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Performance evaluation of a air conditioner according to different test standards
 

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    Performance evaluation of a air conditioner according to different test standards Performance evaluation of a air conditioner according to different test standards Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME178PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A AIR CONDITIONERACCORDING TO DIFFERENT TEST STANDARDSK. Ravi Kumar,Asst Prof., Department of Mechanical Engineering,AHCET, Chevella, Ranga Reddy – 515002(A.P.), India.K. Ganesh BabuAsst Prof., Department of Mechanical Engineering,SITECH, Chevella, Ranga Reddy – 515002(A.P.), IndiaS. Udaya BhaskarAsso Prof., Department of Mechanical Engineering,AHCET, Chevella, Ranga Reddy – 515002(A.P.), India.ABSTRACTThe Paper reports on the performance of Air Conditioner at different test standards. Thefuture design of air conditioners is being driven primarily by (a) increased energy efficiency standardsand (b) the need to eliminate ozone-depleting working fluids. Various national and internationalagencies continue to impose more stringent requirements for energy efficiency. In addition, consumerpressure to select units with lower operating costs further drives the need for improved performance.The main objective of this paper is to give wide understand of the standards and to maintain thestandard conditions in Psychrometric room (Air conditioner test room), which has been constructed totest the air conditioners and to establish different test procedures. The tests that should be performedin Air conditioner test room are cooling capacity test, power consumption test. The main objective ofthe manufacturers is to produce the systems according to requirements of customers which can givemore cooling, low power consumption, high EER to with stand competition in the market. In everycountry, the manufacturers follow some standards according to the climatic conditions to test theappliances.Keywords: Psychrometric room; EER; cooling capacity test; power consumption test; climaticconditionsINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, April 2013, pp. 178-186© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEMEI INTRODUCTIONIndia falls in the hot zone therefore the comfort airnecessity for mankind. To achieve comfort, heat is extracted from the comfort region and transferredto the environment, which is at a higher temperature. This is done with the help of rThough there are many methods to achieve cooling, one process that is predominantly applied inrefrigeration equipment and its application is vapor compression cycle. One of the applications ofvapor compression system is in Air conditioningconditioners, and then comes the Packaged systems which are used for higher tonnages till 50Ton.Ever since the invention of Air Conditioning as one of Refrigeration application by W H Carrier inUS in earlier 19thCentury, there has been a radical change in the methods and process used inmanufacturing air-conditioning equipment but there is no change in the principle i.e. Vaporcompression system used in the cycle.II.EXPERIMENTAL SETUPAir conditioner test room is constructed according to ASHREA standards. It consists of two roomsmade of adiabatic material of rigid polyurethane, one is indoor side room and another is outdoor sideroom. The outside room ambient is controlled from 25temperature control or load control. For testing or air conditioner, maintaining of temperatures isimportant so these two rooms are made of adiabatic material. The method use in air conditioner testroom for finding capacity is air enthalpywhich the non-ducted equipment (test air conditioner) is mounted which the non(test air conditioner) is mounted.The equipments associated with air conditioner test room as follo(a) Panel Boards(b) Split AC Indoor Unit Installation(c) Split AC Outdoor Unit Installation(d) Packaged Air conditioners(e) Humidifiers(f) Code Tester(g) Temperature measuring instrument(h) Heaters(g) Sampling deviceFig.1. Psychrometric Laboratory viewInternational Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME179therefore the comfort air-conditioning has always been felt to be anecessity for