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Remote sensing satellite data demodulation and bit synchronization 2



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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME1REMOTE SENSING SATELLITE DATA DEMODULATION AND BITSYNCHRONIZATIONA.N.Satyanarayana1, Dr Y. VenkataRami Reddy2and B.C.S.Rao31M. Tech , Scientist, Indian Space Research Organization, working at Satellite Data ReceptionStation/ SD&MSD, NRSC, Hyderabad, India2Ex Vice Chanciller JNTU, A.P.3Divisional Head, Servo Drive & Mechanical Systems Division, Satellite Data Reception Station,Indian Space Research Organization, Hyderabad, IndiaABSTRACTThis paper presents the analysis of Remote sensing Satellite Data reception chain and its subsystems developments and improvements for error free data acquisition. In the operational mode,the remote sensing satellite video data being highly dynamic and un-known The current day remotesensing satellites are equipped with state of the art sensors having finest spatial and spectralresolutions and imaging capabilities to cater to the diversified applications for the earth resourcesmanagement. The advancement in the sensor technology has brought in a sea change in the satellitecommunication systems in order to handle these ever-increasing data rate requirements. As theusable spectrum to transmit this information is large, more efficient modulation schemes like QPSKmodulation, having more bandwidth and power efficiency are being used.This paper deals with the design and implementation aspects of high data rate digitaldemodulators. The high data rate digital Demodulator is a complicated processing element in theentire ground reception system, which includes both hardware and software. The design of digitaldemodulator must cater to flexibility in processing different modulation schemes, pulse shapes anddata rates. The demodulator complexity is directly related to the design of carrier regenerationcircuitry within the demodulator, which in turn depends on the complexity of the modulation typeused. With the advancement of the VLSI technology, coupled with the flexibility of digital signalprocessing algorithms, it is convenient to implement the design of high data rate digital demodulatorwith as much digital processing as possible.The high data rate digital demodulator performs IF amplification, filtering and analog todigital conversion of the received IF signal followed by Digital vector demodulator and symboltiming recovery. The basic design strategy includes a configurable data rate QPSK demodulationcircuitry utilizing the flexibility of FPGA /DSP implementation. The Performance of theDemodulator and bit synchronizer is evaluated using MATLAB simulation tools. The demodulatoris intended to give the BER performance of 1X10-6 at an Eb/No threshold within 2 dB of thetheoretical value.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, April 2013, pp. 01-12© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME2Index Terms: Demodulator, Bit Synchronizer, Bet error rate, Satellite link, PN Sequence Pattern,Sensor data, Filters.I. INTRODUCTIONAtypical Remote sensing satellite Earth station is shown in figure 1. The system in thisexample has both an uplink and downlink signal path, with a space satellite in between. With regardto the testing of this system, the BERT is, for all practical purposes, “the centre of the universe”.The BERT is the instrument that generates a PN sequence pattern digital signal, which in turn ismodulated onto a subcarrier and then placed onto an RF carrier by the up converter.The modulated carrier is then down converted and the signal is received by the down linkchain, where it is amplified by a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and down converted to anIntermediate Frequency (IF). The main carrier on the IF signal is demodulated by the IF Receiverproducing a subcarrier containing the original digital test signal (PN Sequence data) created by theBERT. The clock and data of the digital test signal are recovered by the Bit Synchronizer andpresented to the BERT. Coming full circle, this recovered down link data is compared with that sentin the uplink. The BERT counts the number of bit errors in the recovered signal and provides theoperator with a Bit Error Rate, or BER. This BER measurement is one of the fundamentalparameters that characterize the overall performance of the Remote Sensing Satellite Earth Station,and of many of its components.1.1 Data ReceptionNRSC has got its Earth Station at shadnagar. Basically an Earth station Links the Spacesegment with the Ground segment. An Earth Station receives signals from satellite; it consists ofTracking chain and Data chain. The tracking chain is made use to track the Satellite and align theAntenna in the direction of the satellite correspondingly to its antenna moments. The data chain isused for the reception of the data. The earth station makes use of Microwave frequencies andespecially of X-band (8-12GHZ) and S-band (4-8GHZ0 for the data acquisition.The major functions of remote sensing satellite ground station system are:• Reception of good quality of data acquisition of satellite to loss of satellite.• Acquiring and tracking of satellite pass.• Local loop checks.• Data Demodulation and Bit Synchronization.• Suitability for automation for analysis of operation and maintenance.• Receive and archive the high data rate digital information with designed data quality in realtime.• To track data mainly in X or S band.Real time data archiving and quick look monitoring of the data quality.This paper analyzes the key issues in the reception of data quality, the requirements for error freedata quality and tracking the target with real time monitoring all the parameters etc, .speciallykeeping in mind the present trend towards the importance of real time satellite sensor data.The study describes the technique of The High data rate digital demodulator. This consists of a Frontend IF band pass filter, AGC amplifier and IQ demodulator followed by Dual Channel 8 bit analogto digital converter. The digitized signal is then applied to the digital Costas loop that performsCoherent carrier recovery along with symbol detection function of the demodulation process.
