International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN   INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
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Pentagon and circular ring slot loaded rectangular microstrip monopole

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Pentagon and circular ring slot loaded rectangular microstrip monopole

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND 0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 151-157 IJECET© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI) ©IAEMEwww.jifactor.com PENTAGON AND CIRCULAR RING SLOT LOADED RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP MONOPOLE ANTENNAS FOR QUAD-BAND OPERATION M. Veereshappa1 and Dr.S.N Mulgi2 1 Department of Electronics, L.V.D.College, Raichur: 584 101, Karnataka, India 2 Department of PG Studies and Research in Applied Electronics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, Karnataka, India ABSTRACT This paper presents the design and development of pentagon and circular ring slot loaded rectangular microstip monopole antenna for quad band operation. The antenna operates for four bands of frequencies in the range of 4 to 16 GHz. If complimentary circular slot is loaded inside pentagon the antenna operates for triple bands of frequencies resulting the primary resonating mode unaffected with enhanced operating bands. This antenna also gives the maximum gain of 9.98 dB. In both cases the antenna shows ominidirectional radiation characteristics. The proposed antennas may find application in microwave communication systems. Keywords: microstrip antenna, monopole, pentagon slot, ominidirectional 1. INTRODUCTION Monopole microstrip antennas are finding increasing application because of their significant merits like wide band, low interference to other systems, low manufacturing cost, low profile, light weight, ominidirectional radiation pattern and easy to fabricate. Monopole microstrip antenna have been designed by using regular shaped configurations, such as circular, elliptical and triangular etc [3-6]. The design and analysis of octagon shaped hybrid coupled microstrip antenna for multiband operation [7], octagonal microstrip antenna for RADAR and spacecraft applications [8], CPW- feed octagon shaped slot antenna for UWB application [9], bandwidth enhancement of wide slot antenna fed by CPW and microstripline [10], ultra wideband pentagon shape microstrip slot antenna for wireless communications[11], wideband pentagon-slot microstrip antenna with semicircle probe feed 151
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME[12] etc are found in the literature. But the design and development of pentagon and circularring slot loaded antennas for quad band and high gain operation feed by microstripline isfound to be rare in the literature. Further most of the antennas presented in the literature areeither complex in their structure or bigger in size and hence extra care has to be taken tomanufacture than that of the regular microstrip antenna.2. DESIGN OF ANTENNA GEOMETRY The art work of the proposed antenna is sketched by using computer software Auto-CAD to achieve better accuracy and is fabricated on low cost FR4-epoxy substrate materialof thickness of h = 0.16 cm and permittivity εr = 4.4. Fig: 1 Top view geometry of PCRSLRMA Figure 1 shows the top view geometry of pentagon and circular ring slot loadedrectangular microstrip monopole antenna (PCRSLRMA). In this figure the area of thesubstrate is L × W cm. On the top surface of the substrate a ground plane of height which isequal to the length of microstripline feed Lf is used on either sides of the microstripline with agap of 0.1 cm. On the bottom of the substrate a continuous ground copper layer of height Lf isused below the microstripline. The PCRSLRMA is designed for 3 GHz of frequency usingthe equations available for the design of conventional rectangular microstrip antenna in theliterature [2]. The length and width of the rectangular patch are Lp and Wp respectively. Thefeed arrangement consists of quarter wave transformer of length Lt and width Wt which isconnected as a matching network between the patch and the microstripline feed of length Lfand width Wf. A semi miniature-A (SMA) connector is used at the tip of the microstriplinefeed for feeding the microwave power. In Fig.1 pentagon slot is loaded on the patch withvertices of X. The tip of the pentagon is touching the midpoint along the width of the patch.Further a circular ring slot is loaded inside the pentagon slot with a radius R and width W. 152
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME Figure 2 shows the geometry of pentagon slot and complimentary circular loadedrectangular microstrip monopole antenna (PCCSLRMA). The circular slot shown in Fig 1and 2 are having same radius R but compliment with each other. The other geometry of Fig. 2remains same as that of Fig.1. The design parameters of the proposed antennas are given inTable 1 Fig: 2 Top view geometry of PCCSLRMA Table 1 Designe parameters of proposed antennaAntenna L W Lp Wp Lf Wf Lt Wt X R WparameterDimensions 8.0 5.0 2.34 3.04 2.48 0.3 1.24 0.05 1.2 0.6 0.2in cm3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The antenna bandwidth over return loss less than -10 dB is tested experimentally onVector Network Analyzer (Rohde & Schwarz, Germany make ZVK model 1127.8651). Thevariation of return loss verses frequency of PCSRLRMA is as shown in Fig. 4. From thisgraph the experimental bandwidth (BW) is calculated using the equations, f −f  BW =  2 1  ×100 % (1)  fc were, f1 and f2 are the lower and upper cut of frequencies of the band respectively when itsreturn loss reaches – 10 dB and fc is the center frequency of the operating band. From this 153