mankind. To achieve comfort, heat is extracted from the comfort region and transferredto the environment, which is at a higher temperature. This is done with the help of rThough there are many methods to achieve cooling, one process that is predominantly applied inrefrigeration equipment and its application is vapor compression cycle. One of the applications ofvapor compression system is in Air conditioning units, the more commonly used one is Room Airconditioners, and then comes the Packaged systems which are used for higher tonnages till 50Ton.Ever since the invention of Air Conditioning as one of Refrigeration application by W H Carrier inCentury, there has been a radical change in the methods and process used inconditioning equipment but there is no change in the principle i.e. Vaporcompression system used in the cycle.room is constructed according to ASHREA standards. It consists of two roomsmade of adiabatic material of rigid polyurethane, one is indoor side room and another is outdoor sideroom. The outside room ambient is controlled from 25oC to 55oC. While indoor stemperature control or load control. For testing or air conditioner, maintaining of temperatures isimportant so these two rooms are made of adiabatic material. The method use in air conditioner testroom for finding capacity is air enthalpy method. These two rooms are separated by an opening in toducted equipment (test air conditioner) is mounted which the non-ducted equipmentThe equipments associated with air conditioner test room as follows:Split AC Indoor Unit InstallationSplit AC Outdoor Unit InstallationTemperature measuring instrumentsychrometric Laboratory view Fig.2 Split AC Indoor Unit InstallationTechnology (IJARET), ISSN6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEMEconditioning has always been felt to be anecessity for mankind. To achieve comfort, heat is extracted from the comfort region and transferredto the environment, which is at a higher temperature. This is done with the help of refrigeration.Though there are many methods to achieve cooling, one process that is predominantly applied inrefrigeration equipment and its application is vapor compression cycle. One of the applications ofunits, the more commonly used one is Room Air-conditioners, and then comes the Packaged systems which are used for higher tonnages till 50Ton.Ever since the invention of Air Conditioning as one of Refrigeration application by W H Carrier inCentury, there has been a radical change in the methods and process used inconditioning equipment but there is no change in the principle i.e. Vaporroom is constructed according to ASHREA standards. It consists of two roomsmade of adiabatic material of rigid polyurethane, one is indoor side room and another is outdoor sideC. While indoor side has eithertemperature control or load control. For testing or air conditioner, maintaining of temperatures isimportant so these two rooms are made of adiabatic material. The method use in air conditioner testmethod. These two rooms are separated by an opening in toducted equipmentSplit AC Indoor Unit Installation
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME180Fig.3 Split AC Outdoor Unit Installation Fig.4. Code TesterFig.5. Temperature Measuring DeviceIII. COOLING CAPACITY TEST AND CALCULATIONSTEST CONDITIONS: The test conditions that should be maintained are as follows:ISO 5151 standardIndoor side Outdoor sideDBT oC WBT oC DBT oC WBT oC27 19 35 24PROCEDUREOut let of air conditioner (which is going to be tested) is attached to the receiving chamber ofthe code tester through the proper ducting. Before starting the main switch, ensure that all theswitches of panel Board are in disable or not. Before starting the test, clean all the sensors and fillwater in all sampling devices. Set the temperatures values, which are going, to be maintained in PID’Sof the panel boards Switch on the test unit by adjusting dimmer to 230 volts.