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME31.2 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE GROUND STATION SYSTEMThe ground station system configuration is explained with reference to the block diagram in Fig.1.Figure 1 Block Diagram of Data AcquisitionThe system consists of a diametric parabolic reflector antenna with cassegrain feed, mountedover an EL over AZ driven pedestal. The feed and front-end system realizes single channelmonopulse signal tracking and data reception in X – Band frequencies. The sum and differencechannel signals from the front-end system are fed to a five channel synthesized down converter aredriven to the control room, wherein, after the amplitude equalization, the sum channel is fed to thedata demodulation while the difference channel signal is fed to the tracking receiver.The data and clock signals from the demodulator and Bitsynchronisers are fed to the archivalsystems during the pass. The tracking video output, corresponding to the antenna offset informationin Azimuth and Elevation axes, from the tracking receiver is fed to the antenna control unit.The antenna control unit has several operational modes to control the antenna movement.The unit drives the antenna in auto track mode during the satellite pass with programme trackingmode operating as backup.The servo system is a dual drive system with torque bias arrangements to avoid antennabacklash during tracking.A typical remote sensing satellite Earth station is shown in figure 1. The system in thisexample has both an uplink and downlink signal path, to the testing of this system, the BERT is, forall practical purposes, “the center of the universe”. The BERT is the instrument that generates aspecial digital test signal which in turn Up converted to a required remote sensing satellitefrequency and it ir being passed through the total receive chain components and the BERTgenerated special digital signal is being received by the Built in receiver of BERT system. Comingfull circle, this recovered down link data is compared with that sent in the uplink. The BERT countsthe number of bit errors in the recovered signal and provides the operator with a Bit Error Rate, orBER. This BER measurement is one of the fundamental parameters that characterize the overallperformance of the earth station, and of many of its components.2. The Implementation of High data Rate Digital DemodulatorThe design details of each of the functional blocks are presented below:IF Band Pass Filter : The down converted IF data signal is passed through a band pass filter toreject noise and to limit the data bandwidth in order to prevent aliasing associated with the analogto digital converter. The IF band pass filter is basically a Nyquist filter centered at the carrierfrequency of the IF signal. The single sided transfer function of the band pass Root Raised Cosine
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME4(RRC) filter is identical to the two sided base band frequency response of the equivalent base bandfilter with it’s center frequency shifted from zero Hertz to the carrier frequency Fc Hz. Thus animportant difference between base band RRC filter and band pass IF RRC filter is that the IFversion has a bandwidth twice that of the base band filter. The anti-aliasing filter band width mustbe B =2/Symbol. In the Satellite transmitter and the ground station receiver, the RRC band pass filtersare always implemented in the Intermediate frequency section of the transmitter or receiver. The IFFilter used in the proposed design is a 0.05 dB Chebyshev design lumped Component, Microminiature Band pass filter , The Center frequency of the IF filter is at Fo =720MHz with +/-90MHz pass band around center frequency. The maximum group delay variation within the passband is about 1ns.The insertion loss at the center frequency of the filter is determined by the equation:Loss = ( (Loss Constant) (No. Of Sections + 0.5) +0.3)% BandwidthThe Attenuation for rejection frequencies from Center Frequency= Reject Frequency - Center Frequency% bandwidthFigure 2The High data rate digital demodulator (Fig.2) consists of a Front end IF band pass filter, AGCamplifier and IQ demodulator followed by Dual Channel 8 bit analog to digital converter.The amplitude vs frequency response and group delay vs frequency response of the IF band pass areshown below, figure-3.Figure 3 Amplitude vs Frequency response
