Performance evaluation of various routing techniques in wireless multimedia
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Performance evaluation of various routing techniques in wireless multimedia

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Performance evaluation of various routing techniques in wireless multimedia Performance evaluation of various routing techniques in wireless multimedia Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME396PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF VARIOUS ROUTINGTECHNIQUES IN WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA SENSOR NETWORKSRahul R. Singh1, Richa K. Makhijani21(Department of CSE, SSGBCOET, Bhusawal, INDIA)2(Department of CSE, SSGBCOET, Bhusawal, INDIA)ABSTRACTWireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) is simply a wireless sensor networksupporting multimedia traffic by deployment of data sensors and multimedia sensors as thenodes. The network need to support the issues that multimedia traffic brings to the sensornetworks, e.g. QoS, energy, MAC layer, bandwidth, throughput, packet delivery rate etc.When it is concerned to sensor network the energy required to transmit data is much highercompared to simple wireless network. Wireless Sensor Networks are uniquely characterizedby properties like limited power they can harvest or store, dynamic network topology, largescale of deployment. Hierarchical clustering is one of the possible solutions to save energy ofwireless multimedia sensor nodes. We propose a technique RALEACH for routing inWMSN.Keywords: Energy efficient, Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network, Hierarchical clustering,bandwidth, throughput, packet delivery rate, Cluster Head (CH).1. INTRODUCTIONWireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) in recent days is getting more andmore attention due to its potential applications [6]. The fast advancement in the technologyfield of wireless multimedia sensor networks helps in different area to get the accurate data.The sensors are capable of producing a measurable response to a change in any physicalcondition like temperature, magnetic field and light. The sensor nodes can process thegathered information, transmit the acquired message to the sink node and communicate witheach other. These sensor devices are battery-operated, with low power and limited storagecapacity [1]. Hence, increasing the lifetime of the network an efficient energy managementplays a very critical role.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ENGINEERING& TECHNOLOGY (IJCET)ISSN 0976 – 6367(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), pp. 396-402© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijcet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 6.1302 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJCET© I A E M E
  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME397A wireless multimedia sensor network system has three parts that includes sensornodes, sink node and management node. 70% of energy consumption is caused during datatransmission process at sensor nodes. LEACH Protocol is the first protocol of hierarchicalroutings which proposed data fusion, low energy utilization, lifetime and throughput; it is ofmilestone significance in clustering routing protocols. Many hierarchical routing protocolsare improved, based on LEACH protocol.2. RELATED WORKWhen any wireless network is being designed for the communication, the first thing isto look for establishing data transmission route with less noise ratio. But in case of wirelessmultimedia sensor networks the objective constraint is to design route in such a way that databeen transmitted with less energy consumption to the sink. Now-a-days many research havebeen carried out by many researcher [2][3][4][6][7][9][10]. Basically there are threetechniques used for routing in WMSN, which are:• Flat Routing: each node plays the same role and sensor nodes collaborate to perform thesensing task.• Hierarchical (Cluster-based) Routing: higher-energy nodes are used to process and sendthe information, while low-energy nodes are used to perform the sensing in the proximity ofthe target. The creation of clusters and assigning special tasks to cluster heads can greatlycontribute to overall system scalability, lifetime, and energy efficiency. Hierarchical routingis an efficient way to lower energy consumption within a cluster, performing data aggregationand fusion in order to decrease the number of transmitted messages to the sink node.