INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND   International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
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Rectangular slot loaded monopole microstrip antennas for triple band operation

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Rectangular slot loaded monopole microstrip antennas for triple band operation

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), pp. 176-182 IJECET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2012): 3.5930 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com RECTANGULAR SLOT LOADED MONOPOLE MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS FOR TRIPLE-BAND OPERATION AND VIRTUAL SIZE REDUCTION M. Veereshappa1, and S. N. Mulgi2 1 Department 0f Electronics, L.V.D.College, Raichur -584 103, Karnataka, India 2 Department of PG Studies and Research in Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga – 585 106, Karnataka, India. mveeresh27@rediffmail.com, s.mulgi@rediffmail.com ABSTRACT This paper presents the design and development of rectangular slot loaded monopole microstrip antennas for triple-band operation and virtual size reduction. The antenna operates for three band of frequencies in the frequency range of 1 to 16 GHz and gives maximum virtual size reduction of 62 %. If vertical rectangular slot on the patch is rotated by an angle of 300 the antenna retains three bands of frequencies and gives the maximum band width at each operating band keeping same virtual size reduction .The three bands may be converted to six bands by further rotating 300 slot on the patch to 600. In all the cases antenna gives ominidirectional radiation characteristics. Experimental results are in close agreement with the simulated results. The proposed antenna may find application for microwave communication systems. Key words: monopole, virtual size, ominidirectional. 1. INTRODUCTION Microstrip antennas are useful in microwave communication systems because of their diversified applications such as compact in size, simple in design, planar configurations, compatibility with integrated circuits, low cost, low profile, light weight, and easy to fabricate[1-2]. Number of investigations have been reported in the literature for the realization of dual, triple and multi-band operation [3-6] and enhancement of impedance bandwidth [7-8]. Designs of single feed equilateral triangular microstrip antennas are obtained with an virtual size reduction is up to 22 % by embedding cross slots on radiating 176
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEpatch [9]. Most of the antennas presented in the literature are complex in their design andlarge in antenna size. In this paper a simple technique has been demonstrated to construct themonopole antenna for triple band operation, virtual size reduction and enhancement ofimpedance bandwidth at each operating band by varying the angle of vertical slot on thepatch without affecting the nature of radiation characteristics.2. DESIGN OF ANTENNA GEOMETRY The art work of the proposed antennas is sketched by using computer software Auto-CAD to achieve better accuracy and are fabricated on low cost FR4-epoxy substrate materialof thickness of h = 0.16 cm and permittivity εr = 4.4.Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of rectangular slot monopole microstrip antenna(RSMA). The selected area of the substrate is A = L × W cm. On the top surface of thesubstrate a ground plane of height which is equal to the length of microstripline feed Lf isused on either sides of the microstripline with a gap of 0.1 cm. On the bottom of the substratea continuous ground copper layer of height Lf is used below the microstripline. The RSMA isdesigned for 3 GHz of frequency using the equations available for the design of conventionalrectangular microstrip antenna in the literature [2]. The length and width of the rectangularpatch are Lp and Wp respectively. The feed arrangement consists of quarter wave transformerof length Lt and width Wt which is connected as a matching network between the patch andthe microstripline feed of length Lf and width Wf. A semi miniature-A (SMA) connector isused at the tip of the microstripline feed for feeding the microwave power. In Fig.1 therectangular slot is placed along the center axis of the patch at a distance of 1.42 cm from thevertical sides of the patch. The length and width of rectangular slot is Ls and Ws respectively,and are to be in terms of operating wave length. Figure 1 Top view geometry of RSMA 177
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME Figure 2 shows the geometry of inclined thirty degree rectangular slot monopole microstripantenna (ITRSMA). In this figure a rectangular slot is rotated by an angle of 300 on the patchwhen compared to Fig.1 The feed arrangement of Fig. 2 remains same as that of Fig.1. Figure 2 Top view geometry of ITRSMA Figure 3 Top view geometry of IRSSMA Fig.3 shows the geometry of inclined sixty degree rectangular slot monopole microstripantenna (IRSSMA). In this figure rectangular slot is rotated on the patch by an angle of 600with respect to Fig.1. The feed arrangement of this antenna is also remain same as that ofFig.1. The design parameters of the proposed antennas is as shown in Table 1 178
