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Performance and emission characteristics of di ci diesel engine with pre Performance and emission characteristics of di ci diesel engine with pre Document Transcript

  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME177PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF DI-CIDIESEL ENGINE WITH PREHEATED CHICKEN FAT BIODIESELK Srinivasa Rao1, Dr. A Ramakrishna2, P V Rao31Assoc.Prof, Mechanical Engineering, Sai Spurthi Institute of Technology, Sathupally, India,5073032Professor, Mechanical Engineering, Andhra University college of Engineering,Visakhapatnam, India, 5300033Assoc.Prof, Mechanical Engineering, Andhra University college of Engineering,Visakhapatnam, India, 530003ABSTRACTThe fat oils and their methyl esters are becoming popular because of their minimumenvironmental impact. Viscosity of the fat oil is considered as constrain for its use asalternative fuel for IC engines. The viscosity of the fat oil is reduced by preheating andTransesterification process. Preheated chicken fat biodiesel (Methyl Ester) is used in thisstudy.The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of preheated chicken fatbiodiesel on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a direct injectioncompression ignition (DI-CI) engine. Experiments are conducted on single cylinder, constantspeed, stationary, water cooled naturally aspirated, DI-CI engine with preheated chicken fatbiodiesel and all engine characteristics are investigated. The results of engine characteristicswith Preheated Chicken Fat Biodiesel (CFBDPH) were compared with Chicken Fat Biodiesel(CFBD) without preheating and standard baseline Petroleum Diesel (PD). A remarkableimprovement in the performance of the engine is noticed with preheating, as the viscosity ofthe oil is reduced. Significant reduction in the exhaust gas temperature CO and HC emissionare also noticed. Results show that the preheated CFBD (CBDPH) can be used as analternative fuel without any engine modifications.Keywords: Compression Ignition Engine, Chicken fat biodiesel, Preheating, Performance,Combustion and Emission.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGAND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 177-190© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJMET© I A E M E
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME178INTRODUCTIONThe scarce and rapid depletion of conventional petroleum resources, growing concernabout the environmental pollution and increase in oil price have promoted research foralternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Biodiesel which can be produced fromvegetable oil and animal fat is an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Bio diesel is non toxic,bio degradable and environmentally friendly fuel. Biodiesel contains very low sulfur andgreenhouse gases compared to diesel. The major components of fats are triglycerides whichcompose above 90% of total mass [1]. Transesterfication is a chemical process of reactingtriglycerides with alcohol in presence of a catalyst. Alcohols such as Methanol, Ethanol orButanol can be used in Transesterfication [2]. The most preferred alcohol used in biodieselproduction is methanol. The commonly used catalyst is KOH for production of biodiesel.Grabosk et. al [7], K Srinivasa Rao et. al[15] and Mondal. P et. al [22] studied usageof fat and vegetable oils in C.I Engines. Many researchers have investigated availability ofanimal fats [6,9]and waste oils [5,12,13] for biodiesel production. Chicken fat is a low costfeed stock for biodiesel production compared to high grade vegetable oils. Schulte [3]investigated optimum reaction parameters for biodiesel production from chicken fat. KSrinivasa Rao et. al [8], Guru M et. al [10] and Jagadale S.S [14] investigated Enginecharacteristics with chicken fat oil. Godiganur et. al [11] studied Engine performance andemission characteristics with fish oil, Marshal, W.F [4] investigated Cummins L 10 Engineemission and performance with Tallow methyl ester. The higher viscosity values of fat oilsand their esters are the main limitation to use in compression ignition engine. Heating ofthese oils greatly reduces the viscosity and hence to overcome the high viscosity problem, thepreheated oils can be used for engines. Many researchers have investigated effect ofpreheated Jatropha [16, 18, and 25], Palm oil [17], Rape seed oil [19], Cotton seed oil [20,24], Corn biodiesel [21], karanja [23], coconut [26], sunflower [28] and pongamia [30] ondiesel engine performance and emission characteristics. M. Senthil Kumaret. al [27] studiedpreheated