• Location-based: sensor nodes are addressed by means of their locations. The distancebetween neighboring nodes can be estimated on the basis of incoming signal strengths.Relative coordinates of neighboring nodes can be obtained by exchanging such informationbetween neighbors or by communicating with a satellite using GPS. To save energy, somelocation-based schemes demand that nodes should go to sleep if there is no activity.2.1. LEACHLeach algorithm increases lifetime of the WSN by randomly rotating role of a CHamong all the nodes. In Leach, a node selects a random number between 0 and 1. If theselected random number is less than the threshold value T(n), then node declares itself as aCH for the current round. Threshold value T(n) is given by equation 1. LEACH ensures thateach node becomes a cluster head only once in 1/p rounds, where p is a desired percentage ofCH during each round. Leach does not consider the current state (energy level) of a nodewhile electing it as a CH [9].ܶሺ݊ሻ ൌ ൝௣ଵି௣‫כ‬ሺ௥ ௠௢ௗభ೛ሻ݂݅ ݊ ‫א‬ ‫ܩ‬0 ‫݁ݏ݅ݓݎ݄݁ݐ݋‬(1)Where p is the portion of the nodes becoming the cluster-heads and r is the number ofcurrent round.ALEACH is distributed energy efficient routing protocol which considers energy level ofa node while electing CHs. Like LEACH, ALEACH also works in rounds. Each round beginswith Cluster Setup phase. During cluster setup phase a node will select a random number
  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME398between 0 and 1. If selected random number is less than threshold value T(n) then node willdeclare itself as a cluster head where T(n) is given by equation 2.ܶሺ݊ሻ ൌ ‫ܩ‬௣ ൅ ‫ܵܥ‬௣ (2)Where Gp and CSp is given by equations 3 and 4 respectively. Gp and CSp refer togeneral probability and current state probability.‫ܩ‬௣ ൌ௞ேି௞ሺ௥ ௠௢ௗಿೖሻ(3)Where k/N refers to the desired percentage of cluster heads during each round andEcurrent and Emax is remaining energy and maximum energy of a node respectively.‫ܵܥ‬௣ ൌா೎ೠೝೝ೐೙೟ா೘ೌೌೣൈ௞ே(4)ALeach has considered energy level of a node to decide a node will become a CH duringa particular round or not. Major drawback of ALeach is proper importance (weights) is notgiven to general probability and current state probability [6].2.2. WALEACHWALeach divides rounds into cluster set up phase and steady setup phase. Clustersetup phase is used to elect cluster heads. During cluster setup phase each node selects arandom number between 0 and 1. If selected number is less than threshold value T(n), a nodeelects itself as a cluster head for the current round, where T(n) is given by equation 2. Thegeneral probability and current state probability is given by equation 5 and equation 6respectively. In these equations w is used to assign weight to general probability and currentstate probability [5].‫ܩ‬௣ ൌேିሺ௪‫כ‬௞ሻேൈ௞ேି௞‫כ‬ሺ௥ ௠௢ௗಿೖሻ(5)‫ܵܥ‬௣ ൌ௪‫כ‬௞ேൈா೎ೠೝೝ೐೙೟ா೘ೌೣ(6)3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGYWe proposed a variant of LEACH, named RALEACH (Ratio based AdvancedLEACH) which decides a threshold value based on the square root of ratio of current packetlength and control packet length along with Gp & CSp.This change results into significant improvement in network lifetime. Along with this, thereis an increase in data traffic sent, death of first node occurrence, total number of rounds andresidual energy consumption. The results have been emulated at MATLAB and thecomparison with existing techniques is provided, through simulation.The Election of Cluster Heads is given by equation 7.ሺ‫ܩ‬௣ ൅ ‫ܵܥ‬௣ሻ ൈ ට௉௔௖௞௘௧௅௘௡௚௧௛௖௥௧௉௔௖௞௘௧௅௘௡௚௧௛(7)
  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME399The sensor network model is having the following properties as shown in Fig-1.Figure-1: Deployments of nodes.a) The nodes are randomly distributed in 100m by 100m area.b) The sink is placed at the centre of network with unlimited energy.c) The Nodes & CH with limited energy.d) The nodes are ones generated is fixed till they die.e) CH gets modified or changed when old dies.f) All Nodes are same in nature. Nodes send data to CH & CH forward data to sink.g) Sink broadcast the routes to CH & Nodes in the network.h) Each CH directly communicates with BS no matter the distance between CH andBS. It will consume lot of its energy if the distance is far.4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONTo evaluate the performance of RALEACH, we consider a 100 X 100 networkconfiguration with 101 nodes, where each sensor node is assigned an initial energy of 0.5 J,the amount of transmission energy is 50 nJ /bit , transmit amplifier energy (Emp) is0.0013pJ/bit/m4.The criteria for performance evaluation are the network lifetime, the energyconsumption and data aggregated at sink and no. of nodes alive. Each performance criteria isevaluated by varying the packet size to be transmitted from nodes. We tracked the rate atwhich the data are transferred to the sink and the amount of energy required to get the data tothe sink.The comparison of performance for the energy utilized by nodes is shown in thefollowing graphs:Fig. 3 & fig. 4 shows amount of energy utilization and lifetime of the network of eachtechnique. Here initially all nodes are with 0.5J of energy as the rounds of packet sendingstarts the energy goes on decreasing. The lifetime of the network remains even if the energylevel is 0J. The Leach lifetime is very less compared to RALEACH and energy requirementis less to transmit data in RALEACH as compared to others.