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME TABLE 1 Design Parameters of Proposed Antennas Antenna Dimension Antenna Dimension Parameters (cm) Parameters (cm) Lp 2.34 L 8.0 Wp 3.04 W 5.0 Lf 2.48 Ls 1.666 Wf 0.30 Ws 0.2 Lt 1.24 h 0.16 Wt 0.053. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The antenna bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB is simulated using HFSSsimulating software and then tested experimentally on Vector Network Analyzer (Rohde &Schwarz, Germany make ZVK model 1127.8651). The variation of return loss versesfrequency of RSMA is as shown in Fig. 4. From this graph the experimental bandwidth (BW)is calculated by using the equations, f −f  BW =  2 1  ×100 % (1)  fc were f1 and f2 are the lower and upper cut of frequencies of the band respectively when itsreturn loss reaches – 10 dB and fc is the center frequency between f1 and f2. From this figure,it is found that, the antenna operates between 1 to 16 GHz and gives three resonant modes atf1 to f3, i.e. at 1.14, 4.70, and 14.01 GHz. The magnitude of experimental -10 dB bandwidthmeasured for BW1 to BW3 by using the equation (1) is found to be 130 MHz (9.6 %), 80MHz (1.68 %), and 8.81 GHz (76.24 %) respectively. Figure 4 Variations of return loss versus frequency of RSMA 179
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEMEThe resonant mode at 1.14 GHz is due to the fundamental resonant frequency of the patch andothers modes are due to the novel geometry of RSMA. The triple band response obtained is dueto different surface currents on the patch. The fundamental resonant frequency mode shifts from 3GHz designed frequency to 1.14 GHz due to the coupling effect of microstripline feed and topground plane of RSMA. This shift of frequency gives a virtual size reduction of 62 %. Figure 5 Variations of return loss versus frequency of ITRSMAFigure 5 shows the variation of return loss verses frequency of ITRSMA. It is seen that, theantenna operates for three bands of frequencies. The magnitude of these operating bandsmeasured at BW4 to BW6 is found to be 340 MHz (27 %), 190 MHz (4.02 %), and 8.88 GHz(76.81 %) respectively. Hence by comparing Fig.4 and 5 it is clear that the each operating band ofFig.5 is enhanced by changing vertical slot on the patch by 300 when compared to Fig.1.The variation of return loss verses frequency of IRSSMA is as shown in Fig. 6. From this figure itis clear that, the antenna operates for six bands BW7 and BW12. The magnitude of each operatingband is found to be 220 MHz (18.33 %), 90 MHz (1.9 %), 2.76 GHz (32.74 %), 2.26 GHz (19.96%), 790 MHz (6.04 %) and 2.42 GHz (16.36%) respectively. This shows that, the rotation of sloton the patch is effective in increasing the number of operating bands. The simulated results ofRSMA, ITRSMA and IRSSMA are also shown in Fig. 4 to 6. The experimental and simulatedresults are in good agreement with each other. Figure 6 Variations of return loss versus frequency of IRSSMA 180
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME The co-polar and cross-polar radiation pattern of RSMA, ITRSMA and IRSSMA ismeasured in their operating bands. The typical radiation patterns for the proposed antennasare shown in Fig 7 to 9 respectively. The obtained patterns are ominidirectional in nature.The gain of RSMA, ITRSMA and IRSSMA is measured by absolute gain method. Themaximum gain found to be 8.18, 9.93 and 8.38 dB respectively.Figure7 Typical radiation pattern of RSMA Figure 8 Typical radiation pattern of TRSMA. Figure 9 Typical radiation pattern of IRSSMA 181
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January- February (2013), © IAEME4. CONCLUSION From the detailed experimental study, it is concluded that the RSMA operates forthree band of frequencies in the frequency range of 1 to 16 GHz and gives maximum virtualsize reduction of 62 %. If rectangular slot is rotated with an angle of 300 the enhancement ofeach operating band in triple band operation is possible .The three band of frequencies maybe converted into six bands by further rotating rectangular slot on the patch by an angle of600. In all cases the antenna gives virtual size reduction of 62 % with ominidirectionalradiation characteristics. Experimental results are in close agreement with the simulatedresults. The proposed antenna may find application for microwave communication systems.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank Dept. of Sc. & Tech. (DST), Govt. of India. NewDelhi, for sanctioning Vector Network Analyzer to this Department under FIST project. Theauthors also would like to thank the authorities of Aeronautical Development Establishment(ADE), DRDO Bangalore for providing their laboratory facility to make antennameasurements on Vector Network Analyzer.REFERENCES 1 Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna theory: analysis and design, John Wiley, New York, 1997. 2 I. J. Bahl and P. Bharatia, Microstrip antennas, Dedham, MA: Artech House, New Delhi, 1981. 3 Waterhouse, R.B, and Shuley, N.V: “Dual frequency microstip rectangular patches”, Electron lett, 28(7), 1992, pp. 606-607. 4 W. –C. Liu and H.-J. Liu, “Compact triple-band slotted monopole antenna with asymmetrical CPW grounds” Electron lett, 42(15), 2006, pp.840-842. 5 K. G. Thomas and M. Sreenivasan, ”Compact triple band antenna for WLAN, WiMAX applications,” Electron lett. Vol. 45(16), 2009, pp.811-813. 6 C. W. Jung, I. Kim, Y. Kim and Y. E. Kim. “Multiband and multifeed antenna for concurrent operation mode”. Electron lett, 43(11), 2007, pp.600-602. 7 K. Song, Y. Z. Yin, S. T Fan, Y. Z Wang and L. Zhang, Open L-slot antenna with rotated rectangular patch for bandwidth enhancement, Electron Lett 45 (2009), 1286 – 1288. 8 Jia- Yi Size, Kin-lu Wong, Slotted rectangular microstip antenna for bandwidth enhancement, IEEE Trans Antennas Propagat 48 (2000), 1149-1152. 9 Gui-Han Lu; Kin-Lu Wong, “Single-feed circularly polarized equilateral- triangular microstip antenna with a tuning stub” IEEE Trans on Antennas and Propagat 48(12), 2000, pp.1869-1872. 10 M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Design And Development Of Triple Band Ominidirectional Slotted Rectangular Microstrip Antenna” International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 17 - 22, Published by IAEME 182

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