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Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development
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Proposed remote healthcare system for rural development

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  • 1. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME16PROPOSED REMOTE HEALTHCARE SYSTEM FOR RURALDEVELOPMENTFaimida M. Sayyad##Abdul Razzak Kalsekar Polytechnic, Panvel-410206, Maharashra-India.*JJT University, Jhunjhunu, IndiaABSTRACTAbstract - This paper presents the Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) system which isperceived to be more convenient and cost effective than traditional care, since it enableshealthcare organizations to monitor and manage patients remotely; provisions of the rightinformation, in the right place, at the right time are the fundamental in RPM. However, thecurrent uses of wired sensing devices as well as their connections to network systems are notsuitable for long-term RPM, as their usage restricts patients’ mobility. Advances inbiomedical sensors and wireless network technologies have made it possible to develop awireless RPM system. Such a wireless RPM can provide enhanced mobility and comfort topatients during hospitalizationKeywords: ICT , Rural, Development, Strategy , Analysis of use of ICT, Healthcare.1. INTRODUCTIONVital sign measurement is the initial and the most important task in RPM. Theexisting instruments are commonly equipped with cable-based sensors, which make thembulky, intrusive and inconvenient. These sensors may not suit for long-term monitoring ofvital sign in RPM on general wards. To improve comfort and mobility of patients, wirelessbiomedical sensors are considered. They are normally small in size and have wirelesscommunication capability. This paper evaluates sensors that can be used to measure vitalsigns in RPM on general hospital wards.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY &MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (IJITMIS)ISSN 0976 – 6405(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online)Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), pp. 16-23© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijitmis.htmlJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.2372 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJITMIS© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME172. DIFFERENT TYPES OF SENSORSSensors for Heart Rate Monitoring: Heart rate is very important in patient monitoring. Intraditional medicine, heart examination and monitoring was carried out by stethoscopes,through which medical personnel listened to a patient’s heart sound and made decisionsbased on their knowledge and experience.Electrocardiograph (ECG) sensor: ECG is primarily a tool for examination of cardiacdiseases.Pulse ox meter: It can be used to examine two types of vital signs: heart rate and bloodoxygen saturationSensors for Measuring Blood Pressure: There are five common methods for measuringblood pressure: auscultation, palpation, flush, oscillation, and transcutaneous Doppler”.Furthermore only the oscillation and transcutaneous Doppler can be adopted in remotemonitoring by incorporation of sensors for pressure oscillations or Doppler shift in thepressure cuff around the wrist or finger.Sensors for Measuring Body Temperature: Body temperature can be measured by threetypes of sensors: resistance thermometer, thermocouple and thermistor.Sensors for Measuring Body Weight: Weight can be measured either by spring balance orelectronic balance. Between these electronic balance is used for remote patient monitoring. Ithas Bluetooth through which we can send sensor reading to gateway devices via particularinterface.Sensors for blood glucose measurement: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing theconcentration of glucose in the blood .Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, ablood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood,then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable test-strip.3. RPM ARCHITECTURE AND SERVICESIn this section we are proposing architecture and associated services for transmissionof vital signs (data) from patient to the doctor, vice-versa, data from doctor to pharmaceuticalcompany and data transmission between insurance company and doctor.Hospital/Ambulatory services: Patients vital signs will be transmitted to an attachedHospital where a doctor can analyse the received data from patient and prescribe patientaccordingly. Hospital shall also provide ambulatory services in case of emergency.Pharmacy: After medicines prescribed by the doctor, electronic prescription will beautomatically routed to pharmaceutical companies attached in network and drugs shall beallotted to concerned patient with his/her consent.Drug Delivery: Medicines shall be delivered to patient’s home after pharmacist allots thedrug. For this service additional 3rdparty integration is required in network so that medicinescould be transferred as per defined timelines.
