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Performance and emission study of jatropha biodiesel and its blends
 

Performance and emission study of jatropha biodiesel and its blends

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    Performance and emission study of jatropha biodiesel and its blends Performance and emission study of jatropha biodiesel and its blends Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME85PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION STUDY OF JATROPHABIODIESEL AND ITS BLENDS ON C.I. ENGINERajan KumarDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, IndiaDr. Manoj K MishraDepartment of Chemistry, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, IndiaDr. Shyam K SinghDirector, BIT Sindri, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, IndiaABSTRACTThis paper investigates fuel qualities of blends using jatropha biodiesel and diesel,and n-hexane solvent as additive. The blends used for this study were D100, JB10D90,JB20D80, JB30D70 and JB30D65HX5. Experimental tests were carried out to study physico-chemical properties (Density, viscosity, flash point, calorific values, Acid number, pour pointCold Filter Plugging point and Cloud point), performance (Torque, Brake power, Brakethermal Efficiency, Brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy conversion, brakemean effective pressure, air fuel ratio and volumetric efficiency) and emission (Exhausttemperature and smoke) on C.I Engine with various blends. The physico-chemical propertiesof the blends show good resemblance with that of diesel. The performance results show thatthe exhaust gas temperature of the jatropha blended fuel samples are found to be higher, butthe fuel sample(JB30D65HX5) with 5% hexane have the significantly lowest exhausttemperature among all the fuel samples. The smoke emission for the jatropha blended fuelsamples are found to be slightly higher than the diesel up to the medium range of brake meaneffective pressure (bmep).Keywords: Jatropha biodiesel, physicochemical properties, Performance, EmissionAbbreviation: T = Torque, bsfc=brake specific fuel consumption, bsec= brake specificenergy consumption, bmep=brake mean effective pressureINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGAND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 85-93© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJMET© I A E M E
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME861. INTRODUCTIONVegetable oils are among the various sources of energy fuels being considered asalternatives to fossil fuels. Soybean, sunflower, coconut and palm oils have been the mainraw materials for biodiesel production. However, these oils are required in refined forms toobtain quality biodiesel and, in addition, they are foodstuffs. This makes production ofbiodiesel from these sources uneconomical. Non-edible plant oils such as found in jatrophacurcas provide better alternatives. Vegetable oils could be used directly in diesel engines orblended with diesel, however, their high viscosity lead to problems in the engine. Inefficientoil - air mixing causes poor injector system performance which leads to incompletecombustion hence producing high smoke and causing ring sticking, filter plugging and enginedeposits [1-4]. Since biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats made up of esters,these vegetable oils are renewable biological sources. It has been reported that they emitsubstantially lower quantity of harmful pollutants compare to conventional diesel;Researchers also found that comparable engine performance with diesel was achieved atrelatively lower emission. The merits of using biodiesel instead of conventional diesel arenon-toxic; rate of biodegradation is much faster than conventional diesel [5-7]. Green housegases effects were least in case of biodiesel [8, 9]. The objective of this research work toinvestigate fuel qualities which were prepared from jatropha biodiesel and diesel, and alsoeffect of n-hexane solvent as additive were studied on C.I Engine.2. EXPERIMENTAL SECTIONMaterial and MethodsMaterials: The following materials and chemicals were used in the present study.Table 1: Details of the materials usedSlNo.Material Manufacturer1 Jatropha biodiesel Southern online Bio Technologies Limited, Hyderabad2 Diesel Local petrol station of Indian oil3 n-Hexane Local chemical store, manufactured by BDH Ltd.Preparation of fuel Samples: The fuels used for the current investigation with theircomposition are given in table2Table 2: Test Fuel NomenclaturesSl. No. Sample ID Composition (by vol %)1 D100 100% diesel fuel2 JB10D90 10% Jatropha Biodiesel and90% diesel fuel3 JB20D80 20% Jatropha Biodiesel and80% diesel fuel4 JB30D70 30% Jatropha Biodiesel and70% diesel fuel5 JB30D65HX5 30% Jatropha Biodiesel, 65% diesel fuel and 5% Hexane