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME52.1 Automatic gain Control amplifierAn Automatic Gain Control (AGC) amplifier is used in the front end of the Digital QPSKdemodulator to provide a constant carrier amplitude level over a wide dynamic range of the inputsignal. In the normal operation , the input Signal level differences arise from downlink fading dueto rain attenuation, sporadic interferences or multipath effects etc. These variations can be as muchas 12dB within the duration of the Line of sight data reception for the remote sensing satellites.These amplitude variations will give rise to a kind of AM to PM conversion of the modulated signalat the input of Carrier recovery PLL circuit. This causes significant variations of all the loopparameters and affect the loop performance and locking phenomena. Hence it is essential tomaintain a constant amplitude for the modulated QPSK signal in order to have a distortion freedemodulated base band output.In the AGC amplifier circuit the peak power of the PSK signal is detected and fed back to theamplifier, changing it’s gain until the output level reaches a predetermined constant value. AGCmeasures the overall strength of the signal and automatically adjusts the gain of the receiver tomaintain a constant level of output.Figure-4 Block diagram of Automatic Gain Control amplifierWhen the signal is strong, the gain is reduced, and when it is weak, the gain is increased, orallowed to reach its normal maximum. The response time of the AGC circuit should be carefullydesigned, so that the input signal stabilizes well before the PLL acquisition time. Normally theAGC time constant is chosen to be about 1 mille second for real time data receivers in remotesensing ground stations.2.2 Analog to Digital Converter module.The filtered analog signal is sampled by the A/D converter at a rate of fs equal to 4 times thedata rate. The analog to digital converter converts the received wideband IF signal into 16 bitdigital samples. Clock signal applied to the A/D converter is controlled by the Numerical controlledOscillator, which in turn is the integral multiple of the bit rate.The only limitation to the data rate of operation in the design of Digital demodulator is theA/D converter. It is desirable to use parallel and Multi rate algorithms to allow all the traditionalfunctions of a digital demodulator to be performed within a single CMOS VLSI ASIC at theNyquist data rate. This system-on-a- chip methodology reduces Size and power requirements over amultiple ASIC solutions, as well as eliminates multiple expensive Non-recurring engineering costfor each ASIC. This kind of parallel operation allows the data to be processed at the rate that isfifteen to 20 times lower than the A/D rate.
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME6In the implementation of High data rate digital demodulator design , “National semiconductor’smake “ADC08D1500 high performance low power dual channel 8bit ,1.5 GSPS, with an Effectivenumber of bits (ENOB) of 7.3 bits and a BER performance of 10-18is used.The main consideration for systems using the ADC08D1500 and Virtex-4 FPGA is thesignaling between the devices. There are two key issues when handling two channels (eachproviding data at a rate of 1.5 billion(1.5 x 109) conversions per second) Signal integrity betweenthe ADC and FPGA and the rate of data transfer for each clock cycle. The ADC08D1500 uses lowvoltage differential signaling (LVDS) for each of its data outputs and clock signal. The mainadvantage of the LVDS signaling method is that you can achieve high data rates with a very lowpower budget. Two wires are used for each discrete signal that is to be carried across the circuitboard, which should be designed to have a characteristic impedance of 100 Ohms (defined by theLVDS standard). These traces are differentially terminated at the receiver with a 100 Ohm resistorto match the transmission line. TheADC08D1500 has a total of four 8-bit data buses, plus a clockand over-range signal that require an LVDS type connection to the FPGA(see Figure 2) .This addsup to a total of 34 differential pairs, all of which require 100 Ohm termination.The Virtex-4 device offers active digitally controlled impedance (DCI) and a simple passive100 Ohm termination on chip within the