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME181For example: we are maintaining DBT–35°C, WBT-24°c in outdoor side and DBT-27°C, WBT-19°C indoor side (according to ISO standard) When temperature is stabilized there arithmetic meanvalue should haveOutdoor side conditions oC Outdoor side conditions oCDBT 35±0.3 DBT 27±0.3WBT 24±0.2 WBT 19±0.2After stabilization, to maintain the test conditions for 4 hours, and record the data after 30 minutes sothat there are 7 set of readings for every 5 min.During this 30 min duration, record the code tester nozzle pressure drop. When receivingchamber pressure shows 0.0 and record code tester DBT and WBT readings also.The sensor temperature that should be recorded are:102 Indoors side DBT103 Indoors side WBT104 Outdoors side DBT105 Outdoors side WBT106 Indoor side Code tester DBT107 Indoor side Code tester WBTAverage the recorded data. So that we can get more appropriate one value.For convenience not indoor side room temperature from 102 and 103 sensors and leaving aircondition from 106 and 107 sensors.For calculation of CFM:Cfm =Ci*Ai*Yi*√2Dp/p*3600*0.5885Whereρ=density of air at the air sampling condition kg/m3.Ci= Discharge co-efficient of its nozzle dimensionless.Ai=Area of the nozzle in m2.Yi=expansion factor, dimensionless.Dp=pressure drop across the nozzle in Pa.Ci, Yi can be calculated from ASHRAE 41FORMULAE FOR COOLING CAPACITY CALCULATIONS:Volume Flow rate of air Qva(m3/sec)= Cfm/2118.88Enthalpy difference Dh = Enthalpy of moist air entering - Enthalpy of moist air leavingMass flow rate of air Ma(kg/s) =Volume flow rate of air/Specific volume of airCooling capacity in KW =Mass flow rate of air*Enthalpy differenceCooling capacity in Btu/hr=Cooling capacity in KW*3412.14Cooling capacity in Ton of refrigeration=Cooling capacity in KW/3.5167CALCULATIONSCalculations at 35oC Ambient:Entering air conditions: DBT-27.11oC,WBT-19.27oCSaturation pr.at DBT,Ps= 610.78*EXP(DBT/(DBT+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=610.78*EXP(27.11/(27.11+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=3.5642 kpa
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME182vSaturation pr. at WBT, Pl= 610.78*EXP(WBT/(WBT+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=610.78*EXP(19.27/(19.27+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=2.2232 kpaActual vapour pressure,l lPv = Pv -(((Pt- Pv )*(DBT-WBT)*(1.8))/(2800-1.3((1.8*DBT)+32))= 2.2232-(((101.325-2.2232)*(27.11-19.27)*(1.8))/(2800-1.3((1.8*27.11)+32))= 1.7042 kpaHumidity ratio, W = 0.622*(Pv/(Pt-Pv))= 0.622*(1.7042/(101.325-1.7042))= 0.01064Enthalpy of moist air, hen = (1.005*DBT) + (W*(2500+(1.88*DBT)))= (1.005*27.11) + (0.01064*(2500+(1.88*27.11)))= 54.3878 kj/kgSpecific volume of air, Ven = (287.3*(273+DBT))/((Pt-Pv)*1000)= (287.3*(273+27.11))/((101.325-1.7042)*1000)= 0.8654 m3/kgDensity of moist air, Den = 1/Ven= 1/0.8653= 1.1556 kg/m3Leaving air conditions: DBT-13.78oC,WBT-12.25oCSaturation pr. at DBT,Ps = 610.78*EXP(DBT/(DBT+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=610.78*EXP(13.78/(13.78+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=1.5699 kpaSaturation pr. At WBT,P = 610.78*EXP(WBT/(WBT+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=610.78*EXP(12.25/(12.25+238.3)*17.2694)/1000=1.4209 kpa40Actual vapour pressure,lPv = Pv -(((Pt- Pv )*(DBT-WBT)*(1.8))/(2800-1.3((1.8*DBT)+32))= 1.4209-(((101.325-1.4209)*(13.78-12.25)*(1.8))/(2800-1.3((1.8*13.78)+32))= 1.3199 kpaHumidity ratio, W = 0.622*(Pv/(Pt-Pv))= 0.622*(1.3199/(101.325-1.3199))= 0.0082Enthalpy of moist air, hle = (1.005*DBT) + (W*(2500+(1.88*DBT)))= (1.005*13.78) + (0.0082*(2500+(1.88*13.78)))= 34.5613 kj/kg
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME183Specific volume of air, Vle = (287.3*(273+DBT))/((Pt-Pv)*1000)= (287.3*(273+13.78))/((101.325-1.3199)*1000)= 0.8238 m3/kgDensity of moist air, Dle = 1/Vle= 1/0.8238=1.2138 kg/m3Calculations for Cooling capacity :Area, Ai = ((22/7*4)*SQRT(48.66/1000))+((22/7*4)*SQRT(99.43/1000))= 0.00962 m2Cubic flow per minute,Cfm = Ci*Yi*Ai*SQRT((2*Dp)/Dle)*3600*0.5885=0.985*0.998*0.00962*SQRT((2*445)/1.2138)*3600* 0.5885= 542.56 or 543Volume flow rate,Qva= Cfm/2118.88= 543/2118.88= 0.2562 m3/secEnthalpy difference, Dh = hen-hle= 54.3878 - 34.5613= 19.8265 kj/kgMass flow rate, Ma = Volume flow rate (Qva)/Specific volume of leaving air (Vle)= 0.2562/0.8238= 0.3109 kg/secCooling capacity in KW = Mass flow rate (Ma)*Enthalpy difference (Dh)= 0.3109*19.8265= 6.1640 kwCooling capacity in Btu/hr = cooling capacity in kw*3412.14= 6.1640*3412.14= 21032.43 Btu/hrCooling capacity in TON of refrigeration = cooling capacity in kw / 3.516= 6.1640 / 3.516= 1.7531 TonEnergy efficiency ratio,EER = (cooling capacity in Btu/hr) / (Input power in watts)= 21032/2240= 9.389 Btu/W-hr