animal fat as fuel in C.I engine. Preheated CFBD(CFBDPH) is used for presentwork. Preheating of CFBD is done with thermostat controlled water bath heating of fuelbefore admission into engine cylinder.The objective of present work is to investigate the performance, combustion andemission characteristics of single cylinder, water cooled, constant speed (1500 rpm), naturallyaspirated, stationary, direct injection compression ignition(DI-CI) engine fueled withpreheated (50OC) chicken fat biodiesel (CFBDPH) and results were compared with CFBDwithout preheating and standard baseline petroleum diesel (PD).MATERIAL AND METHODSThe fat oil obtained from waste chicken fat was used in present investigation. Thiswaste chicken fat oil was filtered to remove impurities. This oil was converted into chickenfat biodiesel (CFBD) using transesterfication process. Petroleum diesel (PD) fuel was used asbaseline fuel for comparison. The fuels were characterized by determining their density,viscosity, flash point, fire point and calorific value. The properties of petroleum diesel,chicken fat biodiesel (CFBD) and ASTM standard specification [29] for biodiesel arepresented in table 1. The viscosity was determined at different temperatures to find the effectof temperature on viscosity of CFBD. The high viscosity of CFBD may be due to its high
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME179molecular weight compared to diesel. The variation of viscosity of PD and CFBD withtemperature is shown in Fig.1.Table.1 Properties of fuelsProperty Unit PD CFME ASTM StandardsDensity g/cc 0.831 0.862 0.87-0.89Kinematic Viscosity at 40oc cSt 2.58 4.93 1.9-6.0Flash Point oc 50 160 130 minFire Point oc 56 - -Calorific value kJ/kg 42500 40170 37500Cetane number - 48 - 48-70Acid value mg KOH/g - 0.41 0.5 maxIodine value g Iodine/100 g 38 74 120 maxFig.1 Variation of viscosity of fuel with temperatureThe properties of CFBD fuel are similar to PD. The viscosity of CFBD at 50OC isalmost nearer to viscosity of PD at 30O(room temperature). Hence CFBD preheated to50OC(CFBDPH) can be used in diesel engine without any modification to obtain almostsimilar characteristics as PD and used as alternative fuel.EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PROCEDUREThe experimental setup used in the investigation is shown in Fig. 2. It consist of asingle cylinder 4-S, DI-CI engine, an eddy current dynamometer to measure the brake poweror load torque, data acquisitation system, display panel, computer, pressure and temperaturesensors and exhaust gas analyzer to measure CO, HC and NOX emissions. The detailedspecifications of engine and exhaust gas analyzer are described in table 2. The cooling waterflow rate and temperature is maintained constant throughout the test. The engine was testedwith chicken fat biodiesel (CFBD), preheated CFBD (CFBDPH) and baseline petroleumdiesel (PD) to investigate performance, combustion and emission characteristics. The enginewas allowed to warm up until all temperature reaches steady state in each test. Engine wasmaintained at constant speed of 1500rpm by adjusting the fuel injection pump control rack.To vary the engine load and measure brake power, an eddy current dynamometer was used.12345625 30 35 40 45 50ViscosityincStTemperature in ocPDCFBD
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, MayAll observations were taken in four steps atand 100% (3.72 kW) of full load on the engine. “Lab View”Bangalore, India was used to record heat release rate, cylinder pressure and all parametersnecessary for analysis. The results of the engine Performance, Combustion and Emissioncharacteristics were investigated and presentedTable.2 Engine and Exhaust Gas Analyzer SpecificationsManufactureEngineAdmission of airBoreStrokeCompression ratioMax powerRated speedDynamometerMethod of coolingType of startingGovernorType of Pressure sensorPressure sensor resolutionCrank angle sensor resolutionExhaust Gas Analyser make:INDUSRangeNO 0-5000 ppmHC 0-15000 ppmCO 0-15.0%International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 09766359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME180All observations were taken in four steps at 25% (0.93 kW), 50% (1.86 kW), 75%(3.72 kW) of full load on the engine. “Lab View” software supplied byBangalore, India was used to record heat release rate, cylinder pressure and all parametersnecessary for analysis. The results of the engine Performance, Combustion and Emissioncharacteristics were investigated and presented in the fallowing section.Fig. 2 Experimental set upEngine and Exhaust Gas Analyzer SpecificationsEngineKirloskar Oil EngineSingle