  • 3. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME18Call Centre: We can also setup a 24x7 operational call center for emergency services likeambulatory services, drug delivery, billing and other general enquiries.Billing: Patient would be charged according to predefined charging scheme and amountwould be deducted from his account. Billing and charging schemes need to be defined asonline or offline.Insurance: If the patient is covered under insurance then the relevant information is sent tothe company and billing is done accordingly.The Tele-clinics approach aid service is one amongst the necessary basic desires.Pathological state may have an effect on the living standards directly and indirectly. aidservice within the rural areas wherever quite seventy maximize Indians live, is abhorrentlyinadequate. Many of the general public aid services like Public Health Centre’s (PHCs) andsub-centre in rural areas dont seem to be equipped and staffed to produce quality aid to theagricultural poor. This means the yawning divide between rural and concrete aid services,between the agricultural poor and therefore the well to do. The new developments in aidhavent percolated to the agricultural areas and this is often a matter of nice concern. Whereaspublic aid system in Asian country has the simplest professionals and one amongst thesimplest systems (decentralized up to the sub centre level) theres a requirement to explorethe ways in which and means that to bring equity in access to health professionals andestablishments. The use of entitlements to fulfil consumption desires may have an effect on afamily’s reserves negatively within the long-standing time and will have an effect on thepower of a family to face uncertainties. although its encouraging to notice that some effortssquare measure created to produce social protection to the poor through insurance policiesoffered (public non-public partnerships) by some company insurance firms (even although aresults of operational compulsion by government) and a few state governments, theseschemes square measure nonetheless to achieve the bulk living within the rural areas. Healthstanding affects human development in many ways. in line with the Noble Laureate professor.Amerada subunit, health is one amongst the necessary human capabilities that confirm accessto wealth.
  • 4. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME194. TELE-CLINIC: AIMS AND OBJECTIVESTele-clinic initiated by Christian Hospital in Bundelkhand is one amongst theinnovative mixtures of technology and health protection supplement. It’s a shot to introduceICT in aid to boost the access to specialty care to those living in remote rural areas. Thecommunication between a doctor and a patient is enabled through the employment of a phone.Tele-clinic could be a phone enabled closed network of rural folks, trained medical expertsand medical professionals of Christian Hospital. This network permits communicationbetween doctor and a patient in a very remote rural village with the assistance of a phone. Atrained medical expert facilitates the communication between a doctor and a patient through aWLL phone provided by the BSNL (government in hand telecommunication agency). Atrained medical expert is recruited all told the decision centre’s. These decision centre’s offerservices like primary aid, machine service, phone consultation, emergency medication andthen on. One call centre covers 3 to 5 encompassing villages. The on top of mentionedproject is innovative and could be an initial with this distinctive combination within thewhole world, particularly in Asian country. its a mix of economic protection and aid access.the most goals and objectives of Tele-clinic square measure as follows.AimDevelop healthy and economically productive rural citizenship through facilitatingcheap, reliable and top quality health data to the agricultural poor victimization ICT.Objectives• To produce emergency aid to the agricultural poor.• To make sure safe delivery and kinship in rural areas.• To produce access to health data and creating aid accessible to the poor.• To facilitate quality treatment to the poor in remote rural villages.• To produce public health safety web to the agricultural poor.4.1. Tele-clinic: Levels of treatmentTele-clinic uses a 3 tier aid service through use of knowledge and CommunicationTechnology (at gift phone is being used)a) Call Centre level is medical aid manned by a medical expert.b) Weekly referral clinics at call centre Level manned by nurse & laboratory technician.c) Hospital level – secondary careAt all these levels the consultation of a professional practicing a specialist is vital. Alltreatments square measure provided once specialist consultation over phone, except just incase of causalities wherever medical expert administer emergency medication refer thepatient to the hospital.