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME184POWER CONSUMPTION TESTTest conditions:The various test conditions that should be maintained for Power consumption test are asFollows:ISO 5151 StandardIndoor side Outdoor sideDBT oC WBT oC DBT oC WBT oC27 19 35 24CALCULATIONSPower Consumption Test of AC at 35oC AmbientPower consumed by air conditioner for 24hr = Final Energy meter reading –Initial Energy meter reading=5332.7 – 5316.2= 16.5 Kw-hrPower consumed of 1hr = 16.5/24=0.687 Kw/hrPower Consumption Test of AC at 46oC AmbientPower consumed by air conditioner for 24hr = Final Energy meter reading –Initial Energy meter reading=5358.5 – 5334= 24.5 Kw-hrPower consumed of 1hr = 24.5/24=1.021 Kw/hrSTARTABILITY TESTTest conditions: -The various test conditions that should be maintained are given below:(a) BIS 1391:1992Indoor side room °C Outdoor side room °C VoltageDBT WBT DBT WBT V35 24 46 27 90% &110% of rated voltage.(b) BIS 1391:1992(For Export A &B)Indoor side room °C Outdoor side room °C VoltageDBT WBT DBT WBT V32 23 43 26 90% &110% of rated voltage.32 23 52 3195% minimum voltage&110%of maximum voltage with dualrated voltage.
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEMEProcedure for Down Trip:(1) Take the cold resistance of the system (i.e. Main, Auxiliary and Total resistances) beforestarting the system.(2) Start the appliance at 220/230V according to the request by maintaining Indoor sideroomDBT27oC, WBT-19 oC and Outdoor side room DBTstable conditions and optimizing for 3 to 4 hours record the data of pressures (standardsuction 70±5 psig anddischarge 300placed at different places in the applian(a) Indoor side room DBT and WBT(b) Outdoor side room DBT and WBT(c) Top shell and bottom shell(d) Condenser in and condenser out(e) Evaporator in an evaporator out(f) Suction line and DischarIV RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONSEvery product that is manufactured is tested to know how it works and up to what level it cansatisfy the requirements of customers. The main objective of this project is testing the Air conditionerappliance according to different standards by maintaining different climatic conditions in Airconditioner test room. The testing includes cooling test, power consumption test.From capacity test, cooling capacity of system at different temperatures is known. Coolingcapacity test is done on air conditioner appliance. The specification given by manufacturer for coolingcapacity of Air Conditioner at 35oC ambient is 21200 Btu/hr, by conducting capacity test in the Airconditioner test room it is found that its capacity is lowerSimilarly cooling capacity at 46oC and 54FigurePower consumption test is done on air conditioner and found that it16.5 Kwhr units power i.e 0.687 kw/hr at 3524.5 Kwhr units of power i.e 1.021 kw/hr in Air conditioner test room.International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME185Take the cold resistance of the system (i.e. Main, Auxiliary and Total resistances) beforeStart the appliance at 220/230V according to the request by maintaining Indoor sideroomC and Outdoor side room DBT-35 oC, WBT-24 oC. After reaching thestable conditions and optimizing for 3 to 4 hours record the data of pressures (standard5 psig anddischarge 300±10 psig), temperatures, current and power. Sensors areplaced at different places in the appliance to record the temperatures of the followingIndoor side room DBT and WBTOutdoor side room DBT and WBTTop shell and bottom shellCondenser in and condenser outEvaporator in an evaporator outSuction line and Discharge lineIV RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONSEvery product that is manufactured is tested to know how it works and up to what level it cansatisfy the requirements of customers. The main objective of this project is testing the Air conditionerto different standards by maintaining different climatic conditions in Airconditioner test room. The testing includes cooling test, power consumption test.From capacity test, cooling capacity of system at different temperatures is known. Coolingtest is done on air conditioner appliance. The specification given