Cylinder Direct Injection Compression IgnitionNaturally aspirated80 mm110 mm16.5:13.72 kW1500 rpmEddy Current DynamometerWater cooledManual crankingMechanical governing (centrifugal type)Piezo electric type0.1 bar for cylinder pressure,1.0 bar for injection pressure1 degreeExhaust Gas Analyser make:INDUSResolution1 ppm15000 ppm 1 ppm0.01%International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –June (2013) © IAEME75% (2.79 kW)software supplied by Tech-EdBangalore, India was used to record heat release rate, cylinder pressure and all parametersnecessary for analysis. The results of the engine Performance, Combustion and EmissionSingle Cylinder Direct Injection Compression Ignitionbar for cylinder pressure,1.0 bar for injection pressure
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME181RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONSPerformance characteristics Fuel Consumption (FC), Brake Specific EnergyConsumption (BSEC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Combustion characteristics cylinderpressure variation, heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure. Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT),mass fraction burned and Emission characteristics Carbonmonoxide (CO), un burnt Hydrocarbon (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) of the test engine were investigated and results werediscussed as fallows.Performance Analysis1. Fuel Consumption (FC)The variation fuel consumption with engine load is shown in Fig. 3. FC of CFBD ismore than that of diesel for all loads, but preheated CFBD (CFBDPH) FC is less than CFBDwith no pre heating. At full load the FC of PD, CFBD and CFBDPH are 0.93, 1.07 and 1.01kg/hr respectively. The behavior of more fuel consumption of CFBD was due to lesspercentage of Hydro carbons and lower calorific value than PD. It is also observed that thefuel consumption decreases with preheating of biodiesel and the reason may be improvedcombustion caused by increased volatility property and spray characteristics. Fig. 4 Showsthe Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of all fuels with engine load. BSFC decreaseswith engine load for all fuels. At full load BSFC of CFBD is higher than PD, but it is slightlylowered with preheating. This is mainly due to reduced viscosity and improved spraycharacteristics of preheated CFBD (CFBDPH).Fig.3 Variation of fuel consumption with engine load0.40.50.60.70.80.911.10.93 1.86 2.79 3.72FuelConsumption(kg/hr)Engine Load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME182Fig. 4 Variation of brake specific fuel consumption with engine load2. Brake Specific Energy Consumption (BSEC)The BSEC is the input fuel energy requirement to develop unit brake power output. Thevariation of BSEC with engine load is shown in Fig. 5. From this it is observed that BSEC ofCFBD is higher than that of PD at all engine loads. The reason for higher value of BSEC forCFBD is due to its lower calorific value and higher kinematic viscosity. The results also showthat BSEC decreases with preheated CFBD (CFBDPH) due to higher rate of evaporation andeffective combustion. The lowest BSEC for PD, CFBD and CFBDPH are recorded as 10625,11564 and 10926 kJ/kWhr respectively at full load.Fig. 5 Variation of brake specific energy consumption with engine load3. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE):Fig.6 shows the variation of Brake thermal efficiency of the engine with load. TheBTE increases as the load on engine increases for both fuels. At full load, the BTE for PD,CFBD and CFBDPH are 33.85%, 31.12% and 32.94% respectively. The BTE of CFBDPH iscloser to PD and the reason is due to increased evaporation of fuel with preheating.10000150002000025000300000.93 1.86 2.79 3.72BSEC(kJ/kWhr)Engine load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH0.20.30.40.50.60.70.80.93 1.86 2.79 3.72BSFC(kg/kwhr)Engine Load(kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME183Fig. 6 Variation of brake thermal efficiency with engine loadCombustion Analysis1. Cylinder PressureThe variation of cylinder pressure with crank angle for complete cycle at 2.79 kWpower output for all fuels is shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 8 Shows rise of pressure during combustionprocess near to TDC i.e.. 350O-450Ocrank angle at 2.79 kW power output. The peak pressureof CFBD is slightly greater than PD and peak pressure is decreased with preheating. The peakpressure is observed at 377O, 367Oand 375Ocrank angle for PD, CFBD and CFBDPHrespectively. CFBD and CFBDPH records slightly advanced pressure rise curves compared toPD.Fig. 7 Variation of cylinder pressure with crank angle at 2.79 kW load1015202530350.93 1.86 2.79 3.72BTE(%)Engine load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH0102030405060700 100 200 300 400 500 600 700cylinderpressure(bar)crank angle (degrees)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME184Fig. 8 Variation of cylinder pressure near TDC with crank angle at 2.79 kW loadFig. 