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME87MethodsPhysico-chemical Studies:Diesel and biodiesel were mixed into a homogenous blend by magnetic stirring andprepared five fuel samples of different composition. The properties studied were the Density,viscosity, flash point, fire point, calorific values, Acid number, Pour point, Cold FilterPlugging point and cloud point. Standard methods (i.e. ASTM and I.P.) were used in theexperiments.The Engine: A single -cylinder, four-stoke 5HP; diesel engine is selected for the study. Thebore and the stoke lengths are 80mm and 110 mm respectively. The engine ran on fourdifferent load conditions at 20%, 40%, 50% and 70% (approx.) with at constant speed of1500rpm.Performance Test: The following engine performance parameters were computed for abovefive fuel samples Torque, Brake power, Brake thermal Efficiency, Brake specific fuelconsumption, brake specific energy conversion, brake mean effective pressure, air fuel ratioand volumetric efficiency.Emission Test: Exhaust temperature has been measured and also smoke is measured by AVLsmoke meterTable 3: Physico-chemical analyses of different fuel samplesSample ID/Properties JB 100 D100 JB10D90 JB20D80 JB30D70Density (g/cm³) at 35ºC 0.87 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.83Viscosity(cp) at 35ºC 13.16 10.71 11.4 12 12.8Flash point (oC) 88 61 68 70 70Calorific Values (MJ/Kg) 40.05 45.35 43.38 42.16 41.86Acid Number(Mg KOH/g) 0.67 0.03 0.07 0.13 0.19Pour Point (oC) 18 -6 -5 -5 -4Cold Filter Plugging point (oC) 17 1 ---- ---- 1Cloud point (oC) 18 1 ---- 3 ----3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONFuel Analysis:Fuel density directly affects fuel performance, as some of the engine properties, suchas cetane number, heating value and viscosity are strongly connected to density. From theresult, it could be observed that the density of diesel 0.80 was in agreement with all blendssamples.Viscosity affects injector lubrication and fuel atomization. Fuel atomization is alsoaffected by fuel viscosity. Fuels with high viscosity tend to form larger droplets on injectionwhich can cause poor combustion, increased exhaust smoke and emissions. The highviscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping and spray characteristics. Theinefficient mixing of vegetable oils with air contributes to incomplete combustion. Theviscosity of jatropha biodiesel is found to be highest and for diesel it is lowest. It is found thatwhen jatropha is blended in diesel then there will be significantly decrease in viscosityFlash point is used in shipping and safety regulations to define flammable andcombustible materials. . The higher the flash point the safer the fuel and vice versa. The flashpoint of Biodiesel is higher than that of fossil diesel; therefore it could be said that Biodieselis safer to handle than fossil diesel. Flash point is specified in biodiesel to serve as arestriction of the amount of alcohol in a biodiesel for safety measures in transportation and
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME88storage. It is also biodiesel quality related to fatty acid structure [10]. Blends of 20%biodiesel to 80% petro-diesel (B20) have been recommended by various researchers [11]Calorific Value, Heating Value or Heat of Combustion, is the amount of heatingenergy released by the combustion of a unit value of fuels. Higher the calorific value, higherthe energy or heat released during combustion, lowers the fuel consumption. The calorificvalue of jatropha and its blends is between 40.05-43.38 MJ/kg which are almost similar tothat of diesel, 45.35 MJ/kg.The acid value determination is used to quantify the presence of acid moieties in abiodiesel sample. The acid number of pure jatropha biodiesel is found to be highest and fordiesel it is lowest. It is found that when jatropha is blended in diesel then there will besignificantly