I/O buffers of the device.These on-chip termination methods eliminate the need to place passive resistors on the circuit boardand simplify the routing on the PCB.The ADC08D1500 provides a de-multiplexed data output for each of its two channels.Instead of providing a single 8-bit bus running at a data rate equal to the sampling speed, the ADCoutputs two consecutive samples simultaneously on two 8-bit data buses (1:2 de-mux)The converteroutput has 1 : 2 demultiplexer that feeds two LVDS buses and reduces the output data rate on eachbus to one half the sampling rate.The ADC performance specifications are generally characterized in two ways namely, theDC accuracy and dynamic performance.The dynamic performance is more critical parameter for this application.Dynamic performance includes measure of signal to noise ratio and harmonic distortion.One of the fundamental measures in ADC measurement is the quantization error. Maximumquantization error is determined by the resolution of the measurement. This may appear as noisefloor in FFT plot. For a given ADC resolution, the quantization noise limits the ADC to it’stheoretical best SNR. The quantization noise can be reduced by selecting a higher resolution ADCor by over sampling.SNR (dB) = 6.02N + 1.76, where N is the resolution of ADC.Limitations in the materials used in the fabrication of the ADCs will cause deviations fromthe ideal transfer function response. These deviations define the DC accuracy and are characterizedby the dynamic performance specifications.3. DESIGN OF COSTAS CARRIER RECOVERY LOOPCarrier recovery is the process of extracting a coherent reference carrier from the receivedmodulated carrier signal. To correctly demodulate the data , a phase & frequency coherent carrieris to be recovered and compared with the received signal in a product detector. To determine theabsolute phase of the received signal it is necessary to reproduce a carrier at the receiver that is inphase & frequency coherence with the transmit reference oscillator. In the case of High data rateQPSK modulated signal the carrier cannot simply be tracked with a standard Phase-lock loops(PLL) at the receiver , but a more sophisticated method of carrier recovery is required . Phase-lockloops (PLLs) have been one of the basic building blocks in modern communication systems. Thereare many kinds of Phase Lock Loops: the Costas Loop or Quadrature loop , which is named by J.P. Costas, a pioneer in synchronous communications, is a very good choice for the high data rate
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME7digital demodulator design. The implementation is very powerful and useful in many situations.Further we can precisely determine and correct the Doppler variations.The Costas or the quadrature loop involves two parallel tracking loops operating simultaneouslyfrom the same VCO. (Ref fig.5)One loop called the in-phase loop uses the VCO directly for tracking .The other loop uses 90degrees shifted VCO .The mixer outputs are multiplied, filtered and used to control the VCO. Thelow pass filters in each arm must be wide enough to pass the carrier modulation without distortion.The in-phase mixer generates the cosine terms. The quadrature mixer generates the sine terms.The multiplier outputI(t) . Q(t) = A2 . m2 (t) . sinΨe . cosΨe= A2/2 . 2.sinΨe(t).o Where Ψe = phase error.The double frequency terms are eliminated by the Low pass filters following themultiplication. An error signal is generated by multiplying the two outputs of the Low pass filters.The error signal is filtered by the Loop filter ,whose output is the control voltage which drives theVCO . The Costas loop thus tracks the phase variations with VCO without interference from thecarrier modulation.The limiter cross over arms are used for controlling the amplitude variations and regulate theCNR within the loop . At high SNR the limiter output will have sign that is identical to the presentdata bit polarity.The optimum Low pass filter for rejecting the double frequency term in the Costas loop is afilter matched to the information bearing data signal. If matched filters are used for the Low passfilters , their outputs can be sampled and directly used for Bit synchronization.The output of the VCO contains a phase ambiguity of Π/4 radians, which can be overcomeby differential encoding of the data at the transmitter and differential decoding after demodulationat the receiver.The loop filter bandwidth and the arm filter bandwidths are the critical tasks to be addressedfor designing the demodulator to cater to multimission data reception application.The fundamental expression that relates the mean squared phase jitter in the phase lock loopto the SNR in the loop isσφ2= 1/ρ rads2,Where ρ= SNR in the loop.