9 shows the variation of cylinder peak pressure with engine load for both fuels.Cylinder peak pressure increases with engine load. Highest peak pressures are observed atfull engine load for all fuels. Peak pressures are decreased with preheating for all loads. Thepeak pressures of PD, CFBD and CFBDPH at 3.72 kW engine load are measured as 66.4,66.9 and 66.3 bars respectively.Fig. 9 Variation of cylinder peak pressure with engine load2. Heat Release RateThe rate of cooling water to be circulated for engine cooling depends on the rate ofheat release during combustion. The variation of heat release rate with respect to crank angleat 2.79 kW engine power output for all fuel is shown in Fig.10. The cumulative heat releaserate at 2.79 kW power out is shown in Fig.11. The areas under this curve indicate the net heatreleased during the combustion process.010203040506070350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450cylinderpressure(bar)crank angle (degrees)PDCFBDCFBDPH58606264660.93 1.86 2.79 3.72Cylinderpeakpressure(bar)Engine load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME185Fig. 10 Variation of heat release rate with crank angle at 2.79 kW loadFig. 11 Variation of cumulative heat release rate with crank angle during combustion at 2.79kW3. Mass fraction burnedFig. 12 shows that, for both fuels, mass fraction burned with crank angle duringcombustion process. It is observed that higher burning rates are measured for PD comparedwith CFBD and CFBDPH in the early stage of combustion process, i.e., slope of the massfraction curve is very high for the PD between the crank angle ranges from 361Oto 367O. Thepreheated CFBD (CFBDPH) also recorded comparatively higher mass fraction burning ratesthan CFBD. This may be mainly due to reduced viscosity and improved combustion withpreheating.-50-30-10103050350 370 390 410 430 450 470 490Heatreleaserate(J/OCA)Crank angle(degrees)PDCFBDCFBDPH-50005001000150020002500350 370 390 410 430 450 470cummulativeheatreleaserate(J/OCA)crank angle(degrees)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME186Fig. 12 Variation of mass fraction of fuel burned with crank angle at 2.79 kW load4. Exhaust Gas TemperatureThe variation of Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) of engine with respective engineload of PD, CFBD and CFBDPH fuels is shown in fig. 13. EGT increases with engine loadfor all fuels, but significant reduction in EGT is observed with CFBD and CFBDPHcompared with PD. CFBDPH records slightly higher EGT than CFBD at all loads, howeverthey are considerably lower than PD. This may be due to lower calorific value of CFBD thanPD.Fig. 13 Variation of Exhaust Gas Temperature with engine load00.20.40.60.81350 360 370 380 390 400massfractionburntCrank angle (degrees)PDCFBDCFBDPH1502002503003504000.93 1.86 2.79 3.72EGT(OC)Engine load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME187Emission Analysis1. NOx EmissionThe NOX emissions of PD, CFBD and CFBDPH with engine load are shown in fig.14. The results show that the increased engine load promoting NOX emission for all fuels.The NOX emissions of CFBD are higher than PD at all engine loads. But NOX emissions aregreatly reduced with CFBDPH, which are very close to PD.Fig. 14 Variation of NOX emissions with engine load2. CO EmissionsFig. 15 shows, the increasing trend of Carbonmonoxide (CO) emission levels areobserved with engine load for both fuels. Trend of increasing CO is due to increase involumetric fuel consumption with the engine load. The CO emission percentage mainlydepends upon the physical and chemical properties of the fuel used. It is observed that, theCO emissions of CFBD are less than that of the PD. The decrease in CO emissions for CFBDis mainly due to presence of oxygen in the CFBD fuel. It also observed that the co emissionlevels are further reduced for CFBDPH (preheated CFBD) and the reason is due to reductionin viscosity, density and increase in evaporation due to preheating.Fig. 15 Variation of CO emissions with engine load2002503003504004505000.93 1.86 2.79 3.72NOX(ppm)Engine load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH0.050.10.150.20.250.93 1.86 2.79 3.72CO(%)Engine load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME1884. HC emissionsThe variation