decrease in acid numberCloud point and pour point are used For petroleum products and biodiesel fuels, cloudpoint and pour point of a petroleum product is an index of the lowest temperature of theirutility for certain applications.Cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the lowest temperature, expressed in 1°C, atwhich a given volume of diesel type of fuel still passes through a standardized filtrationdevice in a specified time when cooled under certain conditions. This test gives an estimatefor the lowest temperature that a fuel will give trouble free flow in certain fuel systems. Thisis important as in cold temperate countries; a high cold filter plugging point will clog upvehicle engines more easily. The test is important in relation to the use of additives that allowspreading the usage of winter diesel at temperatures below the cloud point. The testsaccording to EN 590 show that a Cloud Point of +1 °C can have a CFPP −10 °C.Engine performance testA four stroke, direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine was employed for thepresent experimental study in order to investigate effects of the produced Fuel samples on itsperformance. The diesel fuel was used in the experimental study as reference fuel. Because itis important to emphasize that effect of the jatropha oil on the engine by comparing resultsobtained from the jatropha oil with those of the diesel fuel. The tests for all the fuel sampleswere performed under the same conditions for analyzing the performance and emissions ofthe fuels in four different levels of engine loads. The experiment was conducted using fourjatropha blended fuel samples and commercial diesel fuel for evaluating several performanceparameters such as torque (T), brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc), thermal efficiency(ηbt), brake specific fuel consumption(bsfc), brake specific energy consumption(bsec),volumetric efficiency and air-fuel ratio.0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8121416182022242628303234Brakethermalefficiency,%Brake mean effective pressure(bmep),MPaJB10D90JB20D80JB30D70JB30D65HX5D100Fig 1: Variation of thermal efficiency with bmep
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME89Figure.1 shows the variations of thermal efficiency with brake mean effectivepressure(bmep).For all the fuels the thermal efficiency increases with the increase inbmep.All the jatropha blended fuel samples have slightly higher thermal efficiency under thelower to medium range of bmep,and the thermal efficiency of diesel fuel was found to beslightly higher at higher range of bmep.The peak thermal efficiency of JB10D90, JB20D90,JB30D70, JB30D65HX5 and D100 are found to be 30.94%, 31.3%, 32.15%, 30.23% and32.89% respectively.0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.80.200.250.300.350.400.450.500.550.60Brakespecificfuelconsumption(bsfc),kg/kW-hBrake mean effective pressure(bmep),MPaJB10D90JB20D80JB30D70JB30D65HX5D100Fig 2: Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with bmepFigure.2 shows the variations of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) with brakemean effective pressure (bmep).It was observed that there was reduction of bsfc with theincrease in bmep for all the fuel samples. The bsfc is a comparative parameter that showshow efficiently an engine is converting into work. For all the fuel samples tested, the bsfc arealmost similar except the JB30D70HX5, which have slightly higher value.0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8101214161820222426Brakespecificenergyconsumption(bsec),MJ/kW-hBrake mean effective pressure(bmep),MPaJB10D90JB20D80JB30D70JB30D65HX5D100Fig 3: Variation of brake specific energy consumption with bmepFigure.3 shows the variations of brake specific energy consumption (bsec) with brakemean effective pressure (bmep). Brake specific energy is another relevant parameter, whichis independent of fuel, and it is used to compare the energy requirement for producing unitpower in case of each test fuel. For all the fuels the bsec decreases with the increase inbmep.the rate of decrease of bsec for diesel is found to be higher and at the higher range ofbmep it is almost similar than the other fuels. The bsec for diesel is found to be slightlyhigher for low to medium range of bmep.This may be attributed due to higher heating valueof diesel fuel.