σφ2= (BL / Bi ) *[ 1/ (S/N)i]Where (S/N)i is the input Signal-to –Noise ratioBL = One sided loop BandwidthBi = One sided IF bandwidth (Arm filter bandwidth)If SL is the squaring loss in the carrier regeneration process,σφ2= 1/ρL SL Where ρL = Loop SNRThe term squaring loss is used to describe the degradation in the loop SNR due to SXN and NXNdistortions occurring the arm filters . The squaring loss depends on the shape of the input pre-filter,the data waveform and the Eb/No.SL = h1 + h2 Tb /αα 2 Eb/NoWhere Tb = Bit durationα = Bif / Rs
  • 8. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME8Bif = Double sided IF bandwidthRs = Data rate-∞h1 = 1/2π ∫ Sm (ω ) l Hc (ω )l4dω∞-∞h2 = 1/2π ∫ l Hc (ω )l4dω∞Where Hc (ω ) = Low pass equivalent of the input band pass filter transfer function.Sm (ω ) = Spectrum of the modulated signal.It is seen from the above relation that if the input pre-filter band width is too wide relative to the bitduration 1/Tb ,h1 and h2 will increase ,while if it is too narrow , α decreases and both of theseincrease the squaring loss. QPSK requires much higher S/N ratio in the XPLL than that required forBPSK for a given bit error rate performance.Figure 5 Costas Loop DiagramThe analysis substantiated with the practical results indicate that the double sided loop bandwidth of 30 KHz for the Costas PLL is adequate for QPSK operation up to the Symbol rates ofabout 160 MBPS. For lower data rates ( < 10 MBPS ) the loop bandwidth has to be narrowed forbetter SNR . The Pre-filter band width has to be designed as equivalent to 55% of the highest baudrate expected.The Digital implementation of the basic Costas loop for High data rate QPSK demodulator isproposed to be carried out on a Single FPGA (Xilinx Vertex-4 or Spartan-3E Chips.)An average high-density design of up to 100,000 gates can be compiled in less than 30minutes thus giving more time to make analysis for perfect design.The Digital Costas loop (DCL) has four basic components: a phase detector, numerically controlledoscillator (NCO), digital low pass FIR and a loop filter. A second order FIR Low pass filter and 2ndorder loop filter are adequate to track the Doppler shift variations with good performance.3.1 Digital Implementation of Costas blocksPhase Detector: It compares the phase difference between synthesized output frequency andreference input. Commonly used XOR gate or edge sensitive phase detector can be selected. Thefunction of the phase detector is to generate an error signal, which is used to return the oscillatorfrequency whenever its output deviates from a reference input signal.
  • 9. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME9Figure 6 Block Diagram of Realized Phase Detector3.1Digital low pass FIR filter: Mixed signal has to be filtered to isolate the portion of the spectrumcontaining the signal of interest. The filter typically has to be a narrow-band filter with a fairly highrejection of unwanted spectrum. This is to done at a much lower sample rate using a lesscomputationally intensive filter.Calculation Of Coefficients:Enter the pass band ripple : 0.5 dBEnter the stop band ripple : 30 dBEnter the pass band edge freq : 28000000 HzEnter the stop band edge freq : 44000000 HzEnter the sampling freq : 157500000 Hz-0.0536, -0.0365, +0.1693, +0.4046, +0.4046, +0.1693, -0.0365, -0.0536This FIR filter is implemented in FPGA using VHDL simulation on Xilinx development tools. TheBasic design Parameters of FIR filter areFully configurable fixed point FIR filter.Twos complement arithmetic.Pipeline architecture.Parametric filter order (no. of taps), data and coefficient width.Configurable output precision.Coefficients stored in internal ROM4. HARDWARE TEST RESULTSSimulate filter impulse response in VHDL simulation tool Synthesize filter using VHDLsynthesis tool. Place-and-route using Xilinx place-and-route tools -circuit clock speed is output by thistool -circuit area is determined by the number of slices/CLBs used.