  • 5. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME20The Health Unit is LTE-Wi-Fi connected to help link the unit to the central medicalcentre.The patient at the remote health unit and the doctor at the central medical centrecommunicate with each otherThe Doctor orders the following diagnostic tests1. Blood Pressure2. ECG3. Temperature4. Oxygen Saturation (SP O2)The paramedic helps conduct these tests one by one on the patientResults of each test are conveyed over the LTE network to the doctor. At the sametime he is video communicating so that he is able to guide the paramedic and thepatient during the diagnostic testsIt will also be an option that the doctor views the patient’s medical reports offlineThe doctor examines the medical reports and keys-in the prescription to the patient atthe remote health unitThe prescription is printed at the remote unit and handed over to the patientThe doctor and patient communicate on video to discuss any outstanding aspect oftreatmentTo ensure that the prescription is honoured by the chemist, there would be a process ofauthentication including measures such as Identity Management and Digital signaturesThere will be options such as direct communication of prescription to identifiedchemists as well as obtaining assistance of other services like ambulance in the case ofemergenciesThe entire health care program will be supported and coordinated through backendapplications and customer care centre that link hospitals , pharmacists, diagnosticcentres, patient homes, doctor’s offices and medical insurance.
  • 6. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME21CONCLUSIONThis work has translated into observable outcomes such as:1. Improved access to specialists increased patient satisfaction with care.2. Improved clinical outcomes3. Reduction in emergency room utilization4. Cost savings5. Employment Opportunities increase.Given the various benefits observed through the provision of health care viatelemedicine, there is a tremendous amount of momentum toward increasing access to carethrough the use of health information technologies, thereby creating an exciting and centralrole for innovation and implementation of new and advanced platforms for service delivery.Two such platforms include the use of wireless and telemonitoring technologies. It is ourbelief that healthcare delivery is about to make a significant leap forward.The development and installation of high-speed wireless telecommunicationsnetworks coupled with large-scale search engines and mobile devices will change healthcaredelivery as well as the scope of healthcare services. It will allow for real-time monitoring andinteractions with patients without bringing them into a hospital or a specialty care center.This real/near-time monitoring and interacting could enable a healthcare team to addresspatient problems before they require major interventions, creating a potentially patient-centred approach that could undoubtedly change our expectations of our healthcare system.REFERENCES[1] Akakpo, J. and Fontaine, M. (2001) ‘Ghana’s Community Learning Centres.’ InLatchem, C. and Walker, D. (eds) (2001) Perspectives on Distance Education. CaseStudies and Key Issues. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning.[2] Ashley, C. and Carney, D. (1999) Sustainable Livelihoods: Lessons from EarlyExperience. London: Department for International Development.[3] Ashley, C. and S. Maxwell (2001) (eds) Rethinking Rural Development. DevelopmentPolicy Review 19 (4) 395–573.[4] Baumann, P. (1999) ‘Information and Power: Implications for Process Monitoring. AReview of the Literature.’ ODI Working Paper 120. London: Overseas DevelopmentInstitute.[5] Bridges.org (2001) Spanning the Digital Divide: Understanding and Tackling the Issues.www.bridges.org/spanning/report.html[6] Chambers, R. (1997) Whose Reality Counts? Putting the Last First. London:Intermediate Technology.[7] Report of the Expert Committee for Improving Agricultural Statistics,Govt of India , 2011.[8] Chapman, R., Slaymaker, T., and Young. J. (forthcoming) The Role of Information inSupport of Sustainable Livelihoods. Report prepared for FAO, Rome. Christoplos, I.,Farrington, J. and Kidd, A. (2001) ‘Extension, Poverty and Vulnerability.[9] DFID (2000) ‘DFID Target Strategy Paper: Halving World Poverty by 2015.’ London:Department for International Development.[10]DOTForce (2001) Global Bridges, Digital Opportunities. Draft report of the G8’s DigitalOpportunities Taskforce (DOTForce) Consultations, April 2001.