by manufacturer for coolingC ambient is 21200 Btu/hr, by conducting capacity test in the Airconditioner test room it is found that its capacity is lower by 1.4% i.e 20908 Btu/hr at 35C and 54oC ambient is found as 19332Btu/hr and 5582 Btu/hr.Figure 6 EER Vs TemperaturePower consumption test is done on air conditioner and found that it consumes when operated for 24 hr16.5 Kwhr units power i.e 0.687 kw/hr at 35oC Ambient. At 46oC Ambient it is found that it consumes24.5 Kwhr units of power i.e 1.021 kw/hr in Air conditioner test room.Technology (IJARET), ISSN6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEMETake the cold resistance of the system (i.e. Main, Auxiliary and Total resistances) beforeStart the appliance at 220/230V according to the request by maintaining Indoor sideroomC. After reaching thestable conditions and optimizing for 3 to 4 hours record the data of pressures (standard10 psig), temperatures, current and power. Sensors arece to record the temperatures of the followingEvery product that is manufactured is tested to know how it works and up to what level it cansatisfy the requirements of customers. The main objective of this project is testing the Air conditionerto different standards by maintaining different climatic conditions in AirFrom capacity test, cooling capacity of system at different temperatures is known. Coolingtest is done on air conditioner appliance. The specification given by manufacturer for coolingC ambient is 21200 Btu/hr, by conducting capacity test in the Airby 1.4% i.e 20908 Btu/hr at 35oC ambient.C ambient is found as 19332Btu/hr and 5582 Btu/hr.consumes when operated for 24 hrC Ambient it is found that it consumes
    • International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME186Figure 7 Power(Units) Vs TemperatureThe various factors observed amidst the testing were, amount of charge of refrigerant,pressure drop, suction and discharge pressures, power, current etc. From these work differentprocedures for testing air conditioners are established. The test results will give awareness to thecustomers and manufacturers. Useful data is generated for the air conditioning engineers.REFERENCES[1] Akintunde, M.A. 2004b. Experimental Investigation of The performance of VaporCompression Refrigeration Systems. Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria[2] American Society Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning. ASHRAE Hand Book. 2001[3] Wernick, B.J. “Effectiveness method”, RACA journal 2004.[4]. C.P Arora, Refrigeration and Air conditioning. Tata McGraw-Hill Book Company[5]. Stoecker, W.F. and Jones J.W. (1982), Refrigeration & Air Conditioning. McGraw-Hill BookCompany, Singapore[6] Analytical expressions for optimum flow rates in evaporators and condensers of heat pumpingsystems International Journal of Refrigeration, Volume 33, Issue 7, November 2010,Pages 1211-1220 Granryd, E.[7] Yumrutas R, kunduz M, Kanoglu M. Exergy analysis of vapor compression refrigerationsystems. Exergy, An international journal 2002;2(4);266-72.[8] Dr.S.S. Banwait and Dr.S.C. Laroiya, “Properties of refrigerant and psychometric tablesand charts[9] “Technical Manual Air-conditioning application, Tecumseh”. Tecumseh Products India Pvt.Ltd., Hyderabad.[10] Calorimeter Test Facility Lab manual (CTFLM) Tecumseh Products India Pvt. Ltd.[11] Eckert, E.R.G.; Goldstein, R.J.; Ibele, W.E.; Patankar, S.V.; Simon, T.W.; Strykowski, P.J.;Tamma, K.K.; Kuehn, T.H.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Heberlein, J.V.R.; (Sep 1997), Heat transfer--areview of 1994 literature, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 40-16, 3729-3804.[12] N. Thangadurai and Dr. R. Dhanasekaran, “Effective Power Consumption Model for aNetwork With Uniform Traffic Pattern”, International Journal of Computer Engineering &Technology (IJCET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 561 - 570, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSNOnline: 0976 – 6375.[13] Kapil Chopra, Dinesh Jain, Tushar Chandana and Anil Sharma, “Evaluation of ExistingCooling Systems for Reducing Cooling Power Consumption”, International Journal ofMechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 210 - 216,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.024681035 46 54EER