  • 10. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME104.1 QPSK Costas loop implementation ResultsA system-level design was developed that modeled a simple transmitter and channel that simulated aQPSK modulated Signal for a data rate of 52.5 MB.Figure 7 Modulation constellation diagram.Figure 8 Eye diagram Transmitter diagram.Figure 9 Rotating Constellation diagramFigure 10 Eye diagram of receiver
  • 11. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME11Figure 11 Input and Output Phase SlopesFigure 12 Phase error and De-rotated Constellation4.2 FPGA ImplementationDevice family selected : Spartan -3E series Xilinx FPGAs. Arithmetic realization of the QPSKCostas loop : Matlab and Simulink After the quantized model was verified in the Simulinkdomain, a conventional FPGA implementation flow, using VHDL is used to produce the finaldesign.4.3 HardwareDigital PCB (Base Board) having1-2 FPGAs to do Carrier recovery & Bit synchronizationHigh speed digital parallel interface (external Dual ADCs)Input/output Connectors (IF input, multiplex and non-multiplex. I and Q Bit Streams)RS-232 D-M console configuration port12 V/5.0 V DC power Head.Reference clock 10MHz 0dBm (temperature compensated,ADC08D1500 A/D PCB modulesDisplay module PCB hasDisplay, Keypad.Power supply module12/5 V output or 230 V +/- 10% AC input.Base mounting plate and box
  • 12. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME126. CONCLUSIONThe primary objective of the design is to develop a fully programmable high data rate digitaldemodulator using VLSI techniques and devices. The high data rate digital demodulator has thecapability to demodulate any QPSK signal with a data rate ranging from 10 MBPS to 320 MBPS.The design concepts and implementation aspects of a Costas Loop Carrier recovery have been givenmore emphasis, which have been elaborately discussed in this paper. The Simulations are carriedout for a nominal QPSK signal with a data rate of 105 MBPS (52.5 X 2). Further the process ofimplementing the Digital Costas Loop (DCL) on an FPGA has also been thoroughly discussed. TheCostas Loop design is tested extensively in MATLAB for design validation and performanceoptimizations as required for high data rate applications. The simulation and implementationresults show that this whole architecture results in robust and accurate carrier recovery. The DigitalLow Pass FIR filter optimizations thereby make it feasible to implement an entire Costas Loop onFPGA, with a BER performance close to the theoretical curve and with an implementationmargin < 2 dB.7. REFERENCES(1) K. Feher, “Wireless Digital Communications”, Prentice Hall.(2) D. Pleasant, “Practical Simulation of Bit Error Rates”, Appl. Microwaves & Wireless,Winter94.(3) E. Franke & J. Wunderlich, Practical BER Measurements.” Paper- R.F. Expo, West, Jan 1995.(4) A.B. Carlson, “ Communications Systems”, McGraw Hill(5) J.C. Bellamy, “Digital telephony”, John Wiley, 1982.(6) H.R. Walker, “ Modulation Analysis” Vol 13, Encyclopedia of Electrical and ElectronicEngineering, John Wiley -also Applied Microwaves and Wireless magazine, July/Aug 1997(7) Mischa Schwartz, “Information Transmission, Modulation and Noise.”McGraw Hill. 1959.(8) Proakis and Saleh, “ Communications System Engineering” Prentice Hall, 1994.(9) K. Feher, "Telecommunications Measurements, Analysis, and Instrumentation", NoblePublishing, Atlanta, Ga.(10) R. E. Best, "Phase Locked Loops" McGraw Hill.(11) Taub and Schilling, "Principals of Communications Systems" McGraw Hill.(12) Horan, S., Introduction to PCM Telemetering Systems, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993,ISBN 0-8493-4208-2.(13) Feher, K., Telecommunications Measurements, Analysis, And Instrumentation, Prentice-HallPress, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1987, ISBN 0-13-902404-2.(14) CCITT Rec. 0151, Yellow Book, Vol. 4 Fascicle IV.4 Recommendation 0.151.(15) Shashank Bholane and Devendrasingh Thakore, “Sender To Receiver Synchronization InWireless Sensor Networks – A Simulation Study” International journal of Computer Engineering &Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 265 - 270, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367,ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.(16) T.Regu and Dr.G.Kalivarathan, “Prediction of Wireless Communication Systems in theContext of Modeling”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering&Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 11 - 17, ISSN Print: 0976-6464,ISSN Online: 0976-6472.(17) T.Regu and Dr.G.Kalivarathan, “Prediction of a Reliable Code for Wireless CommunicationSystems”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4,Issue 1, 2013, pp. 19 - 26, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553.