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME900.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8323334353637383940414243444546474849Volumetricefficiency,%Brake mean effective pressure(bmep),MPaJB10D90JB20D80JB30D70JB30D65HX5D100Fig 4: Variation of volumetric efficiency with bmepFigure.4 shows the variations of volumetric efficiency with brake mean effectivepressure (bmep). For all the fuels, it was observed that the volumetric efficiency decreaseswith the increase in bmep.volumetric efficiency indicates the breathing ability of an engine.It was found that the volumetric efficiency of diesel fuel is higher for all range of bmep.0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.84567891011121314151617Air-fuelratioBrake mean effective pressure(bmep),MPaJB10D90JB20D80JB30D70JB30D65HX5D100Fig 5: Variation of Air-fuel ratio with bmepFigure.5 shows the variations of air-fuel ratio with brake mean effective pressure(bmep). It was observed that almost for all the fuel samples, air-fuel ratio decreases with theincrease in bmep.This may be attributed that for the increase in bmep,more quantity of fuelsare required to sustain the bmep.It was observed that the air –fuel ratio for diesel is highestand 30% blended jatropha is lowest. This is because biodiesel contains oxygen and thusrequire less air for Stoichiometric combustion, so more fuel can be burned with same amountof airExhaust testThe emission caused by a fuel is very significant factor for choosing a fuel for theengine. Pollution has reached dangerous levels and curbing it is of utmost importance.
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME910.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8050100150200250300350400Exhausttemperature,KBrake mean effective pressure(bmep),MPaJB10D90JB20D80JB30D70JB30D65HX5D100Fig 6: Variation of exhaust temperature with bmepFigure.6 shows the variations of exhaust temperature with brake mean effectivepressure (bmep). For all the fuels tested it was observed that the exhaust temperatureincreases with the increase in bmep.High temperature in exhaust is not desirable, becausethey can cause higher energy transfer from the combustion chamber to the surroundings.High heat transfer decreases the thermal efficiency of the engine at finite value [13]. Amongall the fuels tested the exhaust temperature of the jatropha blended fuel samples is found tobe higher than the diesel except the sample with hexane.This confirm the work ofPramanik,in which higher exhaust temperature for jatropha fuel is reported[3]. Here it wasnoticed that the exhaust temperature of hexane blended jatropha sample wass lower for allrange of bmep.Higher exhaust temperature may be the cause of NOx formation, so the littlehexane in the blends of jatropha biodiesel can significantly reduce the exhaust temperature.0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.805101520253035SmokeunitBrake mean effective pressure(bmep),MPaJB10D90JB20D80JB30D70JB30D65HX5D100Fig 7: Variation of smoke unit with bmepFigure.7 shows the variations of smoke emissions with brake mean effective pressure(bmep). Here it was observed that for lower range of bmep,the smoke emission of jatrophablended fuel samples were significantly lower than diesel, but it gradually increases with theincrease in bmep, and at the higher range it become higher than diesel. This may be attributedthat at higher bmep, there is improper mixing for jatropha blended fuel, which results in theform of carbon soot
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME924. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONThe observations made in the present work were the part of ongoing research work, inwhich the detailed analyses on the fuel properties of fuel samples along with the performanceand emission characteristics are studied. The following conclusions can be drawn from thisstudy:The entire test for characterization of jatropha biodiesel blends demonstrated that thedensity and viscosity of the pure jatropha biodiesel is found to be higher than diesel. Butblending of jatropha in diesel made these properties lower and thus has a close agreementwith diesel. The calorific value of pure jatropha biodiesel is found to be lower than diesel butblending of jatropha in diesel improve the calorific value and its become equivalent to diesel.The pour point, cloud point and cold filter plugging point also improve with the blending ofjatropha biodiesel in diesel making jatropha biodiesel a candidate fuel for CI engine.No engine seizing, injector blocking was found during the entire