  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME400In LEACH, the first node dies after 505 rounds; in ALEACH, the first node dies after488 rounds; in WALEACH, the first node dies after 471 rounds; in RALEACH, the first nodedies after 1107 rounds. This shows that there is a significant improvement in the lifetime of anode shown in fig. 5.Fig. 6 shows the graph of total number of round within the lifetime of a network –LEACH completes 1110 rounds, ALEACH completes 913 rounds, WALEACH completes1436 rounds, RALEACH completes 2642 rounds.Table-1: Simulation ParametersParameter ValueNodeDeploymentArea100m x 100mNumber ofNodes100Initial Energy 0.5 JoulesSize of Datamessages64000 bytes, 6400bytes & 640 bytesSize of ControlPackets200 BytesExpectedpercentage ofCH per round5%Important RatioFactor ඨܲܽܿ݇݁‫݄ݐ݃݊݁ܮݐ‬ܿ‫݄ݐ݃݊݁ܮݐ݁݇ܿܽܲݐݎ‬CH proportion p=5%Sink location (50,50)Eelec = Etx=Erx 50nJ/bitEDA 5nJ/bit‫א‬fs 10pJ/bit/m2‫א‬mp 0.0013pJ/bit/m4Figure-2: Flowchart of WMSNFig. 7 shows the graph of average number of CH formation per round – in theLEACH network the average number of Cluster Head per round is 2.791, in the ALEACHnetwork the average number of Cluster Head per round is 3.436, in the WALEACH networkthe average number of Cluster Head per round is 2.409, in the RALEACH network theaverage number of Cluster Head per round is 3.029.
  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME401Fig. 8 shows the graph total numbers of packets sent to sink – in LEACH the numbersof packets sent to sink are 3098 of size 6400bytes, in ALEACH the numbers of packets sentto sink are 3137 of size 6400bytes, in WALEACH the numbers of packets sent to sink are3460 of size 6400bytes, in RALEACH the numbers of packets send to sink are 8002 of size6400bytes.
  • International Journal of Computer Engineering and Technology (IJCET), ISSN 0976-6367(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6375(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4025. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKThe main concern of this work is to examine the energy efficiency and performanceevaluation of LEACH protocol and its modified variants. The parameters of comparison ofWMSN network are total lifetime, data delivery and energy utilization which are shown inthe simulation results. From this work it is found that RALEACH provides better results fordata transmission and low energy requirement. This paper has covered performance ofLEACH protocol and its modified variants, we can also compare this protocol with otherrouting protocols that may or may not be hierarchical in nature in future. It is needed tosatisfy the constraints introduced by factors such as fault tolerance, topology change, cost,environment, scalability, and power consumption for realization of sensor networks which isnot concern in this work. Since these constraints are highly specific and stringent for sensornetworks, these factors can be explored in future.REFERENCES[1] Kai Lin & Min Chen, Reliable Routing Based on Energy Prediction for WirelessMultimedia Sensor Networks, IEEE Globecom 2010 proceedings.[2] Laiali Almazaydeh, Eman Abdelfattah, Manal Al- Bzoor and Amer Al- Rahayfeh,Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks, IJCSIT,Volume 2, Number 2, April 2010.[3] Rohan G. Chaudhari, Dr. Dharmistha D. Vishwakarma & Pranav B. Lapsiwala, EnergyEfficient LEACH Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks, IJARCSEE, Volume 2, Issue1, January 2013.[4] Sawroop Kaur, Deepak Prashar & Rita Rani, Improvement in Energy Efficiency ofWireless Sensor Network, IJCT, Volume 2 No.2, April 2012.[5] Prof Ankit Thakkar and Dr K Kotecha, WALEACH: weight based energy efficientadvanced leach algorithm, CS & IT-CSCP 2012.[6] Samina Ehsan and Bechir Hamdaoui, A Survey on Energy-Efficient RoutingTechniques with QoS Assurances for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks, IEEECommunications Surveys & Tutorials, Vol. 14, No. 2, Second Quarter 2012.[7] Ian F. Akyildiz, Tommaso Melodia & Kaushik R. Chowdury, Wireless MultimediaSensor Networks: A Survey, IEEE Wireless Communications, December 2007.[8] Jamal N. Al-Karaki & Ahmed E. Kamal, Routing Techniques in Wireless SensorNetworks: A Survey, ICUBE initiative of Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.[9] Ezzati Abdellah, Said Benalla, Abderrahim Beni Hssane & Moulay Lahcen Hasnaoui,Advanced Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy, IJCSE, Vol. 02, No. 07, 2010.[10] B.A.Sabarish & R.Lavanya, Modified Leach Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network,IJCA (0975 – 8887), Volume 62– No.3, January 2013.[11] Ms. Meghana. N.Ingole, Mrs.M.S.Bewoor and Mr.S.H.Patil, “Context Sensitive TextSummarization using Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm”, International journal ofComputer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 322 - 329,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.[12] Poonam Thakur and M.Vijaya Raju, “Survey on Routing Techniques for Manets andWireless Sensor Networks: A Comparison”, International journal of ComputerEngineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 275 - 283,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.