  • 7. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME22[11]Ellis, F. and Biggs, S. (2001) ‘Evolving Themes in Rural Development 1950s–2000s.’Development Policy Review, 19 (4): 437–449.[12]FAO (1998) Communication for Development Report 1996–1997. Communication forDevelopment Group. Extension, Education and Communication Service. Research,Extension and Training Division. Sustainable Development Department. Rome: FAO.[13]FAO/World Bank (2000) Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems: StrategicVision and Principles. Rome: FAO/World Bank.[14]FAO/WAICENT/SDR (2000a) FarmNet Farmer Information Network for Agriculturaland Rural Development. Research, Extension and Training Division (SDR), WAICENT.Rome: FAO. FAO/WAICENT/SDR (2000b) VERCON Virtual Extension, Research andCommunication Network. Research, Extension and Training Division (SDR),WAICENT. Rome: FAO.[15]IFAD (2001) Rural Poverty Report 2001: The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty.International Fund for Agricultural Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.[16]Irz, X., Lin, L. Thirtle, C. and Wiggins, S. (2001), ‘Agricultural Productivity Growth andPoverty[17]Alleviation’, Development Policy Review, 19 (4): 449–67.[18]ISG and TDG (2000) Internet Use and Diagnostic Study – East Africa (supportinginnovation in the[19]provision of agricultural support services through Linked Local Learning). Acollaborative[20]project of the International Support Group, Netherlands and TeleCommons DevelopmentGroup, Canada.[21]Jafri, A., Dongre, A., Tripathi, V., Aggrawal, A., Shrivastava, S. (2002) ‘InformationCommunication Technologies and Governance: The Gyandoot Experiment in DharDistrict of Madhya Pradesh, India.’ ODI Working Paper 160. London: ODI.[22]Ramirez, R. (1998) ‘Communication: A Meeting Ground for Sustainable Development’in Richardson, D. and Paisley, L. (1998) The First Mile of Connectivity. Advancing[23]Telecommunications for Rural Development Through a Participatory CommunicationApproach. Rome: FAO.[24]Rivera, W. (2001) ‘Agricultural and Rural Extension: Options for Reform.’ Incollaboration with Extension, Education and communication Service, SDRE, FAO,Rome.[25]Richardson, D. and Paisley, L. (1998) The First Mile of Connectivity. AdvancingTelecommunications for Rural Development Through a Participatory CommunicationApproach. Rome: FAO.[26]Richardson, D. (1997) The Internet and Rural and Agricultural Development: AnIntegrated Approach. Paper prepared for the FAO. TeleCommons Development Group,Ontario, Canada.[27]Roling, N. (1988) Extension Science: Information Systems in Agricultural Development.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[28]Roling, N (1995) What to Think of Extension? A Comparison of Three Models ofExtension Practice. AERDD Bulletin.[29]Skuse, A. (2001) ‘Information Communication Technologies, Poverty andEmpowerment.’ Dissemination Note 3, Social Development Department, Department forInternational Development, London, UK.
  • 8. International Journal of Information Technology & Management Information System (IJITMIS), ISSN0976 – 6405(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6413(Online) Volume 4, Issue 1, January – April (2013), © IAEME23[30]M. Wegmuller, J. P. von der Weid, P. Oberson, and N. Gisin, “High resolution fiberdistributed measurements with coherent OFDR,” in Proc. ECOC’00, 2000, paper 11.3.4,p. 109.[31]R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, “High-speed digital-to-RF converter,”U.S. Patent 5 668 842, Sept. 16, 1997.[32] (2002) The IEEE website. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieee.org/[33]M. Shell. (2002) IEEEtran homepage on CTAN. [Online]. Available:http://www.ctan.org/tex- archive/macros/latex/contrib/supported/IEEEtran/[34]FLEXChip Signal Processor (MC68175/D), Motorola, 1996.[35]“PDCA12-70 data sheet,” Opto Speed SA, Mezzovico, Switzerland.[36]A. Karnik, “Performance of TCP congestion control with rate feedback: TCP/ABR andrate adaptive TCP/IP,” M. Eng. thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India, Jan.1999.[37]Ayan Chattopadhyay and Arpita Banerjee Chattopadhyay, “Healthcare ManagementStatus of Indian States - Aninterstate Comparison of the Public Sector using a MCDMApproach”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Management (IJARM),Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 11 - 20”. ISSN Print: 0976 – 6324, ISSN Online: 0976 –6332.[38]R. Thiru Murugan and Dr. J Clement Sudhahar, “Predictors of Customer Retention inOnline Health Care System (OHCS) - Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Approach”,International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 243 - 257,ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.

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