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEMEfigure, it is found that, the antenna operates between 2 to 16 GHz and gives four resonantmodes at f1 to f4, i.e. at 4.8, 7.3, 8.69, and 15.53 GHz. The magnitude of experimental -10 dBbandwidth measured for BW1 to BW4 by using the equation (1) is found to be 50 MHz (1.04%), 430 MHz (5.91 %), 2.11 GHz (23.58 %), and 5.46 GHz (41.14 %) respectively. Fig: 3 Variation of return loss versus frequency of PCRSLRMA The resonant mode at 4.78 GHz is due to the fundamental resonant frequency of thepatch and others modes are due to the novel geometry of PCRSLRMA. The multi moderesponse obtained is due to different surface currents on the patch. The fundamental resonantfrequency mode shifts from 3 GHz designed frequency to 4.8 GHz due to the coupling effectof microstripline feed and top ground plane of PCRSLRMA. Figure 4 shows the variation of return loss verses frequency of PCCSLRMA. It isseen that, the antenna operates for three bands of frequencies BW5 to BW7. The magnitude ofthese operating bands measured at BW5 to BW7 is found to be 90 MHz (1.88 %), 2.82 GHz(32.83 %), and 5.54 GHz (41.87 %) respectively. The operating bands BW2 and BW3 areshown in Fig.3 are merged into single band BW7 in this case as shown in Fig.4. Further fromFig.4 it is clear that, the each operating bands of PCCSLRMA is enhanced when compared tothe operating bands of PCRSLRMA. However in both the cases the fundamental resonantmodes i.e. f1 in Fig.3 and f5 in Fig.4 are unaffected. Fig. 4 Variation of return loss versus frequency of PCCSLRMA 154
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME The gain of the proposed antennas is measured by absolute gain method. The powertransmitted ‘Pt’ by pyramidal horn antenna and power received ‘Pr’ by antenna under test(AUT) are measured independently. With the help of these experimental data, the gain (G)dB of AUT is calculated by using the formula, P   λ  (G) dB=10 log  r  - (G t ) dB - 20log  0  dB (2)  Pt   4πR where, Gt is the gain of the pyramidal horn antenna and R is the distance between thetransmitting antenna and the AUT. Using equation (2), the maximum gain of thePCRSLRMA and PCCSLRMA measured in their operating bands is found to be 11.37 dBand 9.98 dB respectively. The co-polar and cross-polar radiation pattern of PCRSLRMA and PCCSLRMA ismeasured in their operating bands. The typical radiation patterns measured at 4.78 GHz inboth cases are shown in Fig 5 to 6 respectively. The obtained patterns are ominidirectional innature. Further by comparing Fig.5 and 6 it is clear that the PCCSLRMA gives even betterominidirectional radiation characteristics than that of PCRSLRMA. Fig. 5 Typical radiation pattern of PCRSLRMA measured at 4.78 GHz Fig. 6 Typical radiation pattern PCCSLRMA measured at 4.78 GHz 155
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4. CONCLUSION From the detailed experimental study, it is concluded that, the novel geometry ofPCRSLRMA is capable in producing quad band operation and ominidirectional radiationcharacteristics. The antenna operates for four bands of frequencies in the frequency range of4 to 16 GHz. If complimentary circular slot is loaded inside the pentagon i.e. PCCSLRMAthe antenna operates for triple bands and enhances the bandwidth at each operating bandcompared to the operating bands of PCRSLRMA and gives improved radiationcharacteristics. The proposed antennas are simple in their design and fabrication and they uselow cost substrate material. These antennas may find application in microwavecommunication systems.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Dept. of Sc. & Tech. (DST), Govt. of India. NewDelhi, for sanctioning Vector Network Analyzer to this Department under FIST project. Theauthors also would like to thank the authorities of Aeronautical Development Establishment(ADE), DRDO Bangalore for providing their laboratory facility to make antennameasurements on Vector Network Analyzer.REFERENCES1 Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna theory analysis and design, John Wiley, New York, 1997.2 I. J. Bahl and P. Bharatia, Microstrip antennas, Dedham, MA: Artech House, New Delhi, 1981.3 C.C Liang. J. Chiau, Chem, and C. G. Parini, Printed circular disc monopole antenna for ultra wideband applications. Electron Lett 40 (2004), 1246-1248.4 C. Y Huang and W.C. Hsia, Planar elliptical antenna for ultra wideband application, Electron Lett 41 (2005), 296 – 297.5 C. C. Lin, Y. C. Kan, L. C. Kuo and H. R Chuang, A planar triangular monopole antenna for UWB communication, IEEE Microwave and Wireless components Lett 15 (2005), 624-626.6 K. P. Ray Y. Ranga and P. Gabhale, Printed square monopole antenna with semicircular base for ultra-wide bandwidth, Electron Lett 43 (2007), 263-2657 A. Sahaya Anselin Nisha and T. Jayanthy, “Design and Analysis of Multiband Hybrid Coupled Octagonal Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Applications”, Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 5(1): 275-279, 20138 Krishan, K., E.S. Kaur,. Investigation on octagonal microstrip antenna for RADAR & spacecraft applications. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res., 2(11): 2011, pp.1-7.9 S. Natarajamani, S .K Behera1, S K Patra1 & R K Mishra, cpw-fed octagon shape slot antenna for UWB application, Procedings of Int. Conf. on Antenna, Propogation & Remote Sensing, 2009, Jodhpur.10 S.W. Qu, C. Ruan and B. Z. Wang, “Bandwidth enhancement of wide slot antenna fed by CPW and microstrip line,” IEEE antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. Vol.5. 2006, pp. 15-17, 156
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME11 Rajgopal, S.K. Sharma, S.K. “Investigations on Ultra wideband Pentagon Shape Microstrip Slot Antenna for Wireless Communications.” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and propagation, 57(5), 2009, pp.1353-1359.12 Irene Ang, and B. L. Ooi, ‘A broadband semicircle probe-fed pentagon-slot microstrip patch antenna.’ Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 47(5), 2005, pp. 500-505.13 M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Design and Development of Triple Band Ominidirectional Slotted Rectangular Microstrip Antenna”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 17 - 22, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.14 P.A Ambresh and P.M.Hadalgi, “Slotted Inverted Patch - Rectangular Microstrip Antenna For S And L - Band Frequency”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 1, Issue 1, 2010, pp. 44 - 52, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.15 M. Veereshappa and Dr.S.N Mulgi, “Rectangular Slot Loaded Monopole Microstrip Antennas for Triple-Band Operation and Virtual Size Reduction”, International journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 176 - 182, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 157

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