operation of theengine running with different fuel samples. The thermal efficiency of of jatrropha blendedfuel samples is slightly higher at lower to medium range of bmep. At higher range thethermal efficiency of diesel is slightly higher .The brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) ofall the fuel samples are almost similar. The brake specific energy consumption (bsec) of thediesl is found to be little higher up to the medium range of bmep. For the higher range ofbmep, the bsec of all the fuel samples are found to be similar. The volumetric efficiency ofthe diesel is found to be higher than the jatropha blended fuel samples. The exhaust gastemperature of the jatropha blended fuel samples are found tot be higher,but the fuel samplewith 5% hexane have the significantly lowest exhaust temperature among all the fuelsamples.The smoke emission for the jatropha blended fuel samples are found to be slightlyhigher than the diesel up to the medium range of bmep.REFERENCES1. Aldo Okullo, A. K. Temu, P. Ogwok and J. W. Ntalikwa (2012), “ Physico-ChemicalProperties of Biodiesel from Jatropha and Castor Oils,” International Journal ofRenewable Energy research, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 47-52.2. Canoira Laureano, Galean Juan Garcia, Alacantara Ramon, Lapuerta Magin and GarciaContereras Reyes (2009), “Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) from Castor oil:Production Process Assessment and Synergistic effects in its properties,” RenewableEnergy, pp. 1-10,3. Pramanik K (2003), “Properties and use of jatropha curcas oil and diesel fuel blends incompression ignition engine,” Renewable Energy, vol. 28, pp. 239-248.4. Knothe Gerhard and Steidley R. Kevin (2005), “Kinematic Viscosity of Biodiesel Fuelcomponents and related compounds. Influence of compound structure and comparisonto petro-diesel fuel Components,” Fuel, vol. 84, pp. 1059-1065.5. Pandey. S, Sharma.A, Sahoo.P.K (2012), “Experimental Investigation on thePerformance and Emission Charactereristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Ethanol,”International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Vol. 4, Issue 2, pp.341-353.6. Alfuso S., Auriemma M., Police G. and. Prati M. V, (1993), “The effect of methyl-esterof rapeseed oil on combustion and emissions of DI diesel engines”, SAE Paper 93-2801.
    • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME937. Peterson C. and Reece D., (1995), “Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl esterof rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometertest of a pickup truck”, Transactions of ASAE, Vol. 39, No.(3), pp.805-816.8. Murugesan A, Umarani C, Subtamanian R and Nedunchezhian N, (2009), “Bio-dieselas an alternate fuel for diesel engines – a review”, Renew Sustain Energy Rev, Vol.13,No. (3), pp 653-62.9. alat M. and Balat H. A. (2008), “Critical review of bio-diesel as a vehicularfuel,”Energy Convers Manage, Vol.49, No.(10), pp 2727-41.10. Knothe Gerhard (2006), “Analyzing Biodiesel: Standards and other methods,”JAOCS,vol. 83, pp. 823-833.11. Demirbas Ayhan (2006), “Biodiesel Production via non-catalytic SCF method andbiodiesel fuel characteristics,” Energy Conservation and Management, vol. 47, pp.2271-2282.12. V.Ganeshan, Internal combustion engines, Tata Mcgraw Hill, 2nd Edition.13. Arpa O, Yumrutas R and Argunhan Z (2010), “ Experimental investigation of theeffects of diesel- like fuel obtained from waste lubrication oil on engine performanceand exhaust emission,” Elsevier, Fuel processing Tecnology,vol.91,pp. 1241-1249.14. Sanjay Patil, “Effect of Injector Opening Pressure on Performance, Combustion andEmission Characteristics of C.I. Engine Fuelled with Palm Oil Methyl Ester”,International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4,Issue 1, 2013, pp. 233 - 241, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.15. Mahesh P. Joshi and Dr. Abhay A. Pawar, “Experimental Study of Performance-Emission Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Cotton Seed Oil Methyl EsterBiodiesel and Optimization of Engine Operating Parameters”, International Journal ofMechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 185 -202, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.16. Prof. A.V.Mehta, M. G. Joshi, G. D. Patel and Saiyad M J. I., “Jatropha Oil withExhaust Heat Recovery System in 4 Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine”,International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 4,Issue 2, 2013, pp. 512 - 520, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.