of HC emissions at different engine loads are given in the fig. 16. Forboth the fuels HC emission decreases with increase in engine load. It is observed that the HCemission levels of CFBD are less than that of PD at all engine loads. The lower HC emissionof CFBD compared with PD is mainly due to presence of more oxygen in the CFBD. Also itis observed that the HC emissions are further reduced with preheated CFBD (CFBDPH).This is due to improvement in spray pattern and atomization.Fig. 16 Variation of HC emissions with engine loadCONCLUSIONS∗ The performance of engine is increased, when the biodiesel is injected at diesel fuelviscosity, i.e. performance is increased with preheating. Fuel consumption issignificantly decreased at full load by 5.5% with preheating (i.e. with CFBDPH).∗ Improved fuel burning rates are observed with CFBDPH than CFBD.∗ Considerably very low exhaust gas temperatures are obtained with CFBD andCFBDPH compared to PD.∗ The presence of oxygen in CFBD improves the combustion and hence lowers the COand HC emission. These emissions are further lowered and with preheated biodiesel(CFBD PH).∗ The increase of NOX emission is due to presence of oxygen in the CFBD compared toPD. Decrease in premixed combustion and increase in diffused combustion isobserved with preheating. This leads to reduction in NOX emission by 18.6% at fullload for CFBDPH.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Authors thank the management and principal of SaiSpurthi Institute ofTechnology, Sathupally, India, 507303, for providing necessary experimental support.20253035404550556065700.93 1.86 2.79 3.72HC(ppm)Engine load (kW)PDCFBDCFBDPH
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME189REFERENCES1. Srivastava A, Prasad R. Triglycerides - based fuels. Renewable sustain Engine Rev.2000;4:11/1 – 33.2. Darnoko D, Cheryan M. Kinetics of palm oil transestefication in a batch rector. JACOS2000; 77(12): 1263 – 67.3. Schulte WB. Bio diesel production chicken fat via supercritical methanol treatment.Master of Science Thesis, University of Arkansas (2007).4. Marshall, W.F., “Effects of methyl esters of Tallow and Grease on Exhaust Emissionsand Performance of Cummins L 10 Engine”, National Institute for Petroleum andEnergy Research, (NIPER), Report No. B08861, Sept. 16, 1993.5. ErtanAlptekin, Mustafa Canakci., “Optimization of transesterification for methyl esterproduction from chicken fat”, fuel 90 (2011), PP 2630- 2638.6. Canoira L, Gamero MR, Querol E, Alcantara R, Lapuerta M, Oliva F, “Bio diesel fromlow- grade animal fat: production process assessment and biodiesel propertiesCharacterization,” IndEngchen Res 2008; 47: 7997- 8004.7. Grabosk: MS, McCormick RL., Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels indiesel engines., Prog Energy Combust 1998; 24: 125- 64.8. K SrinivasaRao, A.Ramakrishna and B.S.K Sundara Siva Rao “Experimental Studieson the Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Chicken Fat Methyl Ester” InternationalJournal of Automotive Technology, ISSN: 2051-7831, Vol.29, Issue.1, 2013, PP. 1114-1122.9. Oner C, Altun S., Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimentalinvestigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Appl.Energy 2009; 86: 2114- 20.10. Guru M, Koca A, Can O, Cinar C, Shahin F., Bio diesel production from waste chickenfat based sources and evaluation with Mg based additive in a diesel engine. RenewEnergy 2010 ; 35: 637- 43.11. Godiganur S, Murthy CHS, Reddy RP., “Performance and emission characteristics of aKirloskar HA 394 diesel engine operated on fish oil methyl ester”, Renew Energy 2010;35 : 355-9.12. Selva IP, R. Parthiban, Dr. Lima RM., “Poultry Fat a Cheap and Viable Source forBiodiesel Production”, 2011, 2nd International Conference on Environmental Scienceand Technology, IPCBEE vol.6 (2011), Singapore. 371-374.13. ErtanAlptekin, Mustafa Canakci, HuseyinSanli., “Methyl ester production from chickenfat with high FFA”, World Renewable energy Congress 2011, Sweden.14. Jagadale S.S., Jugulkar L.M., “Performance Characteristics of single cylinder dieselengine using blend of Chicken fat based biodiesel”., IJMET, ISSN: 0976-6359., vol. 3,Issue 2, 2012, PP. 754-768.15. K SrinivasaRao, P V Rao and B.S.K Sunder Siva Rao “performance combustion andemission characteristics of DI CI engine fuelled with corn methyl ester and its dieselblends ” International journal of advances in engineering research vol. 3, 2012, pp:56-67, ISSN 2231-515216. Agarwal D., Agarwal A.K., “Performance and emission Characteristics of Jatropha oil(preheated and blends) in DI – CI engine. Appl. Thermal Engg. 27: 2314-223, 2007.
