commands during control operation.• Real time display of field images.• Provides both auto and manual control command generation for test operation.• Provides facility for scaling up additional measurements.• In normal sensors repeated calibration is requires once in six months.• Response and accuracy is more effective in digital Image processing technique.• Hysteresis effect is normal in analog signal Sensors can be overcome by this technique.• The actual image of the remote field is also visible in the computer screen with superimposing on the mimic diagram. This is not possible with the analog sensors.• The transmission of analog signal from distant location is always erroneous.The new interesting solution by the integration of Data Acquisition System with Digitalimage Processing will lead to a Digital Factory.REFERENCES[1] Anil K. Jain “Digital Image Processing” Pearson’sPublications, 4ThEdition,2003, PP-20-55[2] Rafael c Gonzalez “Digital Image Processing – MatLab Programming”, Pearson’s Publications, 5ThEdition,2002,PP-01-30[3] Dr.Victor S.P. “Integration of Data Aqusition System Through digital Image Processing”,IJCA,(Dec-2009),Vol.4,PP-201-220[4] Chi-hung Hang, Chien-Chang Ma, “Experimental and numerical investigations of resonant of vibrationcharacteristics of piezoceramic plates”, Acoustical Society of America (2001), PP-2780-2788[5] Chien-Chang Ma, Chi-hung Hang, “Experimental whole-filed interferometry for transverse vibration ofplates”, Journal of Sound and Vibration 271 (2004), PP-493-506[6] Stephan D. Holland, “First Measurment from a New Broadband Vibrothrmography MeasermentSystem”, American Institute of Physics, Review of Quantitative Non-Destructive Evaluation, Vol. 26(2007), PP-478-483[7] Chi-hung Hang, Chien-Chang Ma, “Vibration of Cracked Circular Plates at Resonance Frequencies”,Journal of Sound and Vibration 236 (2000), PP-637-656.[8] Chi-hung Hang, Chien-Chang Ma, Hsien-Yang, Chan-Chiao Lin, “Ful-Field Three-DimensionalVolume Vibrations for Piezoceramic Material in Resonance”, AIAA Journal Vol. 41, No. 4, April2003, PP-697-703.[9] Dennise H. Shreve, “Signal Processing for Effective Vibration Analysis”, IRD Mechanalysis, Inc.Columbus, Ohio, Nov-1995, PP-1-11.[10] X. Kang, X. Y. He, C. J. Tay, C. Quan, “Non-contact Evaluation of the Resonant Frequency of aMicrosrtucture using Ultrasonic Wave”, Acta Mech Sin (2010), Vol. 26, PP-317-323.[11] Cristina Trillo , Angel F. Doval, Fernando Mendoza-Santoyo, Carlos Perez-Lopez, Manuel de laTorre-Ibarra, J. Luis Dean, “Multimode Vibration Analysis with High-speed TV holography and aSpatiotemporal 3D Fourier Transform Method”, OSA (2009), Vol. 17, No. 20, PP-18014-18025.[12] F. Gungor, E. Gumus, A. Eratas, S. Ekwaro-Osire, E. Nieto, “Vibration Absorption of TipAppendage Using Digital Image Processing”, XIthInternational Congress and Exposition, Society forExperimental Mechanics Inc. Orlando, Florida USA, June 2008[13] J.Rajarajan and Dr.G.Kalivarathan, “Influence of Local Segmentation in the Context of Digital ImageProcessing – A Feasibility Study”, International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology(IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 340 - 347, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 –6375.