  • International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME19017. Bari S., Lim T.H., and Yu CW., “Effect of Preheating crude palm oil on injectionsystem performance and emission of a diesel engine. Renew. Energy. 77, 339-351,2002.18. Chauhan B.S., Kumar N., Jun Y.D., Lee K.B., “Performance and emission study ofpreheated Jatropha oil an medium capacity diesel engine”., Energy. 35 PP 2484-2492,2010.19. Hazar H., Aydin H., “Pefrormance and emission evaluation of CI engine fueled withpreheated raw rapeseed oil (RRO) – diesel blends. Appl. Energy, 87(3): 786-790, 2010.20. Martin M. and Prithviraj. D, “Performance of preheated cotton seed oil and Diesel fuelblends in a CI engine”, Jordan journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, vol. 5,PP. 235-240, 2011.21. K SrinivasaRao, S V K Narendra and P V Rao “Characteristics of a DI-CI EngineFueled with Preheated Corn Biodiesel” International Journal of MechanicalEngineering, ISSN:2051-3232, Vol.40, Issue.10, 2012,PP. 350-357.22. Mondal. P., Basu, M., Balasubramanyan N., Direct use of Vegetable oil and animal fatas alternative fuel in internal Combustion engine,” Bio fuels, vol. 2, Issue 2, PP 155-`174, 2008.23. Sagar P K, Rajendra H.S., “Experimental Investigation on the use of preheated NeatKaranja oil as fuel in a Compression Ignition engine”., International Journal ofMechanical and Material Engineering 1:3, 2010, PP 145-149.24. Murat Karabcktas, Gokhan E and Murat Hosoz, “The effect of preheated cotton seed oilmethyl ester on the performance and exhaust emission of a diesel engine”. AppliedThermal Engineering 28, 2008 PP. 2136-2143.25. P V Rao, “Experimental investigation on the influence of properties of jatrophabiodiesel on performance combustion and emission characteristics of a DI CI engine ”World Academy of Science , Engineering and Technology, 75, 2011, pp 855-868.26. H M Raffiq, and K M B Ahamed, “Emission Control for DI-CI engine using preheatedcoconut oil Blended Diesel”,. IE(I) Journal, MC, vol. 86, 2005, PP 149-152.27. M. Senthil Kumar, A .Kerihuel, J. Bellettre, M. Tazerout, “Experimental investigationson the use of preheated animal fat as fuel in a CI engine, Renewable Energy, vol. 30,2005, PP: 1443-1456.28. Canakci, M., ozsezen, A.N., Turkcan A (2009), “Combustion analysis of preheatedcrude sunflower oil in IDI diesel engine”, Biomass and Bio energy. 33, PP 760-767.29. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials (2002) standard specification forbiodiesel fuel (B100) blend stock for distillate fuels, designation D6751-02, ASTMInter.30. ChSatyanarayana and PV Rao, “Influence of key properties of pongamia biodiesel onperformance combustion and emission characteristics of a DI diesel engine”. Wseastransaction on heat and Mass Transfer ,issue 2,Vol 4, 2009, ISSN 1790-5044.31. Jagadale S.S. and Jugulkar L.M., “Performance Characteristics of Single CylinderDiesel Engine using Blend of Chicken Fat Based Biodiesel”, International Journal ofMechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012,pp. 754 - 768, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.32. Z. Ahmed and D. K. Mahanta, “Exergy Analysis of a Compression Ignition Engine”,International Journal of Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), Volume 3,Issue 2, 2012, pp